The Great Gatsby/了不起的盖茨比

翻译| Bree 审校| 许少欢 梁新珍

The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F. Scott Fitzgerald that follows a cast of characters living in the fictional town of West Egg on prosperous Long Island in the summer of 1922.

《了不起的盖茨比》是由美国作家弗朗西斯•斯科特•菲茨杰拉德于1925年创作的小说,书中讲述了1922年夏天居住在长岛西卵镇(虚构地点)的一组人物的故事。

The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession for the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan.

故事主要讲述了年轻神秘的大富豪盖茨比和他对前相识美丽少女黛西•布坎南不切实际地疯狂追求和痴迷。

Considered to be Fitzgerald's magnum opus, The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, idealism, resistance to change, social upheaval, and excess, creating a portrait of the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties that has been described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream.

《了不起的盖茨比》作为菲茨杰拉德的代表作,讲述了堕落,理想主义,抵制改变,社会动荡,和无节制的主题,描述了爵士时代或兴旺的20年代关于美国梦的警醒故事。

Fitzgerald—inspired by the parties he had attended while visiting Long Island's north shore—began planning the novel in 1923, desiring to produce, in his words, "something new—something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and intricately patterned."

菲茨杰拉德在参观长岛北岸时,受其所参加的舞会的启发,于1923年开始规划这部小说,用他的话说,就是期望创作出“新颖-不同凡响,美丽简单并且结构精细”的著作。

Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924.

小说进度缓慢,在1924年菲茨杰拉德移居到法国里维埃拉后才完成初稿。

His editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was too vague and convinced the author to revise over the next winter.

他的编辑,麦克斯韦帕金斯觉得故事内容不清晰,并说服作者在冬季进行修改。

Fitzgerald was ambivalent about the book's title, at various times wishing to re-title the novel Trimalchio in West Egg.

菲茨杰拉德对此书的题目有些不确定,多次想将标题改为“西卵的特里马尔乔”。

First published by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly; in its first year, the book sold only 20,000 copies.

此书于1925年首次由斯克里布纳之子公司出版,读者对《了不起的盖茨比》持不同看法,并且销量很差,第一年的销量仅为20000本。

Fitzgerald died in 1940, believing himself to be a failure and his work forgotten.

菲茨杰拉德于1940年去世,当时满怀叹息,认为自己是一个失败者,而且他的作品不久就会被世人所忘却。

However, the novel experienced a revival during World War II, and became a part of American high school curricula and numerous stage and film adaptations in the following decades.

然而,在二次世界大战期间,此书大受人们的喜爱,并在接下来的几十年成为美国中学教科书里的一部分,并被改编为很多舞台剧和电影作品。

Today, The Great Gatsby is widely considered to be a literary classic and a contender for the title "Great American Novel".

现今,《了不起的盖茨比》被认为是文化经典以及“伟大美国小说”的有力竞争者.

In 1998 the Modern Library editorial board voted it the 20th century's best American novel and second best English-language novel of the same time period.

1998年现代图书馆编辑委员会认为《了不起的盖茨比》是20世纪最好的美国小说,也是同时代排名第二的最好的英语小说。

Contents/目录

• 1 Historical context/历史背景

• 2 Plot summary/剧情简介

o 2.1 Major characters/主要人物

• 3 Writing and production/写作和作品

• 4 Cover art/封面设计

• 5 Title/标题

• 6 Themes/主题

• 7 Reception/招待会

• 8 Legacy and modern analysis/遗产和现代解析

• 9 Adaptations/改编

o 9.1 Ballet/芭蕾舞剧

o 9.2 Computer games/电脑游戏

o 9.3 Films/电影

o 9.4 Literature/文学

o 9.5 Opera/歌剧

o 9.6 Radio/无线广播

o 9.7 Theater/剧场

Historical context/历史背景

Set on the prosperous Long Island of 1922, The Great Gatsby provides a critical social history of America during the Roaring Twenties within its narrative.

《了不起的盖茨比》以1922年繁华的长岛为背景,批判了兴旺的20年代时期的美国社会。

That era, known for unprecedented economic prosperity, the evolution of jazz music, flapper culture, and bootlegging and other criminal activity, is plausibly depicted in Fitzgerald's novel.

那个时代的美国经济达到了前所未有的繁荣,菲茨杰拉德在小说中合理地描述了爵士乐, 轻佻文化的发展,非法酿酒以及其他犯罪活动。

Fitzgerald uses these societal developments of the 1920s to build Gatsby's stories from simple details like automobiles to broader themes like Fitzgerald's discreet allusions to the organized crime culture which was the source of Gatsby's fortune.

菲茨杰拉德利用20世纪20年代这些社会发展创作了盖茨比的故事情节,这些情节包括简单的细节描写(如对汽车的描写),到较广泛的主题(如对有组织的犯罪文化的谨慎映射),而这些犯罪文化正是盖茨比财富的源泉。

Fitzgerald educates his readers about the garish society of the Roaring Twenties by placing a timeless, relatable plotline within the historical context of the era.

菲茨杰拉德以爵士乐时代为历史背景,向读者讲述了一个相对独立于时间的、有可靠史料的浮华社会。

Fitzgerald's visits to Long Island's north shore and his experience attending parties at mansions inspired The Great Gatsby's setting.

菲茨杰拉德长岛北岸之旅以及他在豪宅晚会的经历启发了他对《了不起的盖茨比》的创作。

Today there are a number of theories as to which mansion was the inspiration for the book.

如今对于到底是哪栋豪宅激发了菲茨杰拉德创作本书的意图,有很多种推测。

One possibility is Land's End, a notable Gold Coast Mansion where Fitzgerald may have attended a party.

有人认为是兰兹角,即著名的黄金海岸豪宅,菲茨杰拉德可能在这里参加过晚会。

Many of the events in Fitzgerald's early life are reflected throughout The Great Gatsby.

菲茨杰拉德早年大部分的生活都在《了不起的盖茨比》里有所体现。

Fitzgerald was a young man from Minnesota, and like Nick, he was educated at an Ivy League school, Princeton (in Nick's case, Yale.)

就像尼克,菲茨杰拉德是一个来自明尼苏达州的年轻人,不过他毕业于普林斯顿大学常春藤联盟学院(而尼克毕业于耶鲁大学)。

Fitzgerald is also similar to Jay Gatsby, as he fell in love while stationed in the military and fell into a life of decadence trying to prove himself to the girl he loves.

菲茨杰拉德也类似于杰伊•盖茨比,他在军队驻守时坠入爱河,随后为了向所爱的女孩证明自己而陷入了堕落的生活之中。

Fitzgerald became a second lieutenant, and was stationed at Camp Sheridan, in Montgomery, Alabama.

菲茨杰拉德在阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利市雪瑞登营驻扎时,晋升成为了一名少尉。

There he met and fell in love with a wild seventeen-year-old beauty named Zelda Sayre.

在那里,他遇见并爱上了一个狂野的17岁美少女,她名叫泽尔达•塞尔。

Zelda finally agreed to marry him, but her preference for wealth, fun, and leisure led her to delay their wedding until he could prove a success.

泽尔达最终同意嫁给他,但她喜欢财富,玩乐,和休闲的本性不断使他们的婚礼推迟,直到菲茨杰拉德可以证明自己的成功。

Like Nick in The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald found this new lifestyle seductive and exciting, and, like Gatsby, he had always idolized the very rich.

菲茨杰拉德就像书中的尼克,发现新的生活方式很诱惑和令人兴奋,也像盖茨比,总是崇拜很有钱的人。

In many ways, The Great Gatsby represents Fitzgerald's attempt to confront his conflicting feelings about the Jazz Age.

《了不起的盖茨比》从很多方面都反映了菲茨杰拉德试图直面他对爵士时代矛盾的情怀。

Like Gatsby, Fitzgerald was driven by his love for a woman who symbolized everything he wanted, even as she led him toward everything he despised.

就像盖茨比,菲茨杰拉德所爱的女人象征了他想要的一切,受到这种感情的驱使,菲茨杰拉德陷入自己所鄙视的生活方式之中。

In her book Careless People: Murder, Mayhem and the Invention of 'The Great Gatsby' (2013), Sarah Churchwell speculates that parts of the ending of The Great Gatsby (1925) by F. Scott Fitzgerald were based on the Hall-Mills Case.

在莎拉•丘吉维尔的著作《粗心的人:谋杀、故意伤害罪和“了不起的盖茨比”的创作》(2013)中,作者推测弗朗西斯•斯科特•菲茨杰拉德的著作《了不起的盖茨比》(1925年)结尾部分灵感来自Hall-Mills的案例。

Based on her forensic search for clues, she asserts that the two victims in the Halls-Mills murder case inspired the characters who were murdered in The Great Gatsby.

基于她所得到的法医线索,她声称Halls-Mills谋杀案中的两名受害者启发菲茨杰拉德创造了《了不起的盖茨比》中遇害的角色。

Plot summary/情节概括

The main events of the novel take place in the summer of 1922.

小说主要情节发生在1922年那个夏季。

Nick Carraway, a Yale graduate and World War I veteran from the Midwest– who serves as the novel's narrator – takes a job in New York as a bond salesman.

尼克•卡罗威是耶鲁大学的毕业生,并且是来自美国中西部,参加过第一次世界大战的老兵——在小说中充当叙述人的角色,在纽约以销售债券为生。

He rents a small house on Long Island, in the (fictional) village of West Egg, next door to the lavish mansion of Jay Gatsby, a mysterious millionaire who holds extravagant parties but does not participate in them.

他在长岛西卵村(虚拟地点)租了座小房子,邻居是拥有奢华豪宅的神秘大富豪杰伊•盖茨比,盖茨比举办了很多奢侈的晚会,但却从不参与其中。

Nick drives around the bay to East Egg for dinner at the home of his cousin, Daisy Fay Buchanan, and her husband, Tom, a college acquaintance of Nick's.

尼克开车前往家住东卵的表妹黛西•布坎南家吃晚饭,黛西的丈夫是尼克的大学同学汤姆。

They introduce Nick to Jordan Baker, an attractive, cynical young golfer with whom Nick begins a romantic relationship.

夫妻二人将尼克介绍给乔丹•贝克,乔丹是一个有魅力并且愤世嫉俗的年轻高尔夫选手,之后二人开始恋爱。

She reveals to Nick that Tom has a mistress, Myrtle Wilson, who lives in the "valley of ashes": an industrial dumping ground between West Egg and New York City.

她向尼克透露,住在灰烬谷的莫提•威尔逊是汤姆的情人,灰烬谷是位于西卵和纽约市之间的一个工业垃圾堆积厂。

Not long after this revelation, Nick travels to New York City with Tom and Myrtle to an apartment they keep for their affair.

知道此事后不久,尼克,汤姆和莫提一同去了两人保持风流韵事的公寓。

At the apartment, a vulgar and bizarre party takes place. It ends with Tom breaking Myrtle's nose after she annoys him by saying Daisy's name several times.

在这个公寓中上演了一场粗俗放荡的狂欢会,由于莫提多次提及黛西的名字而惹恼了汤姆,汤姆最后打破莫提的鼻子。

The Plaza Hotel in the early 1920s

20世纪20年代早期的广场饭店

As the summer progresses, Nick eventually receives an invitation to one of Gatsby's parties.

随着夏天的到来,尼克最终收到参加盖茨比派对的邀请函。

Nick encounters Jordan Baker at the party, and they meet Gatsby himself, an aloof and surprisingly young man who recognizes Nick from their same division in the war.

在宴会上,尼克碰到了乔丹•贝克,他们也见到了盖茨比本人,盖茨比超然不俗,更出人意料的是他还是个年轻人,盖茨比认出了尼克,二人在战争中属于同一个师。

Through Jordan, Nick later learns that Gatsby knew Daisy from a romantic encounter in 1917 and is deeply in love with her.

尼克从乔丹那里得知,盖茨比在1917年曾与黛西浪漫邂逅,从此深深地爱上了她。

He spends many nights staring at the green light at the end of her dock, across the bay from his mansion, hoping to one day rekindle their lost romance.

盖茨比很多晚上都会站在豪宅凝望海湾对面那盏绿灯,希望有朝一日可以和黛西重温旧情。

Gatsby's extravagant lifestyle and wild parties are an attempt to impress Daisy in the hope that she will one day appear again at Gatsby's doorstep.

盖茨比极度奢侈的生活方式和狂欢派对都是为了可以打动黛西,希望有一天黛西可以前来参加盖茨比举办的派对。

Gatsby now wants Nick to arrange a reunion between himself and Daisy.

盖茨比希望尼克可以安排自己和黛西重聚。

Nick invites Daisy to have tea at his house, without telling her that Gatsby will also be there.

尼克邀请黛西前来喝茶,但是并没有告诉黛西盖茨比也在。

After an initially awkward reunion, Gatsby and Daisy reestablish their connection.

在首次尴尬的重逢之后,盖茨比和黛西重新确立了联系。

They begin an affair and, after a short time, Tom grows increasingly suspicious of his wife's relationship with Gatsby.

二人开始韵事后不久,他们的关系便引起了汤姆的怀疑。

At a luncheon at the Buchanans' house, Daisy speaks to Gatsby with such undisguised intimacy that Tom realizes she is in love with Gatsby.

在布坎南家举行的午宴上,黛西对盖茨比的讲话有着毫无掩饰的亲密感,随后汤姆意识到黛西和盖茨比二人的恋情。

Though Tom is himself involved in an extramarital affair, he is outraged by his wife's infidelity.

尽管汤姆本人有着婚外情,但是黛西的不忠却使他极为生气。

He forces the group to drive into New York City and confronts Gatsby in a suite at the Plaza Hotel, asserting that he and Daisy have a history that Gatsby could never understand.

汤姆迫使众人驱车前往纽约城,在广场饭店套房中与盖茨比当面对峙,并声称盖茨比永远不能理解他和黛西在一起的日子所代表的意义。

In addition to that, he announces to his wife that Gatsby is a criminal whose fortune comes from bootlegging alcohol and other illegal activities.

除此之外,汤姆还告诉黛西,盖茨比是一个罪犯,他的钱财来自非法制造私酒和其他非法活动。

Daisy realizes that her allegiance is to Tom, and Tom contemptuously sends her back to East Egg with Gatsby, attempting to prove that Gatsby cannot hurt him.

黛西意识到她更倾向于和汤姆在一起,汤姆让盖茨比和黛西二人一同返回东卵,以此蔑视盖茨比根本不是他的对手。

When Nick, Jordan, and Tom drive through the valley of ashes on their way home, they discover that Gatsby's car has struck and killed Tom's mistress, Myrtle.

而当尼克,乔丹和汤姆回家途经灰烬谷的时候,发现盖茨比的车撞死了汤姆的情人莫提。

Nick later learns from Gatsby that Daisy, not Gatsby himself, was driving the car at the time of the accident but Gatsby intends to take the blame anyway.

后来尼克从盖茨比那里得知是黛西而不是盖茨比撞死了莫提,而盖茨比一心要为黛西承担罪责。

Myrtle's husband, George, falsely concludes that the driver of the yellow car is the secret lover he recently began suspecting she has, and sets out on foot to locate its owner.

莫提的丈夫乔治错误地认为,驾车撞死她妻子的黄车车主就是他最近所怀疑的莫提的秘密情人,因此徒步出行一心要找到车的主人。

After finding out the yellow car is Gatsby's, he arrives at Gatsby's mansion where he fatally shoots both Gatsby and then himself.

当发现车主是盖茨比后,他前往盖茨比的豪宅将之杀死,然后自杀而亡。

Nick stages an unsettlingly small funeral for Gatsby, ends his relationship with Jordan, and moves back to the Midwest, disillusioned with the Eastern lifestyle.

尼克为盖茨比举办了一场小型的葬礼,结束了与乔丹的恋情,之后搬回了中西部,东部的生活方式也因此而破灭。

Major characters/主要人物

• Nick Carraway – a Yale graduate originating from the Midwest, a World War I veteran, and, at the start of the plot, a newly arrived resident of West Egg, who is aged 29 (later 30).

• 尼克.卡罗威-来自中西部的耶鲁大学毕业生,第一次世界大战老兵,在小说开始,刚刚入住西卵,当时29岁(小说后期30岁)。

• He also serves as the first-person narrator of the novel. He is Gatsby's next-door neighbor and a bond salesman.

• 尼克在小说中充当第一叙述人的角色。他是盖茨比的邻居,以卖债券为生。

• He is easy-going, occasionally sarcastic, and somewhat optimistic, although this latter quality fades as the novel progresses.

• 尼克为人随和,偶尔比较尖刻,处世态度较为乐观,尽管随着故事的发展,尼克的乐观态度也慢慢消失了。

• Jay Gatsby (originally James "Jimmy" Gatz) – a young, mysterious millionaire with shady business connections (later revealed to be a bootlegger), originally from

North Dakota.

• 杰伊•盖茨比(最初版本叫詹姆斯“吉米”盖茨)-是一个年轻,神秘的大富豪,做一些非正当的生意(后来知道是做私酒生意),出生于美国北达科他州。

• He is obsessed with Daisy Buchanan, a beautiful debutante, whom he had met when he was a young military officer stationed in the South during World War I.

• 黛西•布坎南让盖茨比着迷,她是一位美丽的少女,盖茨比遇到她时自己还是一名一战时驻守在南部的年轻军官。

• The character is based on the bootlegger and former World War I officer Max Gerlach, according to Some Sort of Epic Grandeur, Matthew J. Bruccoli's biography of F.

Scott Fitzgerald.

• 据《一种史诗般的宏伟》(Matthew J. Bruccoli所写关于斯科特•菲茨杰拉德的传记)中称,盖茨比这个角色取材于第一次世界大战前军官Max Gerlach,他同时也是一名走私者。

• Gatsby is said to have briefly studied at Trinity College, Oxford in England after the end of World War I.

• 据说在一战结束后,盖茨比曾在英格兰牛津大学三一学院有过短暂的学习经历。

• Daisy Fay Buchanan – an attractive and effervescent, if shallow and self-absorbed, young debutante and socialite, identified as a flapper.

• 黛西• 费伊•布坎南是一位美丽并且喜欢社交的年轻女子,她是社会名流,同时也是一个浅薄,自私,轻佻的女子。

• She is Nick's second cousin, once removed; and the wife of Tom Buchanan.

• 她是尼克隔代的二表妹,是汤姆•布坎南的妻子。

• Daisy is believed to have been inspired by Fitzgerald's own youthful romances with Ginevra King.

• 人们认为黛西是菲茨杰拉德所爱的年轻女子吉尼芙拉•金在书中的写照。

• Daisy once had a romantic relationship with Gatsby, before she married Tom.

• 黛西在嫁给汤姆之前曾和盖茨比私定终身。

• Her choice between Gatsby and Tom is one of the central conflicts in the novel.

• 她在盖茨比和汤姆二人之间的选择是小说中最主要的冲突之一。

• Thomas "Tom" Buchanan – a millionaire who lives on East Egg, and Daisy's husband.

• 托马斯“汤姆”布坎南-是居住在东卵的大富豪,也是黛西的丈夫。

• Tom is an imposing man of muscular build with a "husky tenor" voice and arrogant demeanor.

• 汤姆处事咄咄逼人,身体强壮,声音粗大,音调高,行为举止傲慢。

• He is a former football star at Yale. Buchanan has parallels with William Mitchell, the Chicagoan who married Ginevra King.

• 汤姆曾经是耶鲁大学的足球明星。在现实生活中,他是威廉•米切尔的写照,米切尔是芝加哥人,也是吉尼芙拉•金的丈夫。

• Buchanan and Mitchell were both Chicagoans with an interest in polo.

• 布坎南和米切尔都是芝加哥人,而且都喜欢马球。

• Like Ginevra's father, whom Fitzgerald resented, Buchanan attended Yale and is a white supremacist.[14]

• 正像菲茨杰拉德所憎恨的吉尼芙拉的父亲一样,布坎南在耶鲁大学接受过教育,是白人至上者。

• Jordan Baker – Daisy Buchanan's long-time friend with "autumn-leaf yellow" hair, a firm athletic body, and an aloof attitude.

• 乔丹•贝克-与黛西•布坎南相识已久,头发就像秋天的叶子一样黄,是一位身体健壮的运动员,为人冷淡。

• She is Nick Carraway's girlfriend for most of the novel and an amateur golfer with a slightly shady reputation and a penchant for untruthfulness.

• 在书中的大部分剧情中,乔丹是尼克•卡罗威的女朋友,一名业余的高尔夫运动员,名声略带狼藉,为人比较虚伪。

• Fitzgerald told Maxwell Perkins that Jordan was based on the golfer Edith Cummings, a friend of Ginevra King.

• 菲茨杰拉德告诉麦克斯韦帕金斯,乔丹这个角色是高尔夫选手卡明斯的化身,卡明斯是吉尼芙拉•金的朋友。

• Her name is a play on the two then-popular automobile brands, the Jordan Motor Car Company and the Baker Motor Vehicle, alluding to Jordan's "fast" reputation and

the freedom now presented to Americans, especially women, in the 1920s.

• 乔丹•贝克的名字来源于当时两种倍受欢迎的汽车品牌,即乔丹汽车公司和贝克机动车,暗指乔丹的声誉传播快速,也指代了20世纪20年代美国人,尤其是女性所获得的自由。

• George B• Wilson – a mechanic and owner of a garage.

• 乔治B•威尔逊- 是一名机修工和汽车修理厂的拥有者。

• He is disliked by both his wife, Myrtle Wilson, and Tom Buchanan, who describes him as "so dumb he doesn't know he's alive."

• 他的妻子莫提•威尔逊和汤姆•布坎南都不喜欢他,汤姆•布坎南是这样描述他的“很木讷,都不知道自己还活着。”

• When he learns of the death of his wife, he shoots and kills Gatsby, wrongly believing he had been driving the car that killed Myrtle, and then kills himself.

• 当得知自己的妻子死了时,他枪击了盖茨比,错误地认为盖茨比是驾车撞死自己妻子的凶手,最后自尽而亡。

• Myrtle Wilson – George's wife, and Tom Buchanan's mistress. Myrtle, who possesses a fierce vitality, is desperate to find refuge from her complacent marriage, but

unfortunately this leads to her tragic ending.

• 莫提•威尔逊-乔治的妻子,也是汤姆•布坎南的情人。莫提生性暴躁,竭力想要为她自满的婚姻找到避难所,但这也导致了她悲剧的结局。

• She is accidentally killed by Gatsby's car (driven by Daisy, though Gatsby insists he would take the blame for the accident).

• 莫提死于意外,被盖茨比的车所撞死,(尽管当时是黛西驾车,但盖茨比誓死要替黛西承担罪责)。

• Meyer Wolfshiem – a Jewish friend and mentor of Gatsby's, described as a gambler who fixed the World Series.

• 迈耶•沃尔夫山姆-是犹太人,盖茨比的良师益友,同时也是一个赌徒,操纵了世界职业棒球大赛。

• Wolfshiem appears only twice in the novel, the second time refusing to attend Gatsby's funeral.

• 沃尔夫山姆在小说中只出现过两次,第二次出现在小说中是在盖茨比死后,他拒绝参加盖茨比的葬礼。

• He is a clear allusion to Arnold Rothstein, a New York crime kingpin who was notoriously blamed for the Black Sox Scandal which tainted the 1919 World Series.

• 这个角色明显针对的是阿诺德•罗斯斯坦,他是纽约一个犯罪集团的主要人物,最臭名昭著的事件是操纵了1919年的世界职业棒球大赛,这一事件被称为黑袜事件。

Writing and production/写作和作品

The now-demolished Beacon Towers served as an inspiration for Gatsby's home

图为现今已被拆毁的立标塔,书中盖茨比豪宅的灵感来源于此。

Oheka Castle was another North Shore inspiration for the novel's setting

奥赫卡城堡是另外一个位于北岸的小说场景灵感来源

Fitzgerald began planning his third novel in June 1922, but it was interrupted by production of his play, The Vegetable, in the summer and fall.

1922年6月正值菲茨杰拉德准备第三部小说之时,由于他的戏剧《蔬菜》(The Vegetable)要在夏秋季制片,所以该小说被中断。

The play failed miserably, and Fitzgerald worked that winter on magazine stories struggling to pay his debt caused by the production.

但是戏剧以惨败告终,为了偿还戏剧失败带来的债务,菲茨杰拉德当年冬季投入了杂志故事的工作。

The stories were, in his words, "all trash and it nearly broke my heart,"[23] although included among those stories was "Winter Dreams", which Fitzgerald later described as "a sort of first draft of the Gatsby idea".

菲茨杰拉德是这样描述这些杂志故事的—“全是垃圾,让人接近心碎”。尽管这里头包括一些“冬之梦”,菲茨杰拉德后来说“冬之梦”是“盖茨比的雏形”。

After the birth of their child, the Fitzgeralds moved to Great Neck, New York, on Long Island, in October 1922; the town was used as the scene for The Great Gatsby.

1922年在孩子出生后,菲茨杰拉德搬去了纽约长岛的大颈,该镇是《了不起的盖茨比》的场景来源。

Fitzgerald's neighbors in Great Neck included such prominent and newly wealthy New Yorkers as writer Ring Lardner, actor Lew Fields, and comedian Ed Wynn.

在大颈,菲茨杰拉德的邻居包括名流和新兴的纽约富人,比如作家林•拉德纳,演员Lew Fields和喜剧演员艾德•温 。

These figures were all considered to be "new money", unlike those who came from Manhasset Neck or Cow Neck Peninsula, places which were home to many of New York's wealthiest established families, and which sat across a bay from Great Neck.

这些人都被认为是新的富有阶层,他们与居住在曼哈塞特颈或母牛颈半岛的人有所不同,那些地方住的都是早已存在的纽约市最富有的家庭,由一个海湾与大颈区隔开。

This real-life juxtaposition gave Fitzgerald his idea for "West Egg" and "East Egg".

现实生活中的这种相邻的特点启发了菲茨杰拉德创作了“西卵”和“东卵”这两个地点。

In this novel, Great Neck (King's Point) became the new-money peninsula of "West Egg" and Port Washington (Sands Point) the old-money "East Egg".

大颈区(King所在地)变成了小说所描述的新富半岛“西卵”,而华盛顿港(Sands所在地)变为小说中的世代富有的“东卵”。

Several mansions in the area served as inspiration for Gatsby's home, such as Oheka Castle and the now-demolished Beacon Towers.

这里的几座宅邸给菲茨杰拉德创造盖茨比的豪宅提供了灵感,比如奥赫卡城堡,又如现如今已经拆除的立标塔。

By mid-1923, Fitzgerald had written 18,000 words for his novel but discarded most of his new story as a false start, some of which resurfaced in the 1924 short story "Absolution".

在1923年已经过半时,菲茨杰拉德的小说已经写了18,000多字,但是由于开始情节没有规划好,后来舍弃了大部分的内容,其中一些舍弃的内容在之后1924年的短篇小说《赦免》中再次出现。

Work on The Great Gatsby began in earnest in April 1924; Fitzgerald wrote in his ledger, "Out of woods at last and starting novel."

而《了不起的盖茨比》真正的创作开始于1924年4月,菲茨杰拉德在他的记录集中这样写到“终于走出困境并开始小说创作了。”

He decided to make a departure from the writing process of his previous novels and told Perkins that the novel was to be a "consciously artistic achievement" and a "purely creative work — not trashy imaginings as in my stories but the sustained imagination of a sincere and yet radiant world."

他决定使用与之前小说不同的创作过程,并对帕金斯说,这部小说是“有意识的艺术成就”和“纯粹的创作——在我的故事里没有无用的想象,而是对真挚光明世界的持续思考。

He added later, during editing, that he felt "an enormous power in me now, more than I've ever had."

后来在编辑中,菲茨杰拉德这样写到自己的感受—“感到自己充满了前所未有的力量。”

Soon after this burst of inspiration, work slowed while the Fitzgeralds made a move to the French Riviera where a serious crisis in their personal relationship soon developed.

灵感爆发后不久,他就搬去了法国里维埃拉,在这一过程中,他的创作放缓了,并且在那里他的人际关系出现了危机。

By August, however, Fitzgerald was hard at work and completed what he believed to be his final manuscript in October, sending the book to his editor, Maxwell Perkins, and agent, Harold Ober, on October 30.

但是在当年八月份,菲茨杰拉德努力投入写作,完成了他所认为的终稿,并于10月30日将稿件寄给他的编辑麦克斯韦帕金斯和代理哈罗德奥伯。

The Fitzgeralds then moved to Rome for the winter.

然后菲茨杰拉德搬去罗马过冬。

Fitzgerald made revisions through the winter after Perkins informed him in a November letter that the character of Gatsby was "somewhat vague" and Gatsby's wealth and business, respectively, needed "the suggestion of an explanation" and should be "adumbrated".

在11月帕金斯写信告诉菲茨杰拉德,盖茨比的性格“有点模糊”,盖茨比的财富和生意分别需要“解释”和“描绘”得更为清晰,在此之后的那个冬季,菲茨杰拉德都在进行修改工作。

Content after a few rounds of revision, Fitzgerald returned the final batch of revised galleys in the middle of February 1925.

经过来回几次的修改后,菲茨杰拉德在1925年2月的中旬,将最终修改的部分返给了编辑。

Fitzgerald's revisions included an extensive rewriting of Chapter VI and VIII.

他对第六章和第八章进行了大范围的改写。

Despite this, he refused an offer of $10,000 for the serial rights in order not to delay the book's publication.

尽管如此,为了不延迟出版,菲茨杰拉德拒绝了10000美金的连载版权。

He had received a $3939 advance in 1923 and $1981.25 upon publication.

1923年他收到3939美元的出版定金,在小说出版时又收到1981.25美元。

Cover art/封面艺术

The cover of the first printing of The Great Gatsby is among the most celebrated pieces of art in American literature.

《了不起的盖茨比》的首印封面是美国文学最出名的艺术品之一。

It depicts disembodied eyes and a mouth over a blue skyline, with images of naked women reflected in the irises.

封面所描绘的是一双空洞的眼睛和一个浮在蓝色天空中的嘴巴,眼睛中反射有裸体女人的肖像。

A little-known artist named Francis Cugat was commissioned to illustrate the book while Fitzgerald was in the midst of writing it.

在菲茨杰拉德创作当中,委托了并不出名的Francis Cugat给书配插图。

The cover was completed before the novel; Fitzgerald was so enamored with it that he told his publisher he had "written it into" the novel.

封面先于小说而完成;菲茨杰拉德对封面一见倾心,并且告诉他的出版商,他已经把封面“写进了”小说。

Fitzgerald's remarks about incorporating the painting into the novel led to the interpretation that the eyes are reminiscent of those of fictional optometrist Dr. T. J. Eckleburg (depicted on a faded commercial billboard near George Wilson's auto repair shop) which Fitzgerald described as "blue and gigantic – their retinas are one yard high.

菲茨杰拉德将这幅画融入小说,导致人们认为那双被菲茨杰拉德描述为“蓝色和巨大的眼睛就是虚构的验光师艾克尔堡大夫的眼睛(绘画在靠近乔治•威尔逊的汽车修理厂褪色的商业广告牌上),——他们的视网膜有一码高。

They look out of no face, but instead, from a pair of enormous yellow spectacles which pass over a non-existent nose."

你看不到脸在哪里,但是却可以发现有一副巨大的黄色眼镜搭在并不存在的鼻子上面。

Although this passage has some resemblance to the painting, a closer explanation can be found in the description of Daisy Buchanan as the "girl whose disembodied face floated along the dark cornices and blinding signs."

尽管这篇文章与这幅画有一些相似之处,但是仔细地品味文章就会发现黛西布坎南就是那个“空洞的脸沿着黑暗的飞檐悬浮着,给人以炫目征兆的女孩。”

Ernest Hemingway wrote in A Moveable Feast that when Fitzgerald lent him a copy of The Great Gatsby to read, he immediately disliked the cover, but "Scott told me not to be put off by it, that it had to do with a billboard along a highway in Long Island that was important in the story.

海明威在《流动的盛宴》中写道,当菲茨杰拉德借给他读《了不起的盖茨比》的副本时,他第一反应就是不喜欢封面,但“斯科特告诉我不要因为封面就将此书拒之门外,封面来自长岛高速路上面的一个广告牌。封面和书中的故事情节联系紧密。”

He said he had liked the jacket and now he didn't like it."

“他之前说过喜欢夹克,但是现在不喜欢了。

Title/标题

Fitzgerald had difficulty choosing a title for his novel and entertained many choices before reluctantly choosing The Great Gatsby, a title inspired by Alain-Fournier's Le Grand Meaulnes.

菲茨杰拉德在为小说确定标题时遇到了很大的困难,在他并不情愿地选择了《了不起的盖茨比》这个书名之前尝试了很多选择,而这个书名是受到亚兰•傅尼叶的作品 《美丽的约定》的启发。

Prior, Fitzgerald shifted between Gatsby; Among Ash-Heaps and Millionaires;Trimalchio; Trimalchio in West Egg; On the Road to West Egg; Under the Red, White, and Blue; Gold-Hatted Gatsby; and The High-Bouncing Lover.

在确定书名之前,菲茨杰拉德在“盖茨比”、“灰堆之中”、“百万富翁”、“特里马尔乔”;“西卵的特里马尔乔、“西卵之路”、“红白蓝之下”、“戴金帽子的盖茨比”以及“高弹跳的情人”之间不断思索,到底哪个更适合做书名。

He initially preferred titles referencing Trimalchio, the crude parvenu in Petronius's Satyricon, and even refers to Gatsby as Trimalchio once in the novel: "It was when curiosity about Gatsby was at its highest that the lights in his house failed to go on one Saturday night—and, as obscurely as it had begun, his career as Trimalchio was over."

他最初首选那些含有特立马尔乔的标题,特立马尔乔是萨蒂利孔的《爱情神话》里的原油暴发户,甚至曾在书中指盖茨比就是特立马尔乔:“在对盖茨比的好奇心达到最高时,一个星期六的夜晚家里断电了,就像盖茨比这个角色朦胧地开始,他作为特立马尔乔的职业生涯也朦胧地结束了。”

Unlike Gatsby's spectacular parties, Trimalchio participated in the audacious and libidinous orgies he hosted but, according to Tony Tanner's introduction to the Penguin edition, there are subtle similarities between the two.

与盖茨比壮观的聚会不同,特立马尔乔大胆放纵地参与自己主持的聚会,但根据托尼•泰纳向企鹅版本透漏,两者之间有微妙的相似之处。

In November 1924, Fitzgerald wrote to Perkins that "I have now decided to stick to the title I put on the book ... Trimalchio in West Egg" but was eventually persuaded that the reference was too obscure and that people would not be able to pronounce it.

1924年11月,菲茨杰拉德写信给帕金斯说,“我已经决定了这本书的标题为……特立马乔在西卵”,但最终被说服没能使用这一标题,因为介绍得太隐晦,人们甚至都不会拼读此书名。

His wife, Zelda, and Perkins both expressed their preference for The Great Gatsby and the next month Fitzgerald agreed.

他的妻子塞尔达和帕金斯表示了对《了不起的盖茨比》这个书名的偏爱,菲茨杰拉德在次月同意了使用这一标题。

A month before publication, after a final review of the proofs, he asked if it would be possible to re-title it Trimalchio or Gold-Hatted Gatsby but Perkins advised against it.

在出版前一个月,最后审查了校稿之后,他曾问是否有可能将标题改为特里马尔乔或戴金帽子的盖茨比,但帕金斯持反对意见。

On March 19, 1925, Fitzgerald asked if the book could be renamed Under the Red, White and Blue but it was at that stage too late to change.

1925年3月19日,菲茨杰拉德问这本书是否可以更名为“红白蓝之下”,但在那个阶段已经来不及做改变了。

The Great Gatsby was published on April 10, 1925. Fitzgerald remarked that "the title is only fair, rather bad than good."

《了不起的盖茨比》发表于1925年4月10日。菲茨杰拉德说“标题仅仅是中等的,可能并不好。”

Early drafts of the novel entitled Trimalchio: An Early Version of The Great Gatsby have been published.

小说早期的草稿,名为《特里马尔乔:早期版本的了不起的盖茨比》的这本书也出版了。

A notable difference between the Trimalchio draft and The Great Gatsby is a less complete failure of Gatsby's dream in Trimalchio.

那些草稿和《了不起的盖茨比》之间的显著区别是,在《特里马尔乔》中,盖茨比的梦没有完全破碎。

Another difference is that the argument between Tom Buchanan and Jay Gatsby is more even, although Daisy still returns to Tom.

另一个不同点是汤姆•布坎南和杰伊•盖茨比之间的争论更为旗鼓相当,尽管黛西依旧选择了汤姆。

Themes/主题

Sarah Churchwell sees The Great Gatsby as a "cautionary tale of the decadent downside of the American dream."

莎拉•丘吉维尔认为《了不起的盖茨比》是“美国梦正在衰落的警示性故事”

The story deals with human aspiration to start over again, social politics and its brutality and also betrayal, of one's own ideals and of people.

这个故事是关于人类要重新开始的愿望、社会政治及其残酷性以及对自己的理想和人民的背叛。

Using elements of irony and tragic ending, it also delves into themes of excesses of the rich, and recklessness of youth.

使用讽刺元素和悲剧的结尾,它也深入探讨了富人过度奢侈的生活和年轻人轻率鲁莽的主题。

Others, like journalist Nick Gillespie, see The Great Gatsby as a story "about the breakdown of class differences in the face of a modern economy based not on status and inherited position but on innovation and an ability to meet ever-changing consumer needs."

其他人,比如记者尼克•吉莱斯皮认为,《了不起的盖茨比》揭示了 “现代经济不是以身份和继承为基础,而是以创新和满足消费者需求的能力来界定的,这使得阶级划分被打破。”

This interpretation asserts that The Great Gatsby captures the American experience because it is a story about change and those who resist it;

这一解释称《了不起的盖茨比》抓住了美国历史,因为此书是关于改变和那些抵制改变的人的故事。

Wether the change comes in the form of a new wave of immigrants (Southern Europeans in the early 20th century, Latin Americans today), the nouveau riche, or successful minorities, Americans from the 1920s to modern day have plenty of experience with changing economic and social circumstances.

无论变化是来自新一波的移民(在20世纪初是南欧国家来的移民和当今拉丁美洲的移民),暴发户,或成功的少数民族,20世纪20年代到现代的美国人,都经历了很多经济和社会环境的变化。

As Gillespie states, "While the specific terms of the equation are always changing, it's easy to see echoes of Gatsby's basic conflict between established sources of economic and cultural power and upstarts in virtually all aspects of American society."

正如吉莱斯皮所说,“虽然具体的公式总是在改变,但是很容易可以从《盖茨比》中看到,老牌经济文化与新兴力量是基本冲突,这已存在于美国社会的各个方面。”

Because this concept is particularly American and can be seen throughout American history, readers are able to relate to The Great Gatsby (which has lent the novel an enduring popularity).

因为这个概念就是关于美国的,可以看穿整个美国历史,因此读者能够理解《了不起的盖茨比》(这就是为什么这部小说可以经久不衰)。

Reception/接受情况

The Great Gatsby was published by Charles Scribner's Sons on April 10, 1925.

1925年4月10日,斯克里布纳之子公司出版了《了不起的盖茨比》。

Fitzgerald called Perkins on the day of publication to monitor reviews: "Any news?" "Sales situation doubtful," read a wire from Perkins on April 20, "[but] excellent reviews."

出版当天菲茨杰拉德打电话给帕金斯询问此书的评论情况:“有消息吗?”4月20日得到的回答是,“销量不确定,但反响不错。”

Fitzgerald responded on April 24, saying the cable "depressed" him, closing the letter with "Yours in great depression."

菲茨杰拉德4月24回复消息令他十分“沮丧”,回信结尾写的是“致您的,十分郁闷。”

Fitzgerald had hoped the novel would be a great commercial success, perhaps selling as many as 75,000 copies.

菲茨杰拉德原以为此书会非常畅销,最起码可以销售75000本。

By October, when the original sale had run its course, the book had sold fewer than 20,000 copies.

但截止到十月份初始销售结束之时,销量还不到20000本。

Despite this, Scribner's continually kept the book in print; they carried the original edition on their trade list until 1946, by which time Gatsby was in print in three other forms and the original edition was no longer needed.

尽管如此,斯克里布纳一直保持对原版的印刷,并把此书放在销售书单中,直到1946年,《了不起的盖茨比》出现了其他三种版本,原版便不再销售。

Fitzgerald received letters of praise from contemporaries T. S. Eliot, Edith Wharton, and Willa Cather regarding the novel;

同时代的T. S. 艾略特, 伊迪丝•华顿和 薇拉•凯瑟都写信对菲茨杰拉德的这本书表示了赞赏。

However, this was private opinion, and Fitzgerald feverishly demanded the public recognition of reviewers and readers.

然后,这些都是他们个人的观点,菲茨杰拉德非常期待可以得到评论家和大众读者的认可。

The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews from literary critics of the day.

当时的文学评论家对《了不起的盖茨比》的评论不尽相同。

Generally the most effusive of the positive reviews was Edwin Clark of The New York Times, who felt the novel was "A curious book, a mystical, glamourous story of today."

对此书最高评价当属埃德温•克拉克在《纽约时报》发表的评论,他认为此书有着奇特,神秘和迷人的情节。

Similarly, Lillian C. Ford of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "[the novel] leaves the reader in a mood of chastened wonder," calling the book "a revelation of life" and "a work of art."

与之类似的评论有莉莲•C•福特在《洛杉矶时报》发表的评论称,“(小说)让读者处于受难的好奇之中,” 称这本书为“对生命的揭示”和“艺术品”。

The New York Post called the book "fascinating … His style fairly scintillates, and with a genuine brilliance; he writes surely and soundly."

《纽约邮报》称此书为“迷人的…他的风格相当闪耀,出于天才作家之手,写作坚定而彻底。”

The New York Herald Tribune was unimpressed, but referred to The Great Gatsbyas "purely ephemeral phenomenon, but it contains some of the nicest little touches of contemporary observation you could imagine-so light, so delicate, so sharp …. a literary lemon meringue."

《纽约先驱论坛报》对此无动于衷,而且《认为了不起的盖茨比》“纯粹是暂时的现象, 当下你所能想象的一些细微洞察它有所包含——很轻盈、很细致、很尖锐 …. 是文学的柠檬糕点。”

In The Chicago Daily Tribune, H.L. Mencken called the book "in form no more than a glorified anecdote, and not too probable at that," while praising the book's "careful and brilliant finish."

在《芝加哥每日论坛报》中,H.L. 门肯在赞扬此书精细和结尾出色的同时,又评论此书形式上不过是一个华美的轶事,而且可能还不是这样。”

Several writers felt that the novel left much to be desired following Fitzgerald's previous works and promptly criticized him.

一些作家认为较之于菲茨杰拉德以往的作品,小说令人意犹未尽,并对此加以批评。

Harvey Eagleton of The Dallas Morning News believed the novel signaled the end of Fitzgerald's success: "One finishes Great Gatsby with a feeling of regret, not for the fate of the people in the book, but for Mr. Fitzgerald."

哈维•伊格尔顿在《达拉斯晨报》上认为这部小说断送了菲茨杰拉德的成功:“读者在读完《了不起的盖茨比》时会感觉很遗憾,不是对于书中人物的命运,而是对于菲茨杰拉德本身。”

John McClure of The Times-Picayune said that the book was unconvincing, writing, "Even in conception and construction, The Great Gatsby seems a little raw."

约翰•麦克卢尔在《皮卡尤恩时报》中评论说,这本书没有说服力,“即使在构思和情节发展方面,《了不起的盖茨比》似乎也显得没有经验。”

Ralph Coghlan of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch felt the book lacked what made Fitzgerald's earlier novels endearing and called the book "a minor performance … At the moment, its author seems a bit bored and tired and cynical."

拉尔夫•科格伦在《圣.路易邮报》中发表评论,他觉得这本书缺乏菲茨杰拉德早期小说那种迷人的情节,认为此书是一个“次要的演出…此时的作者似乎有些无聊、疲惫、愤世嫉俗了。”

Ruth Snyder of New York Evening World called the book's style "painfully forced", noting that the editors of the paper were "quite convinced after reading The Great Gatsby that Mr. Fitzgerald is not one of the great American writers of to-day."

露丝斯奈德在《纽约世界晚报》称此书“痛苦而强迫”,并指出报纸的编辑在读完《了不起的盖茨比》后“完全认为菲茨杰拉德不属于当今伟大的美国作家之一。”

The reviews struck Fitzgerald as completely missing the point: "All the reviews, even the most enthusiastic, not one had the slightest idea what the book was about."

评论攻击菲茨杰拉德完全没有抓住要点:“所有的评论,甚至是最热情的,都不知道这本书要说明什么问题。”

Fitzgerald's goal was to produce a literary work which would truly prove himself as a writer, and Gatsby did not have the commercial success of his two previous novels, This Side of Paradise and The Beautiful and Damned.

菲茨杰拉德的目标是创作出一个可以证明自己是一个真正的作家的文学作品,而《了不起的盖茨比》确实没有取得像他以前两部小说《人间天堂)和《美丽与毁灭》那样的商业价值。

Although the novel went through two initial printings, some of these copies remained unsold years later.

尽管这部小说有过两次初始印刷,但有些存货在多年后仍未卖出。

Fitzgerald himself blamed poor sales on the fact that women tended to be the main audience for novels during this time, and Gatsby did not contain an admirable female character.

菲茨杰拉德将此书销量不佳归咎于时下的读者群主要是女性,而《了不起的盖茨比》并没有塑造一个令人钦佩的女性角色。

According to his own ledger, now made available online by University of South Carolina's Thomas Cooper library, he earned only $2,000 from the book.

根据他自己的账薄,现在也可以在南卡罗来纳大学的托马斯•库珀图书馆上查到,他在这部小说上仅获利2000美元。

Although 1926 brought Owen Davis's stage adaption and the Paramount-issued silent film version, both of which brought in money for the author, Fitzgerald still felt the novel fell short of the recognition he hoped for and, most importantly, would not propel him to becoming a serious novelist in the public eye.

虽然1926年欧文•戴维斯将其改编为电影,派拉蒙影业出版了它的无声版,均为作者带来了收益,但菲茨杰拉德依然觉得小说缺乏公众的认可,最重要的是,这使他不能成为世人眼中严肃的作家。

For several years afterward, the general public believed The Great Gatsby to be nothing more than a nostalgic period piece.

数年之后,公众认为《了不起的盖茨比》只不过是一部怀旧小说。

Legacy and modern analysis/遗产和现代分析

In 1940, Fitzgerald suffered a third and final heart attack, and died believing his work forgotten.

1940年,菲茨杰拉德心脏病第三次、也是最后一次发作,去世的时候认为自己的作品已被世人所遗忘。

His obituary in The New York Times mentioned Gatsby as evidence of great potential that was never reached.

《纽约时报》刊登了菲茨杰拉德的讣告,提及《了不起的盖茨比》的巨大潜力还远未发掘出来。

However, a strong appreciation for the book had developed in underground circles; future writers Edward Newhouse and Budd Schulberg were deeply affected by it and John O'Hara showed the book's influence.

然而,这本小说在背地里却很受欣赏;后来的作家爱德华•纽豪斯和巴德•舒尔伯格都深深地受到了其影响,约翰•奥哈拉也是如此。

The republication of Gatsby in Edmund Wilson's edition of The Last Tycoon in 1941 produced an outburst of comment, with the general consensus expressing the sentiment that the book was an enduring work of fiction.

埃德蒙•威尔逊在1941年出版的《最后的大亨》里再版了《了不起的盖茨比》,这次出版得到大量的评论,普遍认为这本书是一部经久不衰的作品。

In 1942, a group of publishing executives created the Council on Books in Wartime.

1942年,一些出版人创建了“战时图书协会”。

The Council's purpose was to distribute paperback books to soldiers fighting in the Second World War.

这一协会的目的是为二战士兵发放平装版图书。

The Great Gatsby was one of these books.

《了不起的盖茨比》也被归于这些书目当中。

The books proved to be "as popular as pin-up girls" among the soldiers, according to the Saturday Evening Post 's contemporary report.

据星期六晚报当时的报告,《了不起的盖茨比》在士兵中的受欢迎程度“不亚于海报女郎”。

155,000 copies of Gatsby were distributed to soldiers overseas, and it is believed that this publicity ultimately boosted the novel's popularity and sales.

有155000本《了不起的盖茨比》分发到海外士兵手中,有人认为正是由于这样的影响,最终使此书出名并畅销。

By 1944, full-length articles on Fitzgerald's works were being published, and the following year, "the opinion that Gatsby was merely a period piece had almost entirely disappeared."

到1944年,关于菲茨杰拉德的完整文献得到出版,第二年关于“了不起的盖茨比只是时下作品的看法”基本消失不见了。

This revival was paved by interest shown by literary critic Edmund Wilson, who was Fitzgerald's friend.

《了不起的盖茨比》重新受到欢迎与文艺评论家爱德蒙•威尔逊对此书的好评分不开,爱德蒙•威尔逊是菲茨杰拉德的朋友。

In 1951, Arthur Mizener published The Far Side of Paradise, a biography of Fitzgerald.

1951年,亚瑟•麦兹纳出版了菲茨杰拉德的传记 《天堂的那边》。

He emphasized The Great Gatsby 's positive reception by literary critics, which may have influenced public opinion and renewed interest in it.

传记强调了文学评论家对《了不起的盖茨比》的积极评论,这些评论影响了大众对此书的看法并重新激发了对此书的兴趣。

By 1960, the book was steadily selling 50,000 copies per year, and renewed interest led The New York Times editorialist Arthur Mizener to proclaim the novel "a classic of twentieth-century American fiction".

到1960年,《了不起的盖茨比》每年的销量可以稳定在50000本,重获大众的喜爱,纽约时报的编辑麦兹纳把这部小说誉为“20世纪美国小说的经典之作”。

The Great Gatsby has sold over 25 million copies worldwide, annually sells an additional 500,000 copies, and is Scribner's most popular title; in 2013, the e-book alone sold 185,000 copies.

《了不起的盖茨比》在世界范围内的销量已经超过2500万本,而且现在每年仍能卖出50万本,其中以斯克里布纳之子公司的版本最为流行,2013年仅电子书就卖出18.5万本。

In 2013, cultural historian, Bob Batchelor, authored Gatsby: The Cultural History of the Great American Novel, in which he explored the enduring influence of the book by tracing it "from the book's publication in 1925 through today's headlines filled with celebrity intrigue, corporate greed, and a roller-coaster economy".

2013年文化历史学家鲍勃•巴舍乐创作了《盖茨比:伟大美国小说的历史文化》,在书中他通过追溯“从1925年此书出版到今天充斥着关于名人私通、企业的贪婪和过山车经济的头条新闻”,探索了《了不起的盖茨比》的持久影响力。

Adaptations/改编

Ballet/芭蕾舞剧

• In 2010, The Washington Ballet premiered a version at the Kennedy Center.

• 2010年,华盛顿芭蕾舞团在肯尼迪中心首次公演了改编芭蕾舞剧。

• It was popularly demanded for an encore run the following year.

• 由于深受大众的喜爱,剧团应邀在第二年又上演了一次。

• In 2013, the Northern Ballet premiered a version of The Great Gatsby at Leeds Grand Theatre in the UK, with choreography and direction by David Nixon, a musical

score by Richard Rodney Bennett, and set designs by Jerome Kaplan.

• 2013年,英国北部芭蕾舞团在利兹大剧院首次上演了《了不起的盖茨比》的改编芭蕾舞剧,这次舞剧由大卫•尼克松负责舞蹈编排,理查德. 贝内特谱曲,Jerome Kaplan指导舞台布局。

• Nixon also created the scenario and costumes designs.

• 尼克松同时也负责了情景和服装工作。

Computer games/电脑游戏

• In 2010, Oberon Media released a casual hidden object game called Classic Adventures: The Great Gatsby.

• 2010年Oberon Media发行了名为经典冒险:了不起的盖茨比的休闲类型的隐藏目标类的游戏。

• The game was released for iPad in 2012.

• 2012年发行了该游戏的平板电脑版本。

• In 2011, as a tribute to old NES games, developer Charlie Hoey and editor Pete Smith created an 8-bit-style online game of The Great Gatsby.

• 2011年,为了向NES游戏致敬,开发商查理•霍利和编辑史密斯共同推出了《了不起的盖茨比》8字节网游。

• Ian Crouch of The New Yorker compared it to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1989) for the NES.

• 《纽约客》的伊恩•克劳奇将其与FC游戏机游戏《汤姆•索亚历险记》(1989)进行了比较。

Films/电影

The Great Gatsby has resulted in a number of film adaptations:

《了不起的盖茨比》有很多电影版本。

• The Great Gatsby (1926), by Herbert Brenon – a silent movie of a stage adaptation, starring Warner Baxter, Lois Wilson, and William Powell. It is a famous example

of a lost film.

• 1926年赫伯•布雷农导演了一部舞台剧改编的无声电影《了不起的盖茨比》,主要演员包括沃纳•巴克斯特, 洛伊斯•威尔逊,和 威廉•鲍威尔。但是这部著名的电影已经遗失了,实为可惜。

• Reviews suggest that it may have been the most faithful adaptation of the novel, but a trailer of the film at the National Archives is all that is known to exist.

• 评论认为这部电影是最接近小说内容的改编版本,但是目前国家档案馆仅存这部电影的预告片了。

• The Great Gatsby (1949), by Elliott Nugent – starring Alan Ladd, Betty Field, and Shelley Winters; for copyright reasons, this film is not readily available.

• 1949年伊里渥•纽真执导了另一部《了不起的盖茨比》,主要演员有阿伦•列特, 比提•菲露和 雪莉•云达丝,由于涉及版权,这部电影并没有公之于众。

• The Great Gatsby (1974), by Jack Clayton – starring Sam Waterston, Mia Farrow, and Robert Redford, with a script by Francis Ford Coppola.

• 1974年杰克•克莱顿执导的新版本,主演包括 萨姆•沃特森, 米亚•法罗和罗伯特•雷德福,剧本由 弗朗西斯•科波拉编写。

• The Great Gatsby (2000), by Robert Markowitz – a made-for-TV movie starring Toby Stephens, Paul Rudd, and Mira Sorvino.

• 2000年的版本由罗伯特•马科维茨执导,电影后来被改编为了电视剧,主要阵容包括陶比•史蒂芬, 保罗•活特和米拉•索维诺。

• G (2002), by Christopher Scott Cherot – a loose hip-hop adaptation set in the Hamptons.

• 2002年版本由克里斯多佛•史考特•雪洛执导,在汉普顿斯上演了放任的嘻哈改编剧。

• The Great Gatsby (2013), by Baz Luhrmann – starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Tobey Maguire, Carey Mulligan, and Joel Edgerton.

• 巴兹•鲁尔曼执导了2013年的版本,主要阵容有 莱昂纳多•迪卡普里奥, 托比•马奎尔, 凯莉•穆里根和乔尔•埃哲顿。

Literature/文献

• Daisy's Dilemma, a collection of short fiction pieces published by S. Williams of Momzone magazine, retells the plot with Daisy Buchanan portrayed as an especially

mature and insightful character.

• 《黛西的困境》源于一组威廉姆斯在Momzone杂志发表的短篇小说,对黛西•布坎南进行了又一次的描写,特别是其成熟和富有洞察力的人物形象。

• The Double Bind (2007) by Chris Bohjalian imagines the later years of Daisy and Tom Buchanan's marriage as a social worker in 2007 investigates the possibility that

a deceased elderly homeless person is Daisy's son.

• 克里斯•波杰里安在《双重约束》(2007)中想象描述了黛西和汤姆•布坎南的晚年婚姻生活,因为2007年一个社会工作者认为一位已故无家可归的老人可能是黛西的儿子。

• Great (2014) by Sara Benincasa is a modern-day young adult fiction retelling of The Great Gatsby with a female Gatsby (JacintaTrimalchio).[96]

• Sara Benincasa创作的《伟大的》是一部现代年轻成人小说,小说中以女性盖茨 比(JacintaTrimalchio)的视角重新讲述了《了不起的盖茨比》。

Opera/歌剧

The New York Metropolitan Opera commissioned John Harbison to compose an operatic treatment of the novel to commemorate the 25th anniversary of James Levine's debut. The work, called The Great Gatsby, premiered on December 20, 1999.

为了纪念 詹姆斯•莱文第25个首次登台纪念日,纽约大都会歌剧院委托 约翰•哈比森编写了小说的歌剧版本。该剧为《了不起的盖茨比》的同名剧,1999年12月20日首次公演。

Radio/广播

• In October 2008, the BBC World Service commissioned and broadcast an abridged 10-part reading of the story, read from the view of Nick Carraway by Trevor White.

• 2008年10月, 英国广播公司国际频道受委托并广播了10部分删节版的阅读版本,由 Trevor White以尼克•卡罗威的口吻进行了阅读。

• In May 2012, BBC Radio 4 broadcast The Great Gatsby, a Classic Serial dramatisation by Robert Forrest.

• 2012年5月,BBC广播4台播出了《了不起的盖茨比》,这是由罗伯特•福勒斯特出品的连续剧。

Theater/戏剧

• In July 2006, Simon Levy's stage adaptation, the only one authorized and granted exclusive rights by the Fitzgerald Estate, had its world premiere at The Guthrie

Theater to commemorate the opening of its new theatre, directed by David Esbjornson. It was subsequently produced by Seattle Repertory Theatre. In 2012, a

revised/reworked version was produced at Arizona Theatre Companyand Grand Theatre in London, Ontario, Canada.

• 2006年7月,由菲茨杰拉德独家授权的西蒙•利维出品了舞台改编剧,在格思里剧院举行了全球首映仪式,以此来纪念新剧院的开幕,此次是由David Esbjornson进行执导。 后来由西雅图戏院制片出品。2012

年,亚利桑那州剧院公司、加拿大的安大略省以及伦敦大剧院分别对此书进行了修订或改写。

• Gatz by Elevator Repair Service earned the #1 in the best in 2010 NYC theatre from The New York Times's Ben Brantley.[102] An award-winning Off-Broadway production.

• 据《纽约时报》的 Ben Brantley报道,《了不起的盖茨比》通过ERS获得了纽约市2010年电影院最佳作品。这是一部获奖的的非百老汇戏剧界产品。

• On August 7, 2012, The Great Gatsby Musical opened at the Kings Head Theatre, London.

• 2012年8月7日,《了不起的盖茨比》音乐剧在伦敦的Kings Head Theatre上演。

• A Ruby In The Dust production, it is adapted by Joe Evans and Linnie Reedman with music and lyrics by Joe Evans, directed by Linnie Reedman, with Matilda Sturridge

as Daisy Buchanan.

• 本剧由A Ruby In The Dust制作,乔•埃文斯和 Linnie Reedman改编,乔•埃文斯作词作曲,Linnie Reedman执导,由玛蒂尔达•斯图里奇饰演黛西.布坎南。

• The show transferred to the Riverside Studios in 2013 with the music orchestrated by Chris Walker and musical staging by choreographer Lee Proud.

• 2013年该演出由河畔剧院接手,克里斯•沃克将音乐转化为了管弦乐风格,音乐场景由舞台编剧Lee Proud所负责。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

内容根据CC BY-SA 3.0可用