Literary realism 现实主义文学

翻译| 张敏 审校| 高淑媛

Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature(Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century. Literary realism, in contrast to idealism, attempts to represent familiar things as they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. Literary critic Ian Watt, however, dates the origins of realism in United Kingdom to the early 18th-century novel. Subsequent related developments in the arts are naturalism, social realism, and in the 1930s, socialist realism.

现实主义文学是现实主义文艺运动的一部分,起源于19世纪中期的法国文学(司汤达)和俄罗斯文学(亚历山大•普希金),并一直延续到19世纪晚期和20世纪早期。与理想主义相反,现实主义文学试图按照事物原有的样子再现人们所熟知事物。现实主义作家们客观地描写日常生活中平凡普通的活动和经历,反对使用浪漫主义及其它各种与之风格相似的表现手法。但文学批评家伊恩•怀特则认为现实主义文学起源于18世纪初期的英国小说。其后艺术领域的相关发展有自然主义、社会现实主义以及20世纪30年代的社会主义现实主义文学。

Contents/内容
• 1 Background/背景
o 1.1 Social realism/社会现实主义
o 1.2 Socialist realism/社会主义现实主义
o 1.3 Naturalism/自然主义
• 2 The novel/小说
o 2.1 United Kingdom/英国
o 2.2 American realism/美国现实主义
o 2.3 Europe/欧洲
• 3 The theatre/剧院

Background 背景

Broadly defined as "the faithful representation of reality", realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.
Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism, regionalism, or Kitchen sink realism.

从广义上来说,现实主义文学就是“真实地表现客观事实”。在艺术领域,现实主义力求真实地表现客观存在,不要人工雕琢,避免艺术改造,反对加入各种虚构的、奇异的、超自然的因素。
现实主义曾在不同时期多次盛行于艺术领域,在很大程度上,它是一种技巧,一种训练方式,并反对程式化。在视觉艺术上,幻觉现实主义力求真实准确的描摹出各种生命形态、事物的全景并关注到光线与色彩的各种细节。社会现实主义、地域主义或是英国的厨槽现实主义等现实主义作品可能会侧重描写事物丑陋与卑鄙肮脏的一面。

There have been various realism movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism and Italian neorealist cinema. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution. The realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century.

在艺术领域出现过各种各样的现实主义运动,如(19世纪意大利)写实主义歌剧、现实主义文学、现实主义戏剧以及意大利电影的新现实主义运动。1848年法国大革命爆发后,也就是在19世纪50年代,法国绘画界也兴起了现实主义运动。现实主义画家们摈弃了从18世纪晚期一直主导法国文学和绘画界的浪漫主义。

Realism as a movement in literature was based on "objective reality", and focused on showing everyday, quotidian activities and life, primarily among the middle or lower class society, without romantic idealization or dramatization. It may be regarded as the general attempt to depict subjects as they are considered to exist in third person objective reality, without embellishment or interpretation and "in accordance with secular, empirical rules." As such, the approach inherently implies a belief that such reality is ontologically independent of man's conceptual schemes, linguistic practices and beliefs, and thus can be known (or knowable) to the artist, who can in turn represent this 'reality' faithfully. As literary critic Ian Watt states inThe Rise of the Novel, modern realism "begins from the position that truth can be discovered by the individual through the senses" and as such "it has its origins in Descartes and Locke, and received its first full formulation by Thomas Reid in the middle of the eighteenth century."

文学领域的现实主义运动 基于“客观事实”,摈弃将现实浪漫化、理想化或戏剧化,主要关注社会中下层阶级的生活,集中展现平凡的日常生活和活动。总体上来说,现实主义文学试图以第三人称描述为人所知的客观存在的事物。这种描述是客观的不带任何修饰或主观解释成分,并“遵循现世的经验法则”。如此一来,这种方法本质上就暗含着这样一种观点:从本体论的角度来看,事实不依赖于人类的概念构架、语言实践和信念,因此,艺术家们能够感知现实并将这种“现实”真实客观地表现出来。就像文学批评家伊恩•瓦特在《小说的兴起》中陈述的那样,当代现实主义“一开始就认为个体可以通过各种感官发现事实”,因此“它根源于迪卡尔和洛克,并在18世纪中期由托马斯•里德首次完整地阐释出来。”

In the late 18th-century Romanticism was a revolt against the aristocratic social and political norms of the previous Age of Reason and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature found in the dominant philosophy of the 18th-century, as well as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and thenatural sciences.

十八世纪晚期,浪漫主义反对先前理性时代贵族社会所倡导的社会体制及其政治体制。反对18世纪一直盛行的理念将自然科学理性化,反对工业革命。浪漫主义在视觉艺术、音乐和文学领域表现最为突出,但是其最主要的影响则集中在历史学、教育和自然科学领域。

19th-century realism was in its turn a reaction to Romanticism, and for this reason it is also commonly derogatorily referred as traditional or "bourgeois realism". However, not all writers of Victorian literature produced works of realism. The rigidities, conventions, and other limitations of Victorian realism, prompted in their turn the revolt of modernism. Starting around 1900, the driving motive of modernist literature was the criticism of the 19th-century bourgeois social order and world view, which was countered with an antirationalist, antirealist and antibourgeois program.

而19世纪的现实主义则将矛头直指浪漫主义,因而,现实主义通常被视为传统的或“资产阶级现实主义”,这难免有贬低之意。然而,并非所有的维多利亚时期的作家们都致力于现实主义文学创作。维多利亚时期的现实主义文学形式死板僵硬、恪守传统教条,在加上其他的局限性成为现代主义掀起反抗浪潮的导火索。现代主义大约兴起于1900年,它的形成动因是批判19世纪资本主义社会制度及其世界观,因为它们与反理性主义、反现实主义以及反资本主义运动背道而驰。

Social realism/社会现实主义

Social Realism is an international art movement that includes the work of painters, printmakers, photographers and filmmakers who draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working classes and the poor, and who are critical of the social structures that maintain these conditions. While the movement's artistic styles vary from nation to nation, it almost always uses a form of descriptive or critical realism.

社会现实主义是一场国际文艺运动,参与者包括画家、印刷匠、摄影艺术者和电影制片人等,他们关注劳动阶级和穷苦大众的生活状况,批判导致其悲惨遭遇的社会结构。尽管社会现实主义运动期间的艺术表现风格在不同的国家有不同的形式,但是几乎都采用了描述或批判现实主义的表现手法。

Kitchen sink realism (or kitchen sink drama) is a term coined to describe a British cultural movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s intheatre, art, novels, film and television plays, which used a style of social realism. Its protagonists usually could be described as angry young men. and it often depicted the domestic situations of working-class Britons living in cramped rented accommodation and spending their off-hours drinking in grimy pubs, to explore social issues and political controversies.

厨槽现实主义(又名厨槽戏剧)这一术语描述的是20世纪50年代晚期到60年代早期发生在英国的一场文化运动。这场社会现实主义运动涵盖戏剧、艺术作品、小说、电影以及电视剧等诸多领域。在这类作品中,主人公通常被称为愤青,经常描述的场景就是英国工人阶级的家庭生活:一家人挤在一间狭小的租来的房子里,闲暇的时候,就泡在肮脏的酒馆里,一边喝酒,一边探讨着当前的社会问题和政治纷争。

The films, plays and novels employing this style are set frequently in poorer industrial areas in the North of England, and use the rough-hewn speaking accents and slang heard in those regions. The film It Always Rains on Sunday (1947) is a precursor of the genre, and the John Osborne play Look Back in Anger (1956) is thought of as the first of the genre. The gritty love-triangle of Look Back in Anger, for example, takes place in a cramped, one-room flat in the English Midlands. The conventions of the genre have continued into the 2000s, finding expression in such television shows as Coronation Street and EastEnders.

采用这种表现风格的电影、戏剧和小说经常以较为贫穷的北英格兰工业区为背景,使用带有浓重口音的当地方言和俚语。电影《周日总下雨》就是厨槽现实主义这一题材的先驱之作,约翰•奥斯本的戏剧《愤怒地回顾》则被认为是此类文学的第一部著作。这部作品中的爱情三角恋就发生在英格兰中部的一座单间狭小公寓中。厨槽主义的传统表现手法一直延续到21世纪,在英剧《加冕街》和《伦敦东区》中仍可以找到这种表现手法。

In art, "Kitchen Sink School" was a term used by critic David Sylvester to describe painters who depicted social realist–type scenes of domestic life.

在绘画领域,批评家大卫•西尔维斯特把那些描绘社会现实,尤其是家庭生活场景的画家们归为“厨槽学派”。

Socialist realism/社会主义现实主义

Socialist realism is the official Soviet art form that was institutionalized by Joseph Stalin in 1934 and was later adopted by allied Communist parties worldwide. This form of realism held that successful art depicts and glorifies the proletariat's struggle toward socialist progress. The Statute of the Union of Soviet Writers in 1934 stated that socialist realism is the basic method of Soviet literature and literary criticism. It demands of the artist the truthful, historically concrete representation of reality in its revolutionary development. Moreover, the truthfulness and historical concreteness of the artistic representation of reality must be linked with the task of ideological transformation and education of workers in the spirit of socialism.

社会主义现实主义是前苏联的官方艺术形式,1934年经约瑟夫•斯大林官方认定将这种形式制度化,之后得到全世界共产党联盟的广泛采用。作为现实主义的一种,社会主义现实主义认为那些描述和赞扬无产阶级为实现共生产主义社会所作出斗争才是成功的艺术。1934年苏联作家协会章程表述到:社会主义现实主义,是苏联文学和文学批评的基本方法,要求艺术家从现实的革命发展中,真实地、历史具体地去描写现实。同时,艺术描写的真实性和历史具体性必须按照社会主义思想精神要求与思想改造和教育劳动人民的任务结合起来。

Naturalism/自然主义

Naturalism was a literary movement or tendency from the 1880s to 1930s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character. It was a mainly unorganized literary movement that sought to depict believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic or even supernatural treatment.
Naturalism was an outgrowth of literary realism, a prominent literary movement in mid-19th-century France and elsewhere. Naturalistic writers were influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Whereas realism seeks only to describe subjects as they really are, naturalism also attempts to determine "scientifically" the underlying forces (e.g., the environment or heredity) influencing the actions of its subjects. Naturalistic works often include supposed sordid subject matter, for example, Émile Zola's frank treatment of sexuality, as well as a pervasive pessimism. Naturalistic works tend to focus on the darker aspects of life, including poverty, racism, violence, prejudice, disease, corruption, prostitution, and filth. As a result, naturalistic writers were frequently criticized for focusing too much on human vice and misery.

自然主义是一种文学运动或文学思潮,流行于19世纪80年代到20世纪30年代之间。自然主义通对现实的详细描写向人们揭示:人的性格无不受到社会现实、遗传和环境的共同影响。自然主义是一种无组织的文学运动,力求客观地描写日常生活、做到真实可信,反对浪漫主义和超现实主义等文学流派,因为这些流派的作品所描述的对象常被加入象征意义、高度理想化,甚至是大量运用超自然的表现手法。
自然主义对现实主义文学进行了发展,19世纪中期在法国和其它一些地方发展成就显著。自然主义作家深受查尔斯•达尔文进化论的影响。现实主义只是描述事物原有的样子,但是自然主义则力图确定影响事物行为的“科学”动因(例如环境和遗传)。自然主义作品经常会囊括所谓的肮脏的主题,例如埃米尔•左拉对性直截了当的描写。在自然主义作品中广泛存在着悲观主义色彩,它们倾向于关注包括贫穷、种族主义、偏见、疾病、腐败、性交易和猥亵等在内的生活阴暗面。因此,自然主义作家经常遭到批评,因为他们太过于关注人类的恶习和苦难。

The novel/小说

United Kingdom/英国

Ian Watt in The Rise of the Novel (1957) saw the novel as originating in the early 18th-century and he argued that the novel's 'novelty' was its 'formal realism': the idea 'that the novel is a full and authentic report of human experience'. His examples are novelists Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson andHenry Fielding. Watt argued that the novel's concern with realistically described relations between ordinary individuals, ran parallel to the more general development of philosophical realism, middle-class economic individualism and Puritan individualism. He also claims that the form addressed the interests and capacities of the new middle-class reading public and the new book trade evolving in response to them. As tradesmen themselves, Defoe and Richardson had only to 'consult their own standards' to know that their work would appeal to a large audience.

伊恩•瓦特在《小说的兴起》(1957)中认为小说发源于18世纪早期,小说的“新奇性”就在于其“形式写实主义”的特性,即:小说是对人类经验全面而又真实的描述,小说家丹尼尔•笛福、塞缪尔•理查德森和亨利•菲尔丁就是很好的例证。瓦特相信小说关注对普通个体之间的关系进行逼真描述的同时,也进一步关注了哲学实在主义,经济个体主义、清教个体主义的总体发展。瓦特还宣称小说这种形式符合和适应新兴中产阶级公众阅读的兴趣和能力,因而为了满足其需求,图书销售业不得不发展革新。而作为商人,笛福和理查德森只能以自己的标准来衡量要创作出什么样的作品才能吸引大量的读者。

Later in the 19th-century George Eliot's(1819 – 1880) Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life (1871-2), described by novelists Martin Amis and Julian Barnes as the greatest novel in the English language, is a work of realism. Through the voices and opinions of different characters the reader become aware of important issues of the day, including the Reform Bill, of 1832, the beginnings of the railways, and the state of contemporary medical science. Middlemarch also shows the deeply reactionary mindset within a settled community facing the prospect of what to many is unwelcome social, political and technological change.

19世纪晚期,小说家马丁•艾米斯和朱利安•巴恩斯把乔治•艾略特(1819-1880)的小说《米德尔•马契:当地生活研究》(1871-2)看作是最伟大的英语小说、一部现实主义巨作。通过小说中众多角色发出的声音及他们传达的意见,让读者了解到当时的一些重要事件,如1832年改革法案、铁路时代的开端以及当代医疗科学的发展状况。米德尔马契也描述了在一个安定的社区内,面对即将到来的社会政治技术变革,大多数人对此感到不满,动乱潜藏在人们心中。

While George Gissing (1857-1903), author of New Grub Street (1891), amongst many other works, has traditionally been viewed as a naturalist, mainly influenced by Émile Zola, Jacob Korg has suggested that George Eliot was a greater influence.

乔治•吉辛(1857-1903),《新寒士街》的作者,一生还创作了许多其它的作品,一直被视为自然主义者。虽然主要受到埃米尔•左拉的影响,但是Jacob Korg 则认为乔治•艾略特对其影响更大。

Other novelists, such as Arnold Bennett(1867-1931) and Anglo-Irishman George Moore (1852-1933) consciously imitated the French realists. Bennett's most famous works are the Clayhanger trilogy (1910–18) and The Old Wives' Tale (1908). These books draw on his experience of life in the Staffordshire Potteries, an industrial area encompassing the six towns that now make up Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire, England. George Moore, whose most famous work is Esther Waters (1894), was also influenced by the naturalism of Zola.

其它诸如阿诺德•本捏特(1867-1931)、安格鲁-爱尔兰人乔治•摩尔(1852-1933)等小说家则在有意识地模仿法国现实主义作家。本涅特最著名的几部作品有《克莱亨厄》三部曲(1910-18)和《老妇谭》(1908)。在这些书中他描画了自己在Staffordshire Potteries的生活经历。Staffordshire Potteries 是一个包含六个镇的工业区,现在,这六个镇构成了英格兰斯坦福德郡的特伦河畔的斯托克市。乔治•摩尔也深受左拉自然主义思想的影响,Esther Waters (1894)是其最为著名的作品。

American realism/美国现实主义

William Dean Howells (1837 – 1920) was the first American author to bring a realist aesthetic to the literature of the United States. His stories Boston upper crust life set in the 1850s are highly regarded among scholars of American fiction. His most popular novel, The Rise of Silas Lapham
(1885), depicts a man who, ironically, falls from materialistic fortune by his own mistakes. Other early American realists include Samuel Clemens(1835–1910), better known by his pen name of Mark Twain, author of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), Stephen Crane (1871–1900), and Horatio Alger, Jr.(1832–1899).

威廉•迪恩•豪威尔斯是美国第一位将现实主义美学带入文学领域的作家。 他对19世纪50年代波士顿上流社会生活的描写受到美国小说界学者们的高度赞扬。豪威尔斯最著名的小说《塞拉斯•拉帕姆的发迹》(1885)颇具讽刺意味地刻画了一个自食恶果从家财万贯败落到一贫如洗的人物形象。其他一些早期的美国现实主义作家还有塞缪尔•克莱门斯(1835-1910),人们对他的笔名马克•吐温更加熟悉一些,他就是《哈克贝利费恩历险记》的作者,另外还有斯蒂芬•克莱恩(1871-1900)和小霍雷肖•阿尔杰(1832-1899)。

Twain's style, based on vigorous, realistic, colloquial American speech, gave American writers a new appreciation of their national voice. Twain was the first major author to come from the interior of the country, and he captured its distinctive, humorous slang and iconoclasm. For Twain and other American writers of the late 19th century, realism was not merely a literary technique: It was a way of speaking truth and exploding worn-out conventions. Crane was primarily a journalist who also wrote fiction, essays, poetry, and plays, Crane saw life at its rawest, in slums and on battlefields. His haunting Civil War novel, The Red Badge of Courage, was published to great acclaim in 1895, but he barely had time to bask in the attention before he died, at 28, having neglected his health. He has enjoyed continued success ever since—as a champion of the common man, a realist, and a symbolist. Crane's Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893), is one of the best, if not the earliest, naturalistic American novel. It is the harrowing story of a poor, sensitive young girl whose uneducated, alcoholic parents utterly fail her. In love, and eager to escape her violent home life, she allows herself to be seduced into living with a young man, who soon deserts her. When her self-righteous mother rejects her, Maggie becomes a prostitute to survive, but soon commits suicide out of despair. Crane's earthy subject matter and his objective, scientific style, devoid of moralizing, earmark Maggie as a naturalist work. Horatio Alger, jr.(1832–1899) was a prolific 19th-century American author whose principal output was formulaic rags-to-riches juvenile novels that followed the adventures of bootblacks, newsboys, peddlers, buskers, and other impoverished children in their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of respectable middle-class security and comfort. His novels, of which Ragged Dick is a typical example, were hugely popular in their day.
Other later American realists are: John Steinbeck, Frank Norris, Theodore Dreiser, Upton Sinclair, Jack London, Edith Wharton and Henry James.

马克•吐温的创作风格以活波、现实和白话体的美国口语为基调是美国作家开始重新欣赏自己民族的语言。吐温是第一个来自美国内地的重要作家,他抓住了本家独特、幽默的俚语和反对旧习的特性。对于马克•吐温和19世纪晚期其他的美国作家来说,现实主义不只是一种文学写作技巧,它更是一种讲述真理、打破陈腐旧俗的创作方法。克莱恩本来是个记者,既写小说、散文诗歌也进行戏剧创作,他描述的是生活最原始的样子,包括在贫民窟里和战场上的真实场景。他的那部震撼人心的内战小说《红色英勇勋章》发表于1895年,在当时引起很大的社会反响。然而由于长期忽视身体健康状况,克莱恩 并没有享受多长时间成名的喜悦,年仅28岁就离开了人世。但是,肉体虽死精神犹存,无论是作为普通人还是现实主义者、象征主义者,他都是当之无愧的王者。克莱恩的另一部小说《麦琪:一个街头女的故事》(1983)即使不是最早,也是最为成功的美国自然主义小说之一。这部小说讲述了一个贫穷、敏感的年轻女孩儿的故事,女孩的父母没有受过教育、酗酒严重,完全无视女儿。沉浸爱河并急于逃脱家庭暴力的她,对外界引诱毫无抵抗之力,但很快却又遭到了与其同居的年轻人的遗弃。在被自以为是的妈妈抛弃后,麦琪为了生存沦落为妓女,但是很快就在绝望中自杀。克莱恩所选的题材朴实无华,写作风格科学客观,毫无说教意味,所有这些都为《麦琪》印上了自然主义的印记。小霍雷肖•阿尔杰(1832-1899)是19世纪美国的一位多产作家,其主要作品讲的都是乞丐变富翁的故事,这些青少年读物中随处都是擦鞋童、报童、小商贩、街头艺人以及其他一些贫穷的孩子如何从柴门子弟成长为令人尊敬、享受安全舒适生活的中产阶级的冒险故事。在他的这些作品中,曾广受欢迎的《衣衫褴褛的迪克》就是一个典型。
其后出现的美国现实主义作家有:约翰•斯坦贝克、弗兰克•诺里斯、西奥多•德莱赛、厄普顿•辛克莱、伊迪斯•华顿和亨利•詹姆斯。

Europe/欧洲

Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850) is the most prominent representative of 19th century realism in fiction through the inclusion of specific detail and recurring characters. His La Comédie humaine, a vast collection of nearly 100 novels, was the most ambitious scheme ever devised by a writer of fiction—nothing less than a complete contemporary history of his countrymen. Realism is also an important aspect of the works of Alexandre Dumas, fils(1824 – 1895).

奥诺雷•德•巴尔扎克是19世纪现实主义文学最杰出的代表,他的小说特点是细节描写具体,相同的人物在不同的作品中反复出现。巴尔扎克的著作《人间喜剧》收集了近百部小说,是小说界史无前例的鸿篇巨制,完整地讲述了其法国同胞的当代历史。在亚历山大小仲马(1824-1895)作品中现实主义也占据重要一环。

Many of the novels in this period, including Balzac's, were published in newspapers in serial form, and the immensely popular realist "roman feuilleton" tended to specialize in portraying the hidden side of urban life (crime, police spies, criminal slang), as in the novels of Eugène Sue. Similar tendencies appeared in the theatrical melodramas of the period and, in an even more lurid and gruesome light, in the Grand Guignol at the end of the century.

这一时期,包括巴尔扎克作品在内的许多小说都是以连载形式刊登在报纸上,最受欢迎的现实主义“连载小说”都是那些描述城市生活不为人知的一面(犯罪、警察间谍、犯罪帮派)的小说,Eugene Sue 就是这类小说中的典型。到了世纪末,在剧院上演的讲述当代生活的情节剧,及灯光更为恐怖阴暗的大木偶剧场中也出现了类似的趋势。

Gustave Flaubert's (1821–1880) acclaimed novels Madame Bovary (1857), which reveals the tragic consequences of romanticism on the wife of a provincial doctor, and Sentimental Education (1869) represent perhaps the highest stages in the development of French realism. Flaubert also wrote other works in an entirely different style and his romanticism is apparent in the fantastic The Temptation of Saint Anthony (final version published 1874) and the baroque and exotic scenes of ancient Carthage迦 in Salammbô (1862).

古斯塔夫•福楼拜的成名作《包法利夫人》(1857)和《情感教育》(1869),其中前者揭示乡村医生之妻追求浪漫招致悲剧的小说,可能代表了法国现实主义文学发展的最高成就。福楼拜也会以完全不同的风格进行创作,如奇异的《圣安东尼的诱惑》(最终版本在1874年出版)中的浪漫主义色彩,《萨朗波》(1862)中的巴洛克风格和古迦太基城的异国风情。

In German literature, 19th-century realism developed under the name of "Poetic Realism" or "Bourgeois Realism," and major figures include Theodor Fontane, Gustav Freytag, Gottfried Keller, Wilhelm Raabe, Adalbert Stifter, and Theodor Storm.
Later realist writers included Benito Pérez Galdós, Guy de Maupassant, Anton Chekhov, José Maria de Eça de Queiroz, Machado de Assis, Bolesław Prus and, in a sense, Émile Zola, whose naturalism is often regarded as an offshoot of realism.

在德国文学中,将19世纪的现实主义文学称之为“诗意现实主义”或“资产阶级现实主义”,主要人物有台奥多尔•冯塔纳,弗赖塔格, 高特费里特•凯勒, 维廉•拉贝, 施蒂弗特 和 狄奥多•施笃姆。晚期的德国现实主义作家有 贝尼托•佩雷斯•加尔多斯, 居伊•德•莫泊桑, 安东•契诃夫, José Maria de Eça de Queiroz, Machado de Assis, Bolesław Prus。从某种意义上来说埃米尔•左拉也应包括在内,因为他的自然主义经常被看做是现实主义的分支。

The theatre/剧院

Theatrical realism was a general movement in 19th-century theatre from the time period of 1870-1960 that developed a set of dramatic and theatricalconventions with the aim of bringing a greater fidelity of real life to texts and performances. Part of a broader artistic movement, it shared many stylistic choices with naturalism, including a focus on everyday (middle-class) drama, ordinary speech, and dull settings. Realism and naturalism diverge chiefly on the degree of choice that characters have: while naturalism believes in the overall strength of external forces over internal decisions, realism asserts the power of the individual to choose (see A Doll's House).

现实主义戏剧是在19世纪剧院掀起的一场•大众运动,从1870年持续到1960年,其目的是为了确保剧本和舞台上的表演能够更加真实地反映现实生活,这场运动制定了一整套戏剧和剧院规则。广义上可以作为艺术运动的一部分,体裁上,现实主义戏剧运动和自然主义拥有许多相通的地方,都关注(中产阶级的)日常生活戏剧,使用日常用语,剧情枯燥沉闷。现实主义和自然主义主要的不同点在于人物所拥有的选择权不同,自然主义认为内心的选择会屈服于外部力量,现实主义则强调个人选择的力量。(参见《玩偶之家》)

Russia's first professional playwright, Aleksey Pisemsky, and Leo Tolstoy (The Power of Darkness (1886)), began a tradition of psychological realism in Russia which culminated with the establishment of the Moscow Art Theatre by Constantin Stanislavski and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. Their ground-breaking productions of the plays of Anton Chekhov in turn influenced Maxim Gorky and Mikhail Bulgakov. Stanislavski went on to develop his 'system', a form of actor training that is particularly suited to psychological realism.

Alwksey Pisemsky 是俄罗斯第一位专职剧作家,他和列夫•托尔斯泰(《黑暗的力量》(1886))一起掀起了俄罗斯心理现实主义的传统,随着康斯坦丁•斯坦尼夫拉夫斯基和弗拉基米尔•聂米罗维奇-丹钦科建立莫斯科艺术剧院,心理现实主义发展达到了顶峰。安东•契科夫独具开创性的戏剧作品反过来也影响了马克西姆•高尔基和米哈伊尔•布尔加科夫。斯坦尼夫拉夫斯基继续发展他的“体系”——一种尤其适合心理现实主义训练演员的形式。

19th-century realism is closely connected to the development of modern drama, which, as Martin Harrison explains, "is usually said to have begun in the early 1870s" with the "middle-period" work of the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen. Ibsen's realistic drama in prose has been "enormously influential."

19世纪现实主义与当代戏剧的发展关系紧密,就像马丁•哈里森解释的那样,“人们认为当代戏剧开始于19世纪70年代早期”,伴随挪威戏剧家亨里克•易卜生的“中期作品”产生。易卜生现实主义戏剧的散文版也产生了“巨大的影响”。

In opera, verismo refers to a post-Romantic Italian tradition that sought to incorporate the naturalism of Émile Zola and Henrik Ibsen. It included realistic – sometimes sordid or violent – depictions of contemporary everyday life, especially the life of the lower classes.

In France in addition to melodramas, popular and bourgeois theater in the mid-century turned to realism in the "well-made" bourgeois farces of Eugène Marin Labiche and the moral dramas of Émile Augier.

在歌剧中,写实主义指的是意大利后浪漫主义传统,写实主义寻求将埃米尔•左拉的自然主义和亨里克•易卜生合二为一。它包括对当代日常生活,特别是下层阶级的生活进行现实的描写,有时甚至带有肮脏、暴力的画面。

在法国,除了情节剧外,世纪中期广受欢迎的资产阶级剧院转而开始播放 现实主义作品如Eugène Marin Labiche“精心创作”的资产阶级闹剧和 埃米尔•奥日埃创作的道德剧。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

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