Feminism and science 女权主义与科学

翻译|王晓悦 审校| 高淑媛 梁新珍

Sandra Harding says that the "moral and political insights of the women's movement have inspired social scientists and biologists to raise critical questions about the ways traditional researchers have explained gender, sex and relations within and between the social and natural worlds." Some feminists, such as Ruth Hubbard and Evelyn Fox Keller, criticize traditional scientific discourse as being historically biased towards a male perspective. A part of the feminist research agenda is the examination of the ways in which power inequities are created and/or reinforced in scientific and academic institutions. Physicist Lisa Randall, appointed to a task force at Harvard by then-president Lawrence Summers after his controversial discussion of why women may be underrepresented in science and engineering, said, "I just want to see a whole bunch more women enter the field so these issues don't have to come up anymore."

桑德拉•哈丁说,“妇女运动的道德见解和政治见解激发了社会科学家和生物学家,他们批判传统研究者解读性别、性、社会和自然世界关系的方式。”露丝•哈伯德和伊芙琳•福克斯•凯勒等女权主义者批判传统的科学论述是有历史偏见的,是基于男性视角的。女权主义研究议程的一部分是审查科学和学术机构内的权力不平等是如何产生并愈演愈烈的。物理学家Lisa Randall讨论了极富争议的话题,即“为何在科学和工程领域女性偏少”,随后被时任哈佛大学校长的Lawrence Summers任命到特派工作小组,Lawrence Summers说“我只想看到更多女性进入这一领域,这样这类问题便可不复出现。”

Lynn Hankinson Nelson notes that feminist empiricists find fundamental differences between the experiences of men and women. Thus, they seek to obtain knowledge through the examination of the experiences of women, and to "uncover the consequences of omitting, misdescribing, or devaluing them" to account for a range of human experience. Another part of the feminist research agenda is the uncovering of ways in which power inequities are created and/or reinforced in society and in scientific and academic institutions. Furthermore, despite calls for greater attention to be paid to structures of gender inequity in the academic literature, structural analyses of gender bias rarely appear in highly cited psychological journals, especially in the commonly studied areas of psychology and personality.

莱恩•内尔森强调:女权运动经验主义者发现男人与女人的经历有本质区别。因此,他们希望通过了解女性经历来获取知识,以”揭示产生忽略、错误评价、贬低女性等后果“,并以此对一系列的人类经验做出解释。女权主义研究议程的另一部分是揭露在社会和科学学术机构中,权力不平等是如何产生并愈演愈烈的。而且,虽然呼吁大家多关注一下文学文献中性别不平等的结构,但性别歧视的结构性分析很少出现在高度引用的心理学期刊中,尤其是在心理学和人格这类共同研究领域。

One criticism of feminist epistemology is that it allows social and political values to influence its findings. Susan Haack also points out that feminist epistemology reinforces traditional stereotypes about women's thinking (as intuitive and emotional, etc.), Meera Nanda further cautions that this may in fact trap women within "traditional gender roles and help justify patriarchy".

有人批判女性主义认识论,认为其调查结果受社会和政治价值观的影响。苏珊•哈克也指出:女性主义认识论加强了关于女性思想的传统论调(在直觉和情感等方面),米拉•南达更提醒人们女性主义认识论实际上可能会将女性禁锢于“传统的性别角色并证明了父权主义的合理性“。

Biology and gender 生物学和性别

Modern feminist science challenges the biological essentialist view of gender. For example, Anne Fausto-Sterling's book, Myths of Gender, explores the assumptions embodied in scientific research that support a biologically essentialist view of gender. In Delusions of Gender, Cordelia Fine disputes scientific evidence that suggests that there is an innate biological difference between men's and women's minds, asserting instead that cultural and societal beliefs are the reason for differences between individuals that are commonly perceived as sex differences.

现代女权主义科学质疑了生物实在说中有关性别的观点。例如,法斯托•丝达琳在《性别神话》一书中探索了包含于科学研究中的支持生物实在说性别观点的设想。科莉迪亚•法恩在《性别错觉》一书中对男人与女人的思维有先天生理差异的这一说法的科学依据提出了质疑,并声称人们把个体差异归结为性别差异的根源是文化和社会信仰。

Feminist psychology 女性主义心理学

Feminism in psychology emerged as a critique of the dominant male outlook on psychological research where only male perspectives were studied with all male subjects. As women earned doctorates in psychology, females and their issues were introduced as legitimate topics of study. Feminist psychology emphasizes social context, lived experience, and qualitative analysis. Projects such as Psychology's Feminist Voices have emerged to catalogue the influence of feminist psychologists on the discipline.
女性主义心理学是以一种批判男性视角主导心理学研究的形式出现的,即批判只用男性受试者研究男性视角的心理学研究。如今女性得到了心理学博士的学位,女性以及有关女性的议题才被引入为合法的研究课题。女性主义心理学强调社会环境、生活经验和定性分析。女性心理学的呼声等项目已把女性主义心理学的影响编入了学科目录。

Feminist culture 女性主义文化

Architecture 建筑学

Gender-based inquiries into and conceptualization of architecture have also come about, leading to feminism in modern architecture. Piyush Mathur coined the term "archigenderic". Claiming that "architectural planning has an inextricable link with the defining and regulation of gender roles, responsibilities, rights, and limitations", Mathur came up with that term "to explore ... the meaning of 'architecture' in terms of gender" and "to explore the meaning of 'gender' in terms of architecture".

对建筑进行基于性别的调查和建筑概念化引发了现代建筑中的女性主义。皮尤什•马瑟创造了“建筑性别的"这一术语,声称“建筑与定义和规划性别角色、责任、权利和局限有密不可分的联系“。马瑟提出了“从性别角度探索‘建筑'的意义”和“从建筑角度探索‘性别‘的意义”的说法。

Visual arts 视觉艺术

Corresponding with general developments within feminism, and often including such self-organizing tactics as the consciousness-raising group, the movement began in the 1960s and flourished throughout the 1970s. Jeremy Strick, director of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, described the feminist art movement as "the most influential international movement of any during the postwar period", and Peggy Phelan says that it "brought about the most far-reaching transformations in both art making and art writing over the past four decades". Judy Chicago, who with a team of 129 created The Dinner Party, said in 2009 to ARTnews, "There is still an institutional lag and an insistence on a male Eurocentric narrative. We are trying to change the future: to get girls and boys to realize that women's art is not an exception—it's a normal part of art history."

女权主义艺术运动始于20世纪60年代并兴盛于20世纪70年代,与女权主义的总体发展一致,并且包含有自我组织策略以提高自我意识的群体。洛杉矶当代艺术博物馆馆长杰里米•施特里克认为女权主义艺术运动是“二战后最有影响力的国际运动“。佩吉•费伦说女权主义艺术运动“在过去的四十年里引起了艺术创作和艺术书写领域最深远的变革“。朱迪•芝加哥和她的129人团队创作了电影《晚宴派对》,2009年,她在《艺术新闻》中表示:”仍然存在制度性落后,依然有人主张以男性欧洲为中心的倡议。我们正试着改变未来:让男孩和女孩们认识到女性艺术并不是例外,而是艺术历史中的一个正常部分。”

Literature 文学

The feminist movement produced both feminist fiction and non-fiction, and created new interest in women's writing. It also prompted a general reevaluation of women's historical and academic contributions in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest. Much of the early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. Studies like Dale Spender's Mothers of the Novel (1986) and Jane Spencer's The Rise of the Woman Novelist (1986) were ground-breaking in their insistence that women have always been writing. Commensurate with this growth in scholarly interest, various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts. Virago Press began to publish its large list of 19th and early-20th-century novels in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation. In the 1980s Pandora Press, responsible for publishing Spender's study, issued a companion line of 18th-century novels written by women. More recently, Broadview Press continues to issue 18th- and 19th-century novels, many hitherto out of print, and the University of Kentucky has a series of republications of early women's novels. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. A Room of One's Own (1929) by Virginia Woolf, is noted in its argument for both a literal and figural space for women writers within a literary tradition dominated by patriarchy.

女权主义运动创造出了女权主义小说和非小说类文学作品,使人们开始关注女性写作。有观点认为学术界忽视了女性生活以及她们所做出的贡献,为回应这一说法,女权主义提议重新评价公众对女性在历史和学术方面的贡献。大部分早期女权主义文学研究重点是重新发现和利用女性所写的作品。戴尔•斯宾达的《小说之母》和简•斯班赛的《女性小说家的崛起》等论文首次坚持了女性一直在创作这一观点。与学术资源的增长相适应的是,许多出版社开始重印绝版已久的文章。维拉戈出版社1975年公布了一连串19世纪和20世纪初期的小说列表,成为第一个参与再生计划的商业出版社之一。20世纪80年代,潘多拉出版社负责出版斯班赛论文,同时发行了一系列18世纪女性作家的小说。近期,广景出版社继续发行18、19世纪的小说,其中许多小说之前都已绝版,但肯塔基大学再版了一系列早期女性作家的小说。玛丽•沃斯通克拉夫特的《女权辩》是最早的女权主义心理学作品之一。弗吉尼亚•伍尔夫的《一个人的房间》提议在父权主导的世界中给女性文学空间和人格空间,并因此备受关注。

The widespread interest in women's writing is related to a general reassessment and expansion of the literary canon. Interest in post-colonial literatures, gay and lesbian literature, writing by people of colour, working people's writing, and the cultural productions of other historically marginalized groups has resulted in a whole scale expansion of what is considered "literature," and genres hitherto not regarded as "literary," such as children's writing, journals, letters, travel writing, and many others are now the subjects of scholarly interest. Most genres and sub-genres have undergone a similar analysis, so that one now sees work on the "female gothic" or women's science fiction.

女性作品受到广泛的关注,这与文学经典的总体再评价和扩展有关。人们开始关注后殖民文学,同性恋文学,有色人种的作品,劳动人民的作品和其他历史上被看作边缘人群的文化作品,这导致了人们所说的“文学”的整体规模的扩张,有些流派,像儿童作品,日记,书信,旅行日志和其他之前不被认为属于“文学”范畴的题材,现在成为许多学术研究的对象。大部分类型和子类型的文学都经历过相似的分析,所以人们现在能够理解关于“女性哥特”和“女性科幻”的作品。

According to Elyce Rae Helford , "Science fiction and fantasy serve as important vehicles for feminist thought, particularly as bridges between theory and practice." Feminist science fiction is sometimes taught at the university level to explore the role of social constructs in understanding gender. Notable texts of this kind are Ursula K. Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness (1969), Joanna Russ' The Female Man (1970), Octavia Butler's Kindred (1979) and Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale (1985).

Elyce Rae Helford说,“科幻小说和奇幻小说是传达女权主义思想的重要工具,更是沟通理论和实践的桥梁。“大学教育中有时会教授女权主义科幻小说,探索社会构建在理解性别中的作用。这类书目中,著名的有厄休拉•K•勒吉恩的《黑暗的左手》(1969),乔娜安•拉斯的《女身男人》(1970),维亚•巴特勒的《血族》(1979)和玛格丽特•阿特伍德的《侍女的故事》(1985)。

Music 音乐

Women's music (or womyn's music or wimmin's music) is the music by women, for women, and about women. The genre emerged as a musical expression of the second-wave feminist movement as well as the labor, civil rights, and peace movements. The movement was started by lesbians such as Cris Williamson, Meg Christian, and Margie Adam, African-American women activists such as Bernice Johnson Reagon and her group Sweet Honey in the Rock, and peace activist Holly Near. Women's music also refers to the wider industry of women's music that goes beyond the performing artists to include studio musicians, producers, sound engineers, technicians, cover artists, distributors, promoters, and festival organizers who are also women.

女性音乐指由女性创作、为女性创作或与女性有关的音乐。作为第二波女权主义运动、劳动、民权和和平运动的音乐表现形式,这种音乐类型应运而生。该运动是由克丽丝•威廉姆森、梅格•克里斯蒂安、玛吉•亚当等女同性恋以及伯妮丝•约翰逊•里根等非裔美国女性积极分子和她的摇滚甜心小组,和平积极分子霍利•尼尔发起的。女性音乐也指除了表演艺术家以外的更广阔的女性音乐行业,包括录音室乐师、制作人、音响师、技术人员、封面艺术家、发行人、创办者和组织活动者——当然,她们都是女性。

Feminism became a principal concern of musicologists in the 1980s. Prior to this, in the 1970s, musicologists were beginning to discover women composers and performers, and had begun to review concepts of canon, genius, genre and periodization from a feminist perspective. In other words, the question of how women musicians fit into traditional music history was now being asked.

20世纪80年代,女权主义成了音乐学家们主要关注的问题。在这之前,20世纪70年代时期,音乐学家们开始挖掘女性作曲家和表演者,并开始从女权主义的视角重审有关准则、天赋、体裁及时代划分的概念。换句话说,女性音乐家如何融入传统音乐历史这一问题被提了出来。

Through the 1980s and 1990s, this trend continued as musicologists like Susan McClary, Marcia Citron and Ruth Solie began to consider the cultural reasons for the marginalizing of women from the received body of work. Concepts such as music as gendered discourse; professionalism; reception of women's music; examination of the sites of music production; relative wealth and education of women; popular music studies in relation to women's identity; patriarchal ideas in music analysis; and notions of gender and difference are among the themes examined during this time.

20世纪80年代至90年代,女权主义问题持续受到关注。苏珊•麦克拉瑞,玛西亚•希特伦和露丝•索里等音乐学家开始思考女性被现有工作主体排斥的文化原因。带性别色彩的音乐话语、专业化、对女性音乐的接受程度、音乐创作地点检查、女性的相对财富与教育、与女性特性相关的流行音乐的研究、音乐研究中的宗法观念、性别观念和性别差异等概念一直是该时期审查的主题。

Cinema 电影

Feminist cinema, advocating or illustrating feminist perspectives, arose largely with the development of feminist film theory in the late ’60s and early ’70s. Women who were radicalized during the 1960s by political debate and so-called sexual liberation; but the failure of radicalism to produce substantive change for women galvanized them to form consciousness-raising groups and set about analysing, from different perspectives, dominant cinema’s construction of women. Differences were particularly marked between feminists on either side of the Atlantic. 1972 saw the first feminist film festivals in the U.S. and U.K. as well as the first feminist film journal, Women and Film. Trailblazers from this period included Claire Johnston and Laura Mulvey, who also organised the Women’s Event at the Edinburgh Film Festival. Other theorists making a powerful impact on feminist film include Teresa de Lauretis, Anneke Smelik and Kaja Silverman. Approaches in philosophy and psychoanalysis fuelled Feminist Film Criticism, Feminist Independent Film and Feminist Distribution.

上世纪60年代末至70年代初,随着女权电影理论的发展,出现了大量主张或阐明女权主义观点的女权主义电影。20世纪60年代,由于政治辩论和所谓的“性解放”,女性变得很激进,但激进主义未能给女性带来实质性的改变。这使得女性采取行动,成立了增强自我意识的团体,并开始从不同视角分析主要电影业的女性建构。大西洋两岸的女权主义者之间有很明显的差别。1972年,英国和美国举办了第一届女权主义电影节,并创办了首个女权主义电影期刊:《女性与电影》。这一时期的先驱有克莱尔•强斯顿,劳拉•穆尔维,后者曾在爱丁堡电影节上组织过女性活动。其他对女权主义电影产生过重大影响的理论家有特瑞莎•德•劳拉提斯,斯梅丽科和卡亚•西尔弗曼。哲学和心理分析的方法推动了女权主义电影批判、女权主义独立电影和女权主义分配的发展。

It has been argued that there are two distinct approaches to independent, theoretically inspired feminist filmmaking. ‘Deconstruction’ concerns itself with analysing and breaking down codes of mainstream cinema, aiming to create a different relationship between the spectator and dominant cinema. The second approach, a feminist counterculture, embodies feminine writing to investigate a specifically feminine cinematic language. Some recent criticism of ‘feminist film’ approaches has centred around a Swedish rating system called the Bechdel test.

有人认为,理论上有两种方法可以促进女性主义电影的制作与独立。 “解构法”关注它本身对主流电影业准则的分析和解码,以在观众与主导电影间创造出一种不同的关系。第二种方法——女权主义反主流文化——表现为女性写作,以探究特殊的女性电影语言。最近一些对女权主义电影的批评主要以一种叫做“贝克德尔测验”的瑞典评分系统为中心。

During the 1930s-1950s heyday of the big Hollywood studios, the status of women in the industry was abysmal and, while much has improved, many would argue that there is still much to be done. From art films by Sally Potter, Catherine Breillat, Claire Denis and Jane Campion to action movies by Kathryn Bigelow, women now have a stronger voice, but are only too aware of the still lingering gender gap.

在20世纪30至50年代好莱坞大制片厂的全盛期,电影业的女性们地位极低。即使现在情况好转了许多,很多人认为仍然有很多待解决的问题。从萨莉•波特,凯瑟琳•布蕾亚,卡莱尔•丹尼斯和简•坎皮恩的艺术电影到凯瑟琳•毕格罗的动作电影,女性现在更有发言权了,但她们很清楚性别差异依然存在。

Relationship to political movements 政治运动关系

Feminism had complex interactions with the major political movements of the twentieth century.

女权运动与20世纪的主要政治运动有复杂的相互作用。

Socialism 社会主义

Since the late nineteenth century some feminists have allied with socialism, whereas others have criticized socialist ideology for being insufficiently concerned about women's rights. August Bebel, an early activist of the German Social Democratic Party, published his work Die Frau und der Sozialismus, juxtaposing the struggle for equal rights between sexes with social equality in general. In 1907 there was an International Conference of Socialist Women in Stuttgart where suffrage was described as a tool of class struggle. Clara Zetkin of the Social Democratic Party of Germany called for women's suffrage to build a "socialist order, the only one that allows for a radical solution to the women's question".

自19世纪末期,一些女权主义者与社会主义结盟,然而其他人曾经批评社会主义意识形态缺乏对女性权利的关注。德国社会民主党的早期积极分子奥古斯特•贝贝尔发表了他的作品《女人与社会主义》,书中将为争取两性间的平等权利奋斗和整体的社会平等相提并论。1907年,斯图加特举行了一场社会主义女性国际会议,在斯图尔特,选举权被描述成阶级斗争的工具。民主党成员克拉拉•蔡特金呼吁女性应有相应的选举权,以构建“允许用激进方法解决女性问题的社会秩序”。

In Britain, the women's movement was allied with the Labour party. In the U.S., Betty Friedan emerged from a radical background to take leadership. Radical Women is the oldest socialist feminist organization in the U.S. and is still active. During the Spanish Civil War, Dolores Ibárruri (La Pasionaria) led the Communist Party of Spain. Although she supported equal rights for women, she opposed women fighting on the front and clashed with the anarcha-feminist Mujeres Libres.

在英国,女性运动与工党结盟。在美国,有激进背景的贝蒂福莱顿掌握了领导权。激进女性组织是美国最早并至今活跃的社会主义女权组织。西班牙内战时期,德洛莉丝•伊巴露丽(似幻似真的生命意象)领导西班牙共产党,尽管她支持女性拥有平等权利,但她反对女性上前线参战,反对与无政府女权主义自由妇女发生冲突。

Fascism 法西斯主义

Fascism has been prescribed dubious stances on feminism by its practitioners and by women's groups. Amongst other demands concerning social reform presented in the Fascist manifesto in 1919 was expanding the suffrage to all Italian citizens of age 18 and above, including women (accomplished only in 1946, after the defeat of fascism) and eligibility for all to stand for office from age 25. This demand was particularly championed by special Fascist women's auxiliary groups such as the fasci femminilli and only partly realized in 1925, under pressure from Prime Minister Benito Mussolini's more conservative coalition partners.

法西斯主义者和女性团体都认为法西斯主义对女权主义持左右摇摆立场。1919年的法西斯党宣言罗列出的其他有关社会改革的要求中,其中一项是将选举权扩大到所有18岁及以上的意大利公民,包括女性(仅在1946年法西斯战败后实行)和从25岁起所有人都有权竞选公职。fasci femminill 等特殊的法西斯女子辅助组尤其支持这一要求,迫于总理本托尼•墨索里尼的保守联盟伙伴的压力,只有部分要求在1925年得以实现。

Cyprian Blamires states that although feminists were among those who opposed the rise of Adolf Hitler, feminism has a complicated relationship with the Nazi movement as well, which saw several vocal female supporters as well as women's groups. While Nazis glorified traditional notions of patriarchal society and its role for women, they claimed to recognize women's equality in employment. However, Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared themselves as opposed to feminism, and after the rise of Nazism in Germany in 1933, there was a rapid dissolution of the political rights and economic opportunities that feminists had fought for during the prewar period and to some extent during the 1920s. Georges Duby et al. note that in practice fascist society was hierarchical and emphasized male virility, with women maintaining a largely subordinate position. Blamires also notes that Neofascism has since the 1960s been hostile towards feminism and advocates that women accept "their traditional roles".

Cyprian Blamires声明尽管女权主义者反对希特勒的崛起,但女权主义仍与纳粹运动有着复杂的关系,纳粹运动中也有敢于直言的支持希特勒的女性和女性团体。纳粹党人赞同父权社会的传统观念和女人在父权社会中的角色,他们声称承认妇女的平等就业权。然而希特勒和本尼托•墨索里尼宣布他们本人反对女权主义,1933年纳粹主义在德国兴起后,女权主义者们在战前时期甚至20世纪20年代时为之奋斗的参政权和经济机会迅速瓦解崩溃。乔治斯•杜比等人提到,实际上,法西斯社会是有等级制度的,它重视男性的男子气概,女人处在次要的位置。Blamires也提到说自从20世纪60年代,新法西斯主义就对女权主义持敌对态度并倡导女性接受“她们的传统社会角色”。

Civil rights movement and anti-racism 民权运动和反种族主义

The civil rights movement has influenced and informed the feminist movement and vice versa. Many Western feminists adapted the language and theories of black equality activism and drew parallels between women's rights and the rights of non-white people. Despite the connections between the women's and civil rights movements, some tension arose during the late 1960s and early 1970s as non-white women argued that feminism was predominantly white and middle class, and did not understand and was not concerned with race issues. Similarly, some women argued that the civil rights movement had sexist elements and did not adequately address minority women's concerns. These criticisms created new feminist social theories about the intersections of racism, classism, and sexism, and new feminisms, such as black feminism and Chicana feminism.

民权运动和女权主义运动相互影响相互交织。许多西方女权主义者改编了黑人平等运动的说法和理论,并找到了妇女权利和有色人种权利的相似之处。尽管女性运动与民权运动相互联系,20世纪60年代和70年代二者关系中还是出现了一些冲突。非白人女性认为女权主义主要是由白人和中产阶级主导的运动,不理解也并不关心种族问题。同样,一些女性认为民权运动存在性别歧视的元素,而且没有充分解决少数民族女性所关注的问题。这些评论建立了与种族主义、阶级歧视、性别歧视和黑人女权主义、女奇卡诺人女权主义等新女权主义相关的新的女权主义社会理论。

Societal impact 社会影响

The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more nearly equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the right to own property.

女权主义运动影响了西方社会改变,包括妇女选举权、更多的受教育权、与男性相同的更公平的工资待遇、提出离婚诉讼的权利、女性关于怀孕的自我决定权(包括服用避孕药和堕胎)、占有财产的权利。

Civil rights 公民权

the 1960s on, the campaign for women's rights was met with mixed results in the U.S. and the U.K. Other countries of the EEC agreed to ensure that discriminatory laws would be phased out across the European Community.

从20世纪60年代起,女权运动在美国和英国产生了不同的结果。其他的欧共体国家保证逐步淘汰欧共体中的歧视性法律。

Some feminist campaigning also helped reform attitudes to child sexual abuse. The view that young girls cause men to have sexual intercourse with them was replaced by that of men's responsibility for their own conduct, the men being adults.

一些女权主义运动改变了人们对儿童性虐待的态度。年轻女孩导致男性与其性交,这一观点已被其他观点取代——成年男人们应该为自己的行为负责。

In the U.S., the National Organization for Women (NOW) began in 1966 to seek women's equality, including through the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which did not pass, although some states enacted their own. Reproductive rights in the U.S. centered on the court decision in Roe v. Wade enunciating a woman's right to choose whether to carry a pregnancy to term. Western women gained more reliable birth control, allowing family planning and careers. The movement started in the 1910s in the U.S. under Margaret Sanger and elsewhere under Marie Stopes. In the final three decades of the 20th century, Western women knew a new freedom through birth control, which enabled women to plan their adult lives, often making way for both career and family.

1966年,美国成立全国妇女组织,旨在为女性争取平等的权利,包括借助《平等权利修宪案》,但该提案并未被通过,尽管一些州颁布了他们自己的法规。美国的生育权集中体现在法院对罗诉韦德一案的裁决中,该案宣布女性有权选择是否妊娠。西方女性获得了更多可靠的生育控制权利,该权利允许女性选择计划生育并参加工作。该运动始于20世纪前十年,在美国由玛格丽特•桑格领导,其他地方由玛利亚•斯特普领导。20世纪的最后30年,西方女性认识到她们通过控制生育获得了新的自由,控制生育使得她们可以规划自己的成人生活,也顾全了事业与家庭。

The division of labor within households was affected by the increased entry of women into workplaces in the 20th century. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild found that, in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework, although Cathy Young responded by arguing that women may prevent equal participation by men in housework and parenting. Judith K. Brown writes, "Women are most likely to make a substantial contribution when subsistence activities have the following characteristics: the participant is not obliged to be far from home; the tasks are relatively monotonous and do not require rapt concentration; and the work is not dangerous, can be performed in spite of interruptions, and is easily resumed once interrupted."

20世纪,随着越来越多的女性进入职场,家庭劳动分工也受到了影响。社会学家阿莉•罗塞尔•霍克希尔德发现,如果夫妇双方都有工作,男性和女性大体上花同样的时间工作,但女性仍然在家务上付出了更多时间。凯蒂•杨曾辩解说那是因为在做家务、养育孩子方面,女性妨碍男性平等参与。朱迪•K•布朗写到,“当生存活动具备以下特点时,女性最可能做重大贡献:参与者无须远离家庭;任务相对单调,不要求全神贯注投入;工作不危险,即使被打断也可以继续,一旦被打断后也较容易重新开始。”

In international law, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international convention adopted by the United Nations General Assembly and described as an international bill of rights for women. It came into force in those nations ratifying it.

国际法中,《消除一切形式的女性歧视》是联合国大会通过的国际公约,也是国际妇女权利法案。它在认同此公约的国家中有效。

Language 语言

Proponents of gender-neutral language argue that the use of gender-specific language often implies male superiority or reflects an unequal state of society. According to The Handbook of English Linguistics, generic masculine pronouns and gender-specific job titles are instances "where English linguistic convention has historically treated men as prototypical of the human species."

中性语言的支持者争辩说使用偏好某一性别的语言经常意味着男性的优越性或反映出一种社会不平等。根据《英语语言学手册》,把男性代词作为类代词或用某一特定性别的代词作为有些职业头衔,这些都是“英语语言习俗在历史上把男人看成是人类物种原型”的例子。

Theology 神学

Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts. The Christian Bible refers to women in positions of authority in Judges 4:4 and 2 Kings 22:14.

女权主义神学运动,从女权主义角度重新审议宗教传统、实践、经文和神学。女权主义神学的一些目标包括加强女性在神职和宗教权力机构中的作用,重新诠释男性主导的关于上帝的图像和语言,确定女性在工作和母亲身份上的地位,研究宗教经文里的女性形象。基督教圣经在Judges 4:4和2 Kings 22:14中提到了女性在权力机构中的职位。

Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in light of the equality of women and men, and that this interpretation is necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of sex, and are involved in issues such as the ordination of women, male dominance and the balance of parenting in Christian marriage, claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of women compared to men, and the overall treatment of women in the church.

基督教女权主义是女权主义神学的一个分支,它提倡根据男女平等的观点,寻求对基督教精神的诠释和理解,这种诠释对全面理解基督教精神是必不可少的。基督教的女权主义者没有标准的信仰,大部分人认为上帝不会在性别基础上歧视人,上帝参与的事务包括,女性的等级分类、基督教婚姻中的男性统治地位和育儿平衡、主张与男性相比,女性病态性道德缺失和自卑、以及女性在教会中受到的整体待遇。

Islamic feminists advocate women's rights, gender equality, and social justice grounded within an Islamic framework. Advocates seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Quran and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran, hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and sharia (law) towards the creation of a more equal and just society. Although rooted in Islam, the movement's pioneers have also utilized secular and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement.

伊斯兰女性主义提倡女权、性别平等和伊斯兰框架中的社会平等。拥护者想要强调古兰经中根深蒂固的平等学说并鼓励人们通过解读古兰经,圣训(穆罕默德语录)和伊斯兰教法(法律)来质疑伊斯兰教义中有关父权的解释,旨在创造一个更平等、更公正的社会。虽然该运动植根于伊斯兰教,但女权运动的先驱们也会运用世俗和西方女权主义的论述,并承认伊斯兰女权主义是全球女权主义运动的一部分。

Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. The main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or minyan, the exemption from positive time-bound mitzvot, and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate divorce.

犹太女权主义这场运动在于改善犹太教女性的宗教地位、法律地位和社会地位,为犹太女性进行宗教体验和从事领导活动提供新的机遇。在这些运动中,早期犹太女权主义者面临的主要问题是女性被全部由男性组成的祷告小组排除在外,不能参加时间有限的成人礼, 并且女性无权做证人,也不能主动提出离婚。

Dianic Wicca is a feminist-centered thealogy.

Dianic Wicca 是以女权主义为中心的神学体系。

Secular or atheist feminists have engaged in feminist criticism of religion, arguing that many religions have oppressive rules towards women and misogynistic themes and elements in religious texts.

世俗的或无神论的女权主义者参与了对宗教的女权主义批判,认为许多宗教都有压迫女性的法则,而且在宗教经文中存在歧视女性的主题和元素。

Patriarchy 男权主义

Patriarchy is a social system in which society is organized around male authority figures. In this system fathers have authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and is dependent on female subordination. Most forms of feminism characterize patriarchy as an unjust social system that is oppressive to women. Carole Pateman argues that the patriarchal distinction "between masculinity and femininity is the political difference between freedom and subjection." In feminist theory the concept of patriarchy often includes all the social mechanisms that reproduce and exert male dominance over women. Feminist theory typically characterizes patriarchy as a social construction, which can be overcome by revealing and critically analyzing its manifestations. Some radical feminists have proposed that because patriarchy is too deeply rooted in society, separatism is the only viable solution. Other feminists have criticized these views as being anti-men.

在男权社会体系中,社会是围绕着男性权威人物组织起来的。在该体系中,父亲对于女性、孩子和财产有绝对的权威。它意味着男性拥有统治和特权的机构,并依赖于女性的隶属服从。大多数形式的女权主义把父系社会看作压制女性的不公平的社会体制。卡罗尔•佩特曼