Fountain of Time 时间喷泉

翻译| Corner 审校| 高淑媛

Fountain of Time, or simply Time, is a sculpture by Lorado Taft, measuring 126 feet 10 inches (38.66 m) in length, situated at the western edge of the Midway Plaisance within Washington Park in Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. This location is in the Washington Parkcommunity area on Chicago's South Side. Inspired by Henry Austin Dobson's poem, "Paradox of Time", and with its 100 figures passing before Father Time, the work was created as a monument to the first 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain, resulting from the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. Although the fountain's water began running in 1920, the sculpture was not dedicated to the city until 1922. The sculpture is a contributing structure to the Washington Park United States Registered Historic District, which is a National Register of Historic Places listing.

“时间喷泉”,或简称“时间”是一件由莱若多•塔夫特(Lorado Taft)设计建造的雕塑品,长126英尺10英寸(38.66米),地处大道乐园的西面,位于美国伊利诺伊州芝加哥市的华盛顿公园内。此位置在芝加哥南面华盛顿公园的社区范围中。该雕塑的灵感来自亨利•奥斯汀•道布森(Henry Austin Dobson)的诗作《时间悖论》,在雕塑中,有100个人物在时间老人面前经过,其创作是为了纪念1814年根特条约签署后,美英两国和平相处的首个百年。虽然其喷泉水在1920年开始注水运转,但该雕塑直到1922年才贡献给这座城市。这件雕塑品曾使得华盛顿公园成为美国国家注册认可的历史古迹区,这是一个国家认可的历史古迹名单。

Part of a larger beautification plan for the Midway Plaisance, Time was constructed from a new type of molded, steel-reinforced concrete that was claimed to be more durable and cheaper than alternatives. It was said to be the first of any kind of finished work of art made of concrete. Before the completion of Millennium Park in 2004, it was considered the most important installation in the Chicago Park District.Time is one of several Chicago works of art funded by Benjamin Ferguson's trust fund.

作为美化大道乐园大计划的一部分,“时间”是由一种新型模制、钢筋混凝土构建而成,人们断言这种混凝土比其他材质更耐用,更便宜。据说在已完成的所有类型的工艺品中,这是首件用混凝土制成的工艺品。在2004年千禧公园竣工之前,人们认为“时间”是芝加哥公园区最重要的建筑。“时间”是由本杰明•弗格森(Benjamin Ferguson)信托基金资助的几个芝加哥艺术品之一。

Time has undergone several restorations because of deterioration and decline caused by natural and urban elements. During the late 1990s and the first few years of the 21st century it underwent repairs that corrected many of the problems caused by these earlier restorations. Although extensive renovation of the sculpture was completed as recently as 2005, the supporters of Time continue to seek resources for additional lighting, and the National Trust for Historic Preservation has nominated it for further funding.


Contents 内容
2Location and installation
3Design and realization
5Fountain of Creation

Planning 规划

Time, along with many other public works in Chicago, was funded by Benjamin Ferguson's 1905 gift of $1 million ($26.2 million today), to a charitable trust formed to "memorialize events in American History".Lorado Taft initially conceived a sculpture carved from granite; an alternative plan was to have it chiseled out of Georgia marble, which it is estimated would have cost $30,000 ($715,859) a year for five years. The planned work was intended as part of a Midway beautification which was to include a stream, lagoons, and a series of bridges: a Bridge of Arts at Woodlawn Avenue, a Bridge of Religion at the intersection of Ellis Avenue, and a Bridge of Science at Dorchester Avenue (formerly Madison Avenue). As part of the plan, the two ends of the Midway were to be connected by a canal in the deep depressions linking lagoons inJackson and Washington Parks.
"Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men's blood, and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans: aim high in hope and work ..."
Daniel Burnham

“时间”,和芝加哥许多其他公共工程一样,由本杰明•弗格森(Benjamin Ferguson)出资创建,1905年他捐款100万美元(合今天2620万美元),赠予一个专为“纪念美国历史上的重大事件”而成立的慈善信托组织。莱若多•塔夫特(Lorado Taft)最初设想雕刻花岗岩雕塑;另外一个替代方案是用格鲁吉亚大理石凿刻,预计耗时5年,每年将花费3万美元(合今天71.5859万美元)。此规划是大道乐园美化的一部分,大道乐园美化计划还涵盖建造溪流、泻湖以及一系列桥梁:包括位于伍德劳恩大道的艺术桥,埃利斯大道交叉口的宗教桥,多切斯特大道(原麦迪逊大道)的科学桥。该计划还包括在深洼地中建造一条贯通杰克逊泻湖和华盛顿公园泻湖的河道,并以此连接大道乐园的两端,“规划切忌短浅,因为短浅的规划无法激励人的斗志,可能当事人自己意识不到这点。立志高远:把目标订高,心怀期待,向着目标努力......”
丹尼尔•伯纳姆(Daniel Burnham)

In 1907, Taft had won the first commission from the Ferguson Fund to create the Fountain of the Great Lakes at the Art Institute of Chicago.[15] Immediately afterwards, inspired by Daniel Burnham's "Make no little plans" quote,[13] he begin lobbying for a grand Midway beautification plan. In 1912, Art Institute Trustee Frank G. Logan formally presented Taft's plans to the fund's administrators at the Art Institute of Chicago.[15]Taft's proposed Midway Plaisance beautification plan included two possible commemoration themes. His first choice was to honor the memory of the World's Columbian Exposition that had been held in Jackson Park in 1893. His alternative was to commemorate the centennial of the 1814 Treaty of Ghent "marking a century of perfect understanding between England and America". Since other plans to commemorate the Exposition were under way, the second theme choice was adopted as the justification for a second Taft commission from the Ferguson Fund. Contemporary newspaper accounts anticipated that Taft's entire Midway beautification plan would be approved easily.

1907年,塔夫特(Taft)已经从弗格森基金赢得第一笔酬金,来创作芝加哥艺术学院中的五大湖喷泉。紧接着,受到丹尼尔•伯纳姆(Daniel Burnham)“立志当高远”名言的启发[13],他开始为盛大宏伟的大道乐园美化计划进行游说。1912年,艺术学院的受托人弗兰克•G•罗根(Frank G. Logan)正式向芝加哥艺术学院的基金管理者们呈现塔夫特的计划。塔夫特提出的大道乐园乐园美化计划包括两个可行性的纪念主题。他的第一选择是为了纪念杰克逊公园在1893年举办的世界哥伦比亚博览会。另一套方案是为了纪念1814年“标志着英美两国之间达成完美世纪默契”的根特条约签订一百周年。因为纪念博览会的其他计划正在进行,他的第二个主题被采纳,塔夫特因此从弗格森基金获得第二笔酬金。同时代的报纸报道预计塔夫特的整个大道乐园美化计划将很容易获得批准。

Taft's initial commission from the trust was limited to the creation of a full-sized plaster model of Fountain of Time, under a five-year $10,000 ($238,620) annual installment contract signed on February 6, 1913. This would enable the model to be evaluated in 1918. Taft first created a 20-foot (6.1 m) quarter-scale model which received the Trustees' approval in May 1915. He eventually produced his full-scale plaster model, 100 feet (30.5 m) in width peaking in the center, with an equestrian warrior and a robed model of Father Time with a height of 20 feet (6.1 m). The installation of this model near its intended location was delayed by Taft's World War I service with the Y.M.C.A. in France as part of a corps of entertainers and lecturers, but was completed in 1920. However, Taft's wider vision of a Chicago school of sculpture, analogous to other philosophical Chicago schools such as the contemporaneous Chicago school of architecture style, had lost momentum after the 1913 dedication of his Fountain of the Great Lakes. The Beaux Arts style had become dated;[24][25] instead of funding Taft's large-scale Midway Plaisance beautification plan, and providing the originally planned granite, bronze or Georgia marble materials, the trust only allocated sufficient funds and support for a concrete sculpture.[19]


Location and installation 位置和安装

Time is in the Chicago Park District, in the Washington Park community area on Chicago's South Side, near the Midway Plaisance. This location, adjoining the University of Chicago campus directly to the East, makes the sculpture a contributing structure to the Washington Park federalRegistered Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Time is considered to be the most important piece of monumental art in the Park District, which hosts over 100 art works. Its importance stems from its sculptor, its message, the era in which it was created, and the design of its reflecting pool by Howard Van Doren Shaw. Robert Jones, director of design and construction for the Art Institute of Chicago at the time, stated in 1999 that Time was the first finished art piece to be made of any type of concrete.


The sculpture is located a few blocks from Taft's studio, the Lorado Taft Midway Studios, now a Chicago Landmark and National Historic Landmark, located at 60th Street and Ingleside Avenue. Other notable sculptures nearby include Henry Moore's National Historic LandmarkNuclear Energy, which is on the site of the first self-sustaining nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago. Jackson Park, connected to Washington Park and Time by the Midway Plaisance, hosts the Chicago Landmark Statue of the Republic; at one time the Midway Plaisance, Jackson Park and Washington Park were jointly known as "South Park".


There is little agreement on the dimensions of Time, with various sources describing it as between 102 to 127 feet (31.1 to 38.7 m) long. One of the few precise estimates describes it as 126 feet 10 inches (38.7 m) long, 23 feet 6 inches (7.2 m) wide and 24 feet (7.3 m) tall. The sources are often unclear about whether they are describing the width of the reflecting pool from exterior wall to exterior wall, the width of the water within the reflecting pool's interior walls, the width of the base of the sculpted mass of humanity, the width of the sculpted masses themselves, or the width of the parcel of land upon which Time is built.


Water began running in the completed sculpture on September 1, 1920, although it was not dedicated to the city until November 15, 1922. University of Chicago President Harry Pratt Judson delivered an address at the dedication ceremony at the Midway Plaisance, before contributions from Taft. President of the B.F. Ferguson Trust Charles Hutchinson, and John Barton Payne, President of the South Park Board.


Design and realization 设计和实现

The sculpture is made of a form of hollow-castconcrete, reinforced with steel. It was cast in a 4,500-piece mold, using 250 short tons (230 t) of a material described as "concrete-like", which incorporated pebbles from the Potomac River. This composite material was an innovation at the time. For years, John Joseph Earley of Washington, DC, had used materials that seemed durable in the face of elements such as the weather and urban soot and grime. He had determined that by adding crushed pebbles he could create a new concrete mixture more durable thanlimestone but cheaper than marble or bronze. The reflection from the silica of the crushed stones complemented the durability with artistic beauty; the same material was used at Chicago's Fine Arts Building.


The sculpture depicts a hooded Father Time carrying a scythe, and watching over a parade of 100 figures arranged in an ellipse, with an overall pyramidal geometry. The allegorical procession depicts the entire spectrum of humanity at various stages of life. The contemporary 1920s Chicago Daily Tribune described the figures as "heroic", and that choice of adjective has stayed with the piece. The figures are said to be passing in review as they rush through the stages of life, and include soldiers, frolicking children and kissing couples. Father Time is described in various newspaper articles as "huge", "weird", and "dominant". Other Tribune critics described Time as a "pet atrocity" of Taft in large part due to its ugliness. One critic described the white figures as reminiscent of false teeth smiling across the end of the Midway.


Time commemorates the first 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain after the Treaty of Ghent concluded the War of 1812 on December 24, 1814. The design was inspired by the poem "Paradox of Time" by Henry Austin Dobson: "Time goes, you say? Ah no, Alas, time stays, we go".Time's theme has been compared to Shakespeare's All the world's a stage monologue in As You Like It, which describes the seven ages of man: infant, schoolboy, lover, soldier, justice, old age, and dementia. Taft's figures represent birth, the struggle for existence, love, family life, religion, poetry, and war.


Although most of the figures are generic representations of human forms in various walks and stages of life, Taft included himself, with one of his assistants following him, along the west side of the sculpture. He is portrayed wearing a smock, with his head bowed and hands clasped behind his back. His daughters served as models for some of the figures.


Taft is now better remembered for his books, such as The History of American Sculpture (1903), regarded as the first comprehensive work on the subject. However, in his day he was well known for portraits and allegorical public sculpture, of which Fountain of Time is a prime example. It was produced in the period following his assignment to design sculptures for William Le Baron Jenney's 1893 Horticultural Building for theWorld's Columbian Exposition. During this period he designed several large-scale public works, including Fountain of the Great Lakes. Taft resided in Illinois for most of his life and worked in the Midway Studios starting in 1906.


Restoration 修复

Designed without expansion joints, Time is one of a small number of outdoor sculptures made of reinforced pebble/concrete aggregate, few of which have been created since the 1930s.[28] In 1936, Time's weather-related cracks were repaired; further work occurred in 1955. The sculpture's subsequent repairs were followed by a rededication celebration in 1966. Although the sculpture received regular maintenance, early repair crews often did more harm than good, by using techniques such as sandblasting and patching cracks with rigid materials.

“时间”的设计无伸缩接缝,是少量的室外雕塑作品之一,由聚集的钢筋卵石/混凝土构成,自20世纪30年代很少有人创作室外雕塑。 1936年,“时间”因天气造成的裂缝得以修复;1955年开展进一步的修复工作。几次后续的雕塑修复后,在1966年举行了重启庆典。虽然雕塑得到定期维护,但早期的维修人员所使用的技术,如喷砂和带有刚性材料的裂缝修补往往弊大于利。

By the 1980s the sculpture was crumbling; cracks had developed, details of the figures had worn away, and moisture had eroded the internal structure. In wintertime the
fountain had to be protected by a tarp. Weather, air pollution, and vandalism meant that hundreds of thousands of dollars were now needed for restoration. The Chicago Park District, University of Chicago, and Art Institute of Chicago conservators all sponsored restoration work, including drying out the cavity of the hollow sculpture, removal of the deteriorated substructure, a newly designed ventilation system within the piece, a protective exterior coating, and repairs to the reflecting pool. In 1989 Chicago Park District allocated $150,000 to the repair project, which amount was matched by the Ferguson fund. By the end of 1991, the Park District had collected $320,000 of the $520,000 estimated repair costs from public and private funds, although in 1994 the sculpture still awaited repair.


Father Time 时间老人

By early 1997, after almost two decades of activity, the only repairs completed were phase one of the air ventilation system to dehumidify the hollow base, the drainage pipes and a new inner roof. Plans now included the erection of a temporary two-story metal building to protect all but the giant Father Time from the harsh winters and to facilitate year-round repair; the reinforcement of corroded steel interior portions; the replacement of inconsistent patches; the substitution of engineered spacing for natural cracks, and finally, hand-brushed concrete recoating. The temporary building was budgeted at $270,000; the city spent a total of $450,000 on repairs approved by the Park District that year.


On April 19, 1999, the $1.6 million, two-year phase two restoration began, scheduled for completion by May 2001. Five workers began repairing the cracks, killing biological growth, removing calcium deposits and pollution-blackened gypsum, and coating the 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) surface with a combination of lime putty, adobe cement and sand. The inoperable reflecting pool was not repaired in this phase. Although this phase was completed in 2001, its effects were not visible until the following year, when the temporary protective structure was unveiled. The repairs were expected to sustain the sculpture for about 30–50 years before any further repairs would be necessary.


In 2003, the National Endowment for the Arts committed $250,000 to the Park District for the conservation and restoration of the reflecting pool. In 2004, the University of Chicago contributed $100,000 and the Park District Board $845,000 to repair the pool and its water circulation system. This work was carried out in the summer of 2005 at a slightly reduced budget, and the fountain was filled with water for the first time in over fifty years. In 2007, efforts began to add lighting. That same year the sculpture was nominated by Partners in Preservation, a fund for the preservation of historic sites, backed by the National Trust for Historic Preservation and American Express. In a widely publicized contest that included open house events where the public could tour and learn about the competing historic sites, $1 million was available for preservation efforts in the Chicago metropolitan area, but the fountain was not one of the 15 winning candidates.


Fountain of Creation “创作喷泉”

Time was intended to be matched by a sister fountain, Fountain of Creation, on the opposite end of the Midway. Work was begun but was never completed. The finished portions of Fountain of Creation, depicting figures from the Greek legend of the repopulation of earth after the great flood, are considered Taft's final work, and were given to University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, his alma mater. The four surviving elements are figures ranging in height from 5 to 7 feet (1.5 to 2.1 m), and are collectively named Sons and Daughters of Ducalionand Pyrrha. Two of these elements stand outside the entrance to the university's Main Library, and two others are located at the south side of Foellinger Auditorium.




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