Alternative energy 替代能源

翻译| 陈霞 审校|许少欢

QQ图片20150525134301
Offshore wind turbines near Copenhagen
图为在哥本哈根附近的近海风力涡轮机

Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels.

替代能源指的是所有能够代替化石燃料的能源资源。这些替代能源能够解决人们对化石燃料的诸多顾虑。

The nature of what constitutes an alternative energy source has changed considerably over time, as have controversies regarding energy use. Today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial.

随着时间的推移,替代能源的构成以及有关能源使用的诸多争议都发生了很大变化。如今,伴随着可选择能源的增加以及能源使用目的的多样性,人们在是否将一种能源划分为替代能源上产生了很大分歧。

In a general sense, alternative energy as it is currently conceived, is that which is produced or recovered without the undesirable consequences inherent in fossil fuel use,
particularly high carbon dioxide emissions, an important factor in global warming

但总体来说,现在所说的替代能源是不像化石燃料那样必定会对环境产生灾难性后果的有害物质,尤其是大量的二氧化碳排放,正是造成全球温室效应的重要因素,并且这些替代能源需要是那种可以生产或自然恢复的能源。.

Contents/目录
1 Definitions/定义
2 History/发展历程
2.1 Coal as an alternative to wood/煤炭替代木材
2.2 Petroleum as an alternative to whale oil/石油替代鲸油
2.3 Alcohol as an alternative to fossil fuels/乙醇替代化石燃料
2.4 Coal gasification as an alternative to petroleum/气化煤替代石油
3 Common types of alternative energy/常见的替代能源类型
4 Enabling technologies/使能技术
5 Renewable energy vs non-renewable energy/可再生能源与不可再生能源的竞争
5.1 Ecologically friendly alternatives/生态友好型替代能源
6 Relatively new concepts for alternative energy/关于替代能源的几个新概念
6.1 Carbon-neutral and negative fuels/碳中和以及负燃料
6.2 Algae fuel/藻类生质燃料
6.3 Biomass briquettes/生物质成型燃料
6.3.1 Biogas digestion/沼气发酵
6.4 Biological hydrogen production/生物制氢
6.5 Offshore wind/离岸风
6.6 Marine and hydrokinetic energy/海洋流体能源
7 Investing in alternative energy/对替代能源的投资
7.1 Alternative energy in transportation/替代能源在交通运输方面的应用
8 Making alternative energy mainstream/让替代能源成为主流
9 Research/相关研究
9.1 Solar/太阳能
9.2 Wind/风能
9.3 Ethanol biofuels/乙醇生物燃料
9.4 Other biofuels/其他生物燃料
9.5 Geothermal/地热能
9.6 Hydrogen/氢能
9.7 Thorium/钍
10 Disadvantages/弊端

Definitions/定义

History 发展历程

Historians of economies have examined the key transitions to alternative energies and regard the transitions as pivotal in bringing about significant economic change.Prior to the shift to an alternative energy, supplies of the dominant energy type became erratic, accompanied by rapid increases in energy prices.

经济历史学家已经观察到了替代能源使用的关键性过渡期,并认为其对今后的重大经济变革具有关键性的影响。当替代能源即将取代当时的主导能源时,主导能源的供应就会变得不稳定,同时还伴有能源价格的快速上涨。

Coal as an alternative to wood 煤炭替代木材

Historian Norman F. Cantor describes how in the late medieval period, coal was the new alternative fuel to save the society from overuse of the dominant fuel, wood:
"Europeans had lived in the midst of vast forests throughout the earlier medieval centuries. After 1250 they became so skilled at deforestation that by 1500 AD they were running short of wood for heating and cooking... By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster, [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize. "

历史学家Norman F.Cantor描述了中世纪后期煤炭作为当时的替代能源,把整个社会从对木材过度消耗的危机中拯救了出来:
“在中世纪的前几个世纪,欧洲人居住在广袤的森林中。1250年后,他们大肆砍伐森林,到了1500年,用于做饭和取暖的木材已经十分缺乏了。截止到1500年,欧洲正处于能源和营养危机的边缘,直到16世纪烟煤的发现以及玉米和马铃薯种植才化解了这场灾难。”

Petroleum as an alternative to whale oil 石油替代鲸油

Whale oil was the dominant form of lubrication and fuel for lamps in the early 19th century, but the depletion of the whale stocks by mid century caused whale oil prices to skyrocket setting the stage for the adoption of petroleum which was first commercialized in Pennsylvaniain 1859.

19世纪早期,鲸油是当时主要的润滑油和照明燃料,到19世纪中期,人类对鲸鱼的大量捕杀导致鲸鱼数量急剧减少,鲸油价格扶摇直上,但也为石油的引进提供了时机,首批商品化的石油出现在1859年的宾夕法尼亚州。

Alcohol as an alternative to fossil fuels乙醇替代化石燃料

In 1917, Alexander Graham Bell advocated ethanol from corn, wheat and other foods as an alternative to coal and oil, stating that the world was in measurable distance of depleting these fuels. For Bell, the problem requiring an alternative was lack of renewability of orthodox energy sources. Since the 1970s, Brazil has had an ethanol fuel program which has allowed the country to become the world's second largest producer of ethanol (after the United States) and the world's largest exporter.[14]Brazil’s ethanol fuel program uses modern equipment and cheap sugar cane as feedstock, and the residual cane-waste (bagasse) is used to process heat and power. There are no longer light vehicles in Brazil running on pure gasoline. By the end of 2008 there were 35,000 filling stations throughout Brazil with at least one ethanol pump.

1917年,Alexander Graham Bell提倡使用从玉米、小麦和其他农作物中提取的乙醇作为煤和石油的替代能源,并声称人类离化石燃料用尽的那一天已经不远了。在Bell看来,需要替代能源是因为现有的主要能源再生能力都不强。从20世纪70年代开始,巴西就制定了乙醇燃料项目,并成为仅次于美国的世界第二大乙醇生产国和世界上最大的乙醇出口国。在该项目中,巴西使用现代化的生产设备,将廉价的甘蔗作为原料,把剩下的甘蔗残渣用来供热和发电,此后,巴西的街道上再也没有完全依靠石油驱动的轻型车。到2008年底,巴西全国至少配有一个乙醇燃油加油泵的加油站已有35000家。

Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a diverse array of feedstocks, and involves the use of the whole crop. This new approach should increase yields and reduce the carbon footprint because the amount of energy-intensive fertilizers and fungicides will remain the same, for a higher output of usable material.[17][18] As of 2008, there are nine commercial cellulosic ethanol plants which are either operating, or under construction, in the United States.

纤维素乙醇能从众多原料中生产出来,并且能提高农作物的利用率。由于产出的有用原料增多,而一些养分密集型肥料和杀菌剂的使用量保持不变,所以这种新的方法能够提升农作物总产量,并减少碳排放量。2008年,美国已有九家在建或已投入生产的商用纤维素乙醇工厂。

Second-generation biofuels technologies are able to manufacture biofuels from inedible biomass and could hence prevent conversion of food into fuel." As of July 2010, there is one commercial second-generation (2G) ethanol plant Inbicon Biomass Refinery, which is operating in Denmark.

第二代生物燃料技术能够从非食用生物中生产燃料,因此能够尽量避免将食物变为燃料。2001年8月,丹麦一家第二代商用乙醇燃料工厂已经开始运行生产。

Coal gasification as an alternative to petroleum 气化煤替代石油

In the 1970s, President Jimmy Carter's administration advocated coal gasification as an alternative to expensive imported oil. The program, including the Synthetic Fuels Corporation was scrapped when petroleum prices plummeted in the 1980s. The carbon footprint and environmental impact of coal gasification are both very high.

20世纪70年代,吉米•卡特(美国70年代总统)政府提倡用气化煤代替昂贵的进口石油,但是80年代的石油价格急剧下跌让该计划宣告破产,同时遭殃的还有“合成燃料公司”(一家政府出资成立的新能源开发公司),实际上,气化煤的碳排放量和造成的环境污染也是不容小觑的。

Common types of alternative energy常见的替代能源类型
• Solar energy is the use of sunlight. Light can be changed into thermal (heat) energy and electric energy.
• 太阳能是对阳光的利用,能够将阳光转化成热能和电能。
• Wind energy is the generation of electricity from the wind.
• 风能是利用风力发电。
• Geothermal energy is the use of the earth's internal heat to boil water for heating buildings or generating electricity.
• 地热能是利用地球内部的热量来烧水,为建筑供热以及发电。
• Biofuel and Ethanol are plant-derived gasoline substitutes for powering vehicles.
• 生物燃料和乙醇燃油是从植物中提取的取代汽油的汽车动力燃油。
• Nuclear energy uses nuclear fission to release energy.
• 核能是利用核裂变来释放能量。
• Hydrogen can serve as a means of delivering energy produced by various technologies.
• 氢可以从许多技术中生产出来作为能量传递的介质。

Enabling technologies 使能技术

Heat pumps and Thermal energy storage are technologies which use energy sources that normally can't be obtained. Also, heat pumps have the advantage of leveraging electrical power (or in some cases mechanical or thermal power) by using it to extract additional energy from a low quality source (such as sea or lake water, the ground or the air).

热泵和热能存储都要求使用一些非常规能源。热泵能从一些低质的能源(如海水或湖水,不论是地面的还是空气中的)中吸收额外的能量来产生电能(在一些条件下也可以是机械能或热能)。

Thermal storage technologies allow heat or cold to be stored for periods of time ranging from diurnal to interseasonal, and can involve storage of sensible energy (i.e. by changing the temperature of a medium) or latent energy (e.g. through phase changes of a medium (i.e. changes from solid to liquid or vice versa), such as between water and slush or ice). Energy sources can be natural (via solar-thermal collectors, or dry cooling towers used to collect winter's cold), waste energy (such as from HVAC equipment, industrial processes or power plants), or surplus energy (such as seasonally from hydropower projects or intermittently from wind farms). The Drake Landing Solar Community (Alberta, Canada) is illustrative. Borehole thermal energy storage allows the community to get 97% of its year-round heat from solar collectors on the garage roofs, which most of the heat collected in summer. The storages can be insulated tanks, borehole clusters in substrates ranging from gravel to bedrock, deep aquifers, or shallow pits that are lined and insulated. Some applications require inclusion of a heat pump.

热能存储技术能够让温度在几天甚至几个月内保持不变,不论是保热还是保冷,而且还能储存显热(通过改变介质的温度)或潜热(通过改变物体的状态,也就是从固态向液态转变或逆向转换,比如说从水到冰水混合物或到冰)。能量来源可以是自然能源(通过太阳能集热板吸收热量或干式冷却塔来收集冬天的低温)和废料能源(比如来自暖通空调系统、工业生产过程或者发电厂)或者过剩能源(比如由于水力发电的季节性或风力发电的间歇性而产生的)。加拿大亚伯达省的Drake Landing 太阳能社区就是一个很好的例子。地孔热能存储器通过车库屋顶上的太阳能收集器为该社区提供一年中所需热量的97%,其中大部分热量都是在夏天收集的。存储器可以是保温储罐,以碎石子到基岩等各种石材为构成的钻孔群,或者排列整齐能够保温的浅坑。其中有些应用需要热泵技术。

Renewable energy vs non-renewable energy 可再生能源与不可再生能源的竞争

Renewable energy is generated from natural resources—such as sunlight,[24] wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished). When comparing the processes for producing energy, there remain several fundamental differences between renewable energy and fossil fuels. The process of producing oil, coal, or natural gas fuel is a difficult and demanding process that requires a great deal of complex equipment, physical and chemical processes. On the other hand, alternative energy can be widely produced with basic equipment and naturally basic processes. Wood, the most renewable and available alternative energy, burns the same amount of carbon it would emit if it degraded naturally.

可再生能源是指来自大自然的能源,例如阳光、风、雨、潮汐、地热等自然资源,这些资源有可再生性(可以自动再生)。可再生能源与化石燃料释放能量的过程有着一些本质上的区别。石油、煤炭或者天然气燃料的生产是一项复杂艰难的过程,需要大量的复杂设备和一系列的化学和物理反应;但相比之下,替代能源的生产只需要一些基础设备和简单的自然反应就可以实现。木材作为可再生能力最强,分布最广泛的替代能源,燃烧时所产生的碳与自然降解时释放的碳是等量的。

Ecologically friendly alternatives生态友好型替代能源

Renewable energy sources such as biomass are sometimes regarded as an alternative to ecologically harmful fossil fuels. Renewables are not inherently alternative energies for this purpose. For example, the Netherlands, once leader in use of palm oil as a biofuel, has suspended all subsidies for palm oil due to the scientific evidence that their use "may sometimes create more environmental harm than fossil fuels". The Netherlands government and environmental groups are trying to trace the origins of imported palm oil, to certify which operations produce the oil in a responsible manner. Regarding biofuels from foodstuffs, the realization that converting the entire grain harvest of the US would only produce 16% of its auto fuel needs, and the decimation of Brazil's CO2 absorbing tropical rain forests to make way for biofuel production has made it clear that placing energy markets in competition with food markets results in higher food prices and insignificant or negative impact on energy issues such as global warming or dependence on foreign energy. Recently, alternatives to such undesirable sustainable fuels are being sought, such as commercially viable sources of cellulosic ethanol.

一些如生物质能这样的可再生能源被看做是对生态有害的化石能源的替代品,但可再生能源并不是一开始就被当做替代能源的。比如说,荷兰曾是把棕榈油当做生物燃料使用的大国,但现在却取消了所有对棕榈油的补助,因为有科学证据表明棕榈油的使用有时可能会对环境产生比化石燃料还要大的危害。目前,为了给民众一个交代,荷兰政府和一些环保组织正在努力追踪进口棕榈油的来源,以查清这种燃油是怎么生产出来的。至于用农作物生产生物燃料的方法,现实情况是,就算把全美国收获的所有谷物物都用来生产生物燃油,结果也仅能满足16%的汽车用油需求。为了生产生物燃料,巴西能够吸收大量二氧化碳的热带雨林已经遭到极大破坏,这些无疑是让粮食市场与能源市场竞争,其结果必然是食品价格上涨,对一些环境问题,如全球变暖也是百害而无一利,还会提高本国对外国能源的依赖性。最近,人们陆续发现了一些能够取代这些名声不太好的可持续燃料的能源,如可用于商业用途的纤维素乙醇。

Relatively new concepts for alternative energy 关于替代能源的新概念

Carbon-neutral and negative fuels/碳中和以及负燃料

Carbon-neutral fuels are synthetic fuels (including methane, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel or ammonia) produced by hydrogenating waste carbon dioxide recycled from power plant flue-gas emissions, recovered from automotive exhaust gas, or derived from carbonic acid in seawater. Commercial fuel synthesis companies suggest they can produce synthetic fuels for less than petroleum fuels when oil costs more than $55 per barrel. Renewable methanol (RM) is a fuel produced from hydrogen and carbon dioxide by catalytic hydrogenation where the hydrogen has been obtained from water electrolysis. It can be blended into transportation fuel or processed as a chemical feedstock.

碳中和燃料是一种利用氢化反应废料、发电厂排放气体中的二氧化碳、汽车尾气以及海水中的碳酸来生产的合成燃料(包括甲醇、汽油、柴油、航空煤油或者氨)。一些商用合成燃料公司表示,如果油价超过55美元每桶,那么合成燃料生产的成本就会低于石油生产成本。可再生甲醇(RM)是由氢和二氧化碳在氢化反应下生成的一种燃料,并且氢是从水电解中得到的。这种燃油可以掺在运输燃料中或者用作化工原料来加工。

The George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant operated by Carbon Recycling International in Grindavík, Iceland has been producing 2 million liters of methanol transportation fuel per year from flue exhaust of the Svartsengi Power Station since 2011. It has the capacity to produce 5 million liters per year. A 250 kilowatt methane synthesis plant was constructed by the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) at Baden-Württemberg and the Fraunhofer Society in Germany and began operating in 2010. It is being upgraded to 10 megawatts, scheduled for completion in autumn, 2012. Audi has constructed a carbon-neutral liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Werlte, Germany. The plant is intended to produce transportation fuel to offset LNG used in their A3 Sportback g-tron automobiles, and can keep 2,800 metric tons of CO2 out of the environment per year at its initial capacity. Other commercial developments are taking place in Columbia, South Carolina, Camarillo, California, and Darlington, England.

冰岛格林达维克国际碳回收公司旗下的George Olah二氧化碳回收工厂从2001年起每年都能从Savrtsengi发电厂排放的废气中生产出200万升车用甲醇燃油,它的年产量可达到500万升。在德国的巴登-符腾堡州,由太阳能与氢能研究中心和弗劳恩•霍夫协会共同建造的一个250千瓦的甲醇合成燃料工厂在2010年开始生产,目前正在向千万瓦级扩建,预计将于2012年秋完成。奥迪公司也在德国的韦尔特建造了一家碳中和液化天然气厂,旨在生产出能够抵消它们的A3 Sportback g-tron型车所消耗的液化天然气的车用燃油,按照该工厂最初的生产力,它每年可减少2800公吨的二氧化碳排放量。在南卡罗莱纳州的哥伦比亚、加利福尼亚州的卡马利洛和英格兰的达林顿等地也出现了类似的加工工厂。
Such fuels are considered carbon-neutral because they do not result in a net increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases. To the extent that synthetic fuels displace fossil fuels, or if they are produced from waste carbon or seawater carbonic acid, and their combustion is subject to carbon capture at the flue or exhaust pipe, they result in negative carbon dioxide emission and net carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, and thus constitute a form of greenhouse gas remediation.

这些能源被看做是碳中和能源,因为它们不会导致温室气体含量的净增加。就合成燃料代替化石燃料来说,或者从它们以废弃的碳或海水中碳酸为原料以及它们的氧化要依赖排气管中的“碳捕捉”来看,碳中和燃料能够减少二氧化碳排放及大气中二氧化碳的净含量,因此有望成为解决温室气体排放的新方法。

Such renewable fuels alleviate the costs and dependency issues of imported fossil fuels without requiring either electrification of the vehicle fleet or conversion to hydrogen or other fuels, enabling continued compatible and affordable vehicles. Carbon-neutral fuels offer relatively low cost energy storage, alleviating the problems of wind and solar intermittency, and they enable distribution of wind, water, and solar power through existing natural gas pipelines.

这些可再生能源减少了对进口化石燃料的支出和依赖,并且无需将交通工具电动化或求助于氢转化及其他燃料,让相应的大众交通工具得以继续发展。碳中和燃料的存储成本相对较低,能够减轻风能和太阳能的间歇性问题,还能将风能、水能、太阳能通过现有的天然气管道输送出去。

Nighttime wind power is considered the most economical form of electrical power with which to synthesize fuel, because the load curve for electricity peaks sharply during the warmest hours of the day, but wind tends to blow slightly more at night than during the day, so, the price of nighttime wind power is often much less expensive than any alternative. Germany has built a 250 kilowatt synthetic methane plant which they are scaling up to 10 megawatts.

夜间风力发电厂被认为是进行燃料合成最经济的能源形式,因为负荷曲线会在一天中最温暖的时候急剧上升至顶峰,然而夜间风力通常会比白天的风力稍强一点,所以夜间风力发电厂的生产成本比任何替代能源的生产成本都要低。德国已经建造了一个250千瓦的合成燃料工厂,目前正在扩建为10000千瓦。

Algae fuel 藻类生质燃料

Algae fuel is a biofuel which is derived from algae. During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. The benefits of algal biofuel are that it can be produced industrially, thereby obviating the use of arable land and food crops (such as soy, palm, and canola), and that it has a very high oil yield as compared to all other sources of biofuel.

藻类生质燃料是从海藻中得到的生物燃料。在光合作用时,海藻与其他光合生物将吸收的二氧化碳和阳光转化为氧气和生物质能。藻类生质燃料的好处在于它可以进行工业生产,因此可以避免占用耕地和使用粮食作物(比如大豆、棕榈、油菜等),而且同其他的生物燃料资源相比,它的产油量也更高。

Biomass briquettes 生物质成型燃料

Biomass briquettes are being developed in the developing world as an alternative to charcoal. The technique involves the conversion of almost any plant matter into compressed briquettes that typically have about 70% the calorific value of charcoal. There are relatively few examples of large scale briquette production. One exception is in North Kivu, in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where forest clearance for charcoal production is considered to be the biggest threat to Mountain Gorilla habitat. The staff of Virunga National Park have successfully trained and equipped over 3500 people to produce biomass briquettes, thereby replacing charcoal produced illegally inside the national park, and creating significant employment for people living in extreme poverty in conflict affected areas.

生物质成型燃料在发展中国家是作为木炭的替代品来开发的。该技术能将几乎所有的植物转变为压缩型煤,其中所含的热值通常是木炭的70%。世界很少有大规模生产生物质成型燃料的例子,刚果民主共和国东部的基伍省便是其中一个,那里的人们为了生产木炭毁坏了大量森林,对山地大猩猩的生存环境构成了极大威胁。维龙加国家公园(在刚果)的工作人员已经成功培训并部署了超过3500名员工来生产生物质成型燃料,以此来取代公园内非法制造的木炭,同时也为受冲突影响而生活极端贫困的人们提供了工作机会。

Biogas digestion/沼气发酵

Biogas digestion deals with harnessing the methane gas that is released when waste breaks down. This gas can be retrieved from garbage or sewage systems. Biogas digesters are used to process methane gas by having bacteria break down biomass in an anaerobic environment. The methane gas that is collected and refined can be used as an energy source for various products.

沼气发酵利用的是废料分解时释放的甲烷气体,这种气体能够在垃圾或下水道中收集。沼气池能将细菌在厌氧环境下分解产生甲烷。沼气经过收集和提炼后,可以作为多种产品的能量来源。

Biological hydrogen production 生物制氢

Hydrogen gas is a completely clean burning fuel; its only by-product is water. It also contains relatively high amount of energy compared with other fuels due to its chemical structure.
2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + High Energy
High Energy + 2H2O → 2H2 + O2

氢气是一种完全意义上的清洁能源;它的唯一副产品就是水。和其他燃料相比,由于它的化学结构独特,它所含的能量也相对较多。
2H 2 + O 2 → 2H 2 O + 高能量
高能量 + 2H 2 O → 2H 2 + O 2

This requires a high-energy input, making commercial hydrogen very inefficient. Use of a biological vector as a means to split water, and therefore produce hydrogen gas, would allow for the only energy input to be solar radiation. Biological vectors can include bacteria or more commonly algae. This process is known as biological hydrogen production. It requires the use of single celled organisms to create hydrogen gas through fermentation. Without the presence of oxygen, also known as an anaerobic environment, regular cellular respiration cannot take place and a process known as fermentation takes over. A major by-product of this process is hydrogen gas. If we could implement this on a large scale, then we could take sunlight, nutrients and water and create hydrogen gas to be used as a dense source of energy. Large-scale production has proven difficult. It was not until 1999 that we were able to even induce these anaerobic conditions by sulfur deprivation. Since the fermentation process is an evolutionary back up, turned on during stress, the cells would die after a few days. In 2000, a two-stage process was developed to take the cells in and out of anaerobic conditions and therefore keep them alive. For the last ten years, finding a way to do this on a large-scale has been the main goal of research. Careful work is being done to ensure an efficient process before large-scale production, however once a mechanism is developed, this type of production could solve our energy needs.

由此可见,此过程需要大量的能量输入,使得商业制氢效率低下。如果使用生物媒介分解水来生产氢的话,那么唯一的能量消耗就是太阳辐射了。生物媒介包括细菌,或者更常用的海藻,该过程就是通常所说的生物制氢,其中需要使用单细胞生物通过发酵来产生氢气。在没有氧气参与的情况下,即厌氧环境中,植物有规律的呼吸作用被抑制,取而代之的是一种发酵过程。该过程的主要产物就是氢气。如果我们能大规模应用该技术的话,就可以利用阳光、养分和水来制造氢气,将其作为一种主要能源。大规模生物制氢被证明是困难的,直到1999年才通过硫剥离技术创造了厌氧环境。但由于发酵实质上是一种在高压状态下发生的进化上的倒退,细胞在几天后就会死亡。2000年,研究人员开发了一个两阶段的工艺,能够将细胞放入厌氧环境中并及时拿出,因此细胞可以保持活性。在过去的10年里,研究目标主要是找到将该过程推广使用的方法。在大规模推广使用之前,为了确保其生产效率,一些细致的工作正在进行中,但是,一旦该机制形成,这种生产方式将解决我们的能源需求问题。

Offshore wind 离岸风

Offshore wind farms are similar to regular wind farms, but are located in the ocean. Offshore wind farms can be placed in water up to 40 metres (130 ft) deep, whereas floating wind turbines can float in water up to 700 metres (2,300 ft) deep. The advantage of having a floating wind farm is to be able to harness the winds from the open ocean. Without any obstructions such as hills, trees and buildings, winds from the open ocean can reach up to speeds twice as fast as coastal areas.

海上风电场和普通的风力发电厂相似,但前者是处在海洋中。海上风电场能够被放在40米(130英尺)深的水中,浮式风力涡轮机也会相应放在700米(2300英尺)深的水中。浮式海洋风力发电厂的优点在于它能利用来自宽阔海面的海风。没有了山坡、树木和建筑物的阻挡,海风的速度能够达到海岸地区风速的两倍。

Significant generation of offshore wind energy already contributes to electricity needs in Europe and Asia and now the first offshore wind farms are under development in U.S. waters. While the offshore wind industry has grown dramatically over the last several decades, especially in Europe, there is still a great deal of uncertainty associated with how the construction and operation of these wind farms affect marine animals and the marine environment.

海洋风力能源已经对亚洲和欧洲的电力供应做出了极大贡献,如今美国第一个海上风力发电厂也已在规划当中。虽然海洋风力发电在过去几十年间发展迅猛,特别是在欧洲,但是这些风电厂的修建和运行是否对海洋生物和海洋环境存在影响,还有很大的不确定性。

Traditional offshore wind turbines are attached to the seabed in shallower waters within the nearshore marine environment. As offshore wind technologies become more advanced, floating structures have begun to be used in deeper waters where more wind resources exist.

传统的海上风力发电机是放在近海环境浅水区的海床上,随着海洋风力发电技术的不断成熟,一些悬浮装置开始装备在蕴藏有更多风能的深水区。

Marine and hydrokinetic energy 海洋流体能源

Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) or marine energy development in U.S. and international waters includes projects using the following devices:

海洋流体能源(MHK)或者海洋能源在美国及国际海域的开发项目使用以下设备:
• Wave energy converters in open coastal areas with significant waves;宽阔近海大风地区的风能转换器
• Tidal turbines placed in coastal and estuarine areas;江河入海口的潮汐涡轮机
• In-stream turbines in fast-moving rivers;流速较快水域中的水下汽轮机
• Ocean current turbines in areas of strong marine currents;洋流强烈水域的洋流涡轮机
• Ocean Thermal Energy Converters in deep tropical waters.赤道深水区的海洋热能转换器

Investing in alternative energy 对替代能源的投资

As an emerging economic sector, there are limited investment opportunities in alternative energy available to the general public. The public can buy shares of alternative energy companies from various stock markets, with wildly volatile returns. The recent IPO of SolarCity demonstrates the nascent nature of this sector- within a few weeks, it already had achieved the second highest market cap within the alternative energy sector.

作为一个新兴的经济增长部门,民众却没有多少投资替代能源的机会。民众可以从股市上购买能源公司的股票,但是其收益却极不稳定。“太阳城”(美国的一家太阳能公司)直到最近才上市就证明了该领域还处在开始阶段,但在几周之内,它的市值就飙升到替代能源领域的第二位。

Investors can also choose to invest in ETFs (exchange-traded funds) that track an alternative energy index, such as the WilderHill New Energy Index. Additionally, there are a number of mutual funds, such as Calvert's Global Alternative Energy Mutual Fund that are a bit more proactive in choosing the selected investments.

投资者可以选择投资追踪相关替代能源指数的交易所交易基金(ETF),比如WilderHill新能源指数。此外,一些共同基金如Calvert全球替代能源基金能让你在选择投资方式时比别人更快一步。

Recently, Mosaic Inc. launched an online platform allowing residents of California and New York to invest directly in solar. Investing in solar projects had previously been limited to accredited investors, or a small number of willing banks.

最近,Mosaic(美国一家太阳能投资公司)搭建了一个能让加利福尼亚州和纽约州居民直接投资太阳能的网络平台。之前对太阳能项目的投资仅局限在一些有资信的投资者和小数量的银行间。

Over the last three years publicly traded alternative energy companies have been very volatile, with some 2007 returns in excess of 100%, some 2008 returns down 90% or more, and peak-to-trough returns in 2009 again over 100%.[citation needed] In general there are three subsegments of “alternative” energy investment: solar energy, wind energy and hybrid electric vehicles. Alternative energy sources which are renewable, free and have lower carbon emissions than what we have now are wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, and bio fuels. Each of these four segments involve very different technologies and investment concerns.

在过去的三年内,一些上市替代能源公司的经营状况一直处于不稳定的状态:一些公司在2007年的收益超过了100%;一些公司到了2008年的收益便下降了90%甚至更多,2009年收益的峰谷比值再次超过了100%。太阳能投资总体上有三个方向:太阳能、风能和混合动力车。和当下能源相比,碳排放更少,并且免费、可再生的替代能源是风能、太阳能、地热能和生物燃料,这四个部门所面临的技术和资金问题都各有不同。

For example, photovoltaic solar energy is based on semiconductor processing and accordingly, benefits from steep cost reductions similar to those realized in the microprocessor industry (i.e., driven by larger scale, higher module efficiency, and improving processing technologies). PV solar energy is perhaps the only energy technology whose electricity generation cost could be reduced by half or more over the next 5 years. Better and more efficient manufacturing process and new technology such as advanced thin film solar cell is a good example of that helps to reduce industry cost.[65]

比如说,光伏太阳能技术需要依赖半导体工艺,并且相应地,从微处理器行业中实现的成本削减(通过扩大应用范围,提高模块效率,升级加工工艺)中获利,光伏太阳能发电可能是唯一一种能在未来五年内将其成本降低一半甚至更多的发电技术。一些更好且更有效率的生产过程以及像高阶薄膜太阳能电池这样的新技术,就是减少业界成本的典范。

The economics of solar PV electricity are highly dependent on silicon pricing and even companies whose technologies are based on other materials (e.g., First Solar) are impacted by the balance of supply and demand in the silicon market.[citation needed] In addition, because some companies sell completed solar cells on the open market (e.g., Q-Cells), this creates a low barrier to entry for companies that want to manufacture solar modules, which in turn can create an irrational pricing environment.

太阳能光伏发电市场受硅的价格影响很大,甚至一些依靠其他原料的公司(如第一太阳能公司)都会受到硅市场供求平衡的影响。而且,由于一些公司向市场销售太阳能成品电池,(比如Q-Cells),使得另一些公司很轻易就能制造出太阳能组件电池,而这反过来会形成一个不合理的价格环境。

In contrast, because wind power has been harnessed for over 100 years, its underlying technology is relatively stable. Its economics are largely determined by siting (e.g., how hard the wind blows and the grid investment requirements) and the prices of steel (the largest component of a wind turbine) and select composites (used for the blades). Because current wind turbines are often in excess of 100 meters high, logistics and a global manufacturing platform are major sources of competitive advantage. These issues and others were explored in a research report by Sanford Bernstein. Some of its key conclusions are shown here.

相反,由于人类利用风能的时间已经超过了一个世纪,所以相关的技术相对比较稳定。风能的效益主要是取决于选址(也就是风力的大小和电网投资)和钢材价格(风力涡轮中使用最多的原材料)以及上好的复合材料(用来制造风车的叶轮)。由于现有风车高度大多超过100米,物流管理和全球生产平台成为影响竞争力的主要因素。斯坦福•博恩斯坦(美国一投资公司)对其中的问题曾进行过研究,并得出很多重要结论。

Alternative energy in transportation替代能源在交通运输方面的应用

Due to steadily rising gas prices in 2008 with the US national average price per gallon of regular unleaded gas rising above $4.00 at one point, there has been a steady movement towards developing higher fuel efficiency and more alternative fuel vehicles for consumers. In response, many smaller companies have rapidly increased research and development into radically different ways of powering consumer vehicles. Hybrid and battery electric vehicles are commercially available and are gaining wider industry and consumer acceptance worldwide.

2008年,由于油价持续攀升,导致当年美国每加仑普通无铅汽油的平均价格曾一度超过了4美元,因此一些公司一直致力于为顾客开发出更高效、替代性更强的交通工具。结果,一些小公司迅速加大对完全采用不同方式驱动汽车的研究开发。混合动力和电动汽车如今已经进入商业化阶段,所占市场份额正在逐步扩大,也越来越得到世界范围内民众的认可。

For example, Nissan USA introduced the world's first mass-production Electric Vehicle "Nissan Leaf". A plug-in hybrid car, the "Chevrolet Volt" also has been produced, using an electric motor to drive the wheels, and a small four-cylinder engine to generate additional electricity.

比如说,尼桑美国首次批量生产了电动汽车“尼桑聆风”; 一款可充电混合动力车—“雪佛兰- Volt”也已经被研发出来,该车使用电动马达驱动,配有一个小型四汽缸引擎来产生额外的电能。

Making alternative energy mainstream 让替代能源成为主流

Before alternative energy becomes main-stream there are a few crucial obstacles that it must overcome: First there must be increased understanding of how alternative energies work and why they are beneficial; secondly the availability components for these systems must increase; and lastly the pay-off time must be decreased.

要想让替代能源成为主导能源就必须解决几个关键问题:首先,要提高人们对替代能源运作的理解,以及替代能源有哪些好处;然后,相关系统元件的可用性需要提高;最后,投资回收周期应该被缩短。

For example, electric vehicles (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are on the rise. These vehicles depend heavily on an effective charging infrastructure such as a smart grid infrastructure to be able to implement electricity as mainstream alternative energy for future transportations.

举例来说,电动交通工具(EV)和可充电混合动力车(PHEV)的数量在不断增加。这些交通工具需要依赖诸如“智能电网”这样的高效充电设施来让电力成为未来交通工具的主导能源。

Research 相关研究

There are numerous organizations within the academic, federal, and commercial sectors conducting large scale advanced research in the field of alternative energy. This research spans several areas of focus across the alternative energy spectrum. Most of the research is targeted at improving efficiency and increasing overall energy yields.

在学术界、政府和商业部门中,许多组织都在替代能源领域进行大规模尖端研究。这些研究涵盖了替代能源领域的几个主要部门,大部分研究都旨在提高能源效率和增加能源产量。

Multiple federally supported research organizations have focused on alternative energy in recent years. Two of the most prominent of these labs are Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), both of which are funded by the United States Department of Energy and supported by various corporate partners. Sandia has a total budget of $2.4 billion while NREL has a budget of $375 million.

近年来,许多政府资助的研究机构已经将替代能源作为研究重点。其中成就最突出的两个研究机构就是桑迪亚国家实验室和国家可再生能源实验室(NREL),两者都由美国能源部出资建立,还有多家公司为其提供资金支持。桑迪亚国家实验室的总预算为24亿美元,而国家可再生能源实验室(NREL)则有3.75亿美元的预算。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

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