The Great Gatsby/了不起的盖茨比

翻译| Bree 审校| 许少欢 梁新珍

The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F. Scott Fitzgerald that follows a cast of characters living in the fictional town of West Egg on prosperous Long Island in the summer of 1922.


The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession for the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan.


Considered to be Fitzgerald's magnum opus, The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, idealism, resistance to change, social upheaval, and excess, creating a portrait of the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties that has been described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream.


Fitzgerald—inspired by the parties he had attended while visiting Long Island's north shore—began planning the novel in 1923, desiring to produce, in his words, "something new—something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and intricately patterned."


Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924.


His editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was too vague and convinced the author to revise over the next winter.


Fitzgerald was ambivalent about the book's title, at various times wishing to re-title the novel Trimalchio in West Egg.


First published by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly; in its first year, the book sold only 20,000 copies.


Fitzgerald died in 1940, believing himself to be a failure and his work forgotten.


However, the novel experienced a revival during World War II, and became a part of American high school curricula and numerous stage and film adaptations in the following decades.


Today, The Great Gatsby is widely considered to be a literary classic and a contender for the title "Great American Novel".


In 1998 the Modern Library editorial board voted it the 20th century's best American novel and second best English-language novel of the same time period.



• 1 Historical context/历史背景

• 2 Plot summary/剧情简介

o 2.1 Major characters/主要人物

• 3 Writing and production/写作和作品

• 4 Cover art/封面设计

• 5 Title/标题

• 6 Themes/主题

• 7 Reception/招待会

• 8 Legacy and modern analysis/遗产和现代解析

• 9 Adaptations/改编

o 9.1 Ballet/芭蕾舞剧

o 9.2 Computer games/电脑游戏

o 9.3 Films/电影

o 9.4 Literature/文学

o 9.5 Opera/歌剧

o 9.6 Radio/无线广播

o 9.7 Theater/剧场

Historical context/历史背景

Set on the prosperous Long Island of 1922, The Great Gatsby provides a critical social history of America during the Roaring Twenties within its narrative.


That era, known for unprecedented economic prosperity, the evolution of jazz music, flapper culture, and bootlegging and other criminal activity, is plausibly depicted in Fitzgerald's novel.

那个时代的美国经济达到了前所未有的繁荣,菲茨杰拉德在小说中合理地描述了爵士乐, 轻佻文化的发展,非法酿酒以及其他犯罪活动。

Fitzgerald uses these societal developments of the 1920s to build Gatsby's stories from simple details like automobiles to broader themes like Fitzgerald's discreet allusions to the organized crime culture which was the source of Gatsby's fortune.


Fitzgerald educates his readers about the garish society of the Roaring Twenties by placing a timeless, relatable plotline within the historical context of the era.


Fitzgerald's visits to Long Island's north shore and his experience attending parties at mansions inspired The Great Gatsby's setting.


Today there are a number of theories as to which mansion was the inspiration for the book.


One possibility is Land's End, a notable Gold Coast Mansion where Fitzgerald may have attended a party.


Many of the events in Fitzgerald's early life are reflected throughout The Great Gatsby.


Fitzgerald was a young man from Minnesota, and like Nick, he was educated at an Ivy League school, Princeton (in Nick's case, Yale.)


Fitzgerald is also similar to Jay Gatsby, as he fell in love while stationed in the military and fell into a life of decadence trying to prove himself to the girl he loves.


Fitzgerald became a second lieutenant, and was stationed at Camp Sheridan, in Montgomery, Alabama.


There he met and fell in love with a wild seventeen-year-old beauty named Zelda Sayre.


Zelda finally agreed to marry him, but her preference for wealth, fun, and leisure led her to delay their wedding until he could prove a success.


Like Nick in The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald found this new lifestyle seductive and exciting, and, like Gatsby, he had always idolized the very rich.


In many ways, The Great Gatsby represents Fitzgerald's attempt to confront his conflicting feelings about the Jazz Age.


Like Gatsby, Fitzgerald was driven by his love for a woman who symbolized everything he wanted, even as she led him toward everything he despised.


In her book Careless People: Murder, Mayhem and the Invention of 'The Great Gatsby' (2013), Sarah Churchwell speculates that parts of the ending of The Great Gatsby (1925) by F. Scott Fitzgerald were based on the Hall-Mills Case.


Based on her forensic search for clues, she asserts that the two victims in the Halls-Mills murder case inspired the characters who were murdered in The Great Gatsby.


Plot summary/情节概括

The main events of the novel take place in the summer of 1922.


Nick Carraway, a Yale graduate and World War I veteran from the Midwest– who serves as the novel's narrator – takes a job in New York as a bond salesman.


He rents a small house on Long Island, in the (fictional) village of West Egg, next door to the lavish mansion of Jay Gatsby, a mysterious millionaire who holds extravagant parties but does not participate in them.


Nick drives around the bay to East Egg for dinner at the home of his cousin, Daisy Fay Buchanan, and her husband, Tom, a college acquaintance of Nick's.


They introduce Nick to Jordan Baker, an attractive, cynical young golfer with whom Nick begins a romantic relationship.


She reveals to Nick that Tom has a mistress, Myrtle Wilson, who lives in the "valley of ashes": an industrial dumping ground between West Egg and New York City.


Not long after this revelation, Nick travels to New York City with Tom and Myrtle to an apartment they keep for their affair.


At the apartment, a vulgar and bizarre party takes place. It ends with Tom breaking Myrtle's nose after she annoys him by saying Daisy's name several times.


The Plaza Hotel in the early 1920s


As the summer progresses, Nick eventually receives an invitation to one of Gatsby's parties.


Nick encounters Jordan Baker at the party, and they meet Gatsby himself, an aloof and surprisingly young man who recognizes Nick from their same division in the war.


Through Jordan, Nick later learns that Gatsby knew Daisy from a romantic encounter in 1917 and is deeply in love with her.


He spends many nights staring at the green light at the end of her dock, across the bay from his mansion, hoping to one day rekindle their lost romance.


Gatsby's extravagant lifestyle and wild parties are an attempt to impress Daisy in the hope that she will one day appear again at Gatsby's doorstep.


Gatsby now wants Nick to arrange a reunion between himself and Daisy.


Nick invites Daisy to have tea at his house, without telling her that Gatsby will also be there.


After an initially awkward reunion, Gatsby and Daisy reestablish their connection.


They begin an affair and, after a short time, Tom grows increasingly suspicious of his wife's relationship with Gatsby.


At a luncheon at the Buchanans' house, Daisy speaks to Gatsby with such undisguised intimacy that Tom realizes she is in love with Gatsby.


Though Tom is himself involved in an extramarital affair, he is outraged by his wife's infidelity.


He forces the group to drive into New York City and confronts Gatsby in a suite at the Plaza Hotel, asserting that he and Daisy have a history that Gatsby could never understand.


In addition to that, he announces to his wife that Gatsby is a criminal whose fortune comes from bootlegging alcohol and other illegal activities.


Daisy realizes that her allegiance is to Tom, and Tom contemptuously sends her back to East Egg with Gatsby, attempting to prove that Gatsby cannot hurt him.


When Nick, Jordan, and Tom drive through the valley of ashes on their way home, they discover that Gatsby's car has struck and killed Tom's mistress, Myrtle.


Nick later learns from Gatsby that Daisy, not Gatsby himself, was driving the car at the time of the accident but Gatsby intends to take the blame anyway.


Myrtle's husband, George, falsely concludes that the driver of the yellow car is the secret lover he recently began suspecting she has, and sets out on foot to locate its owner.


After finding out the yellow car is Gatsby's, he arrives at Gatsby's mansion where he fatally shoots both Gatsby and then himself.


Nick stages an unsettlingly small funeral for Gatsby, ends his relationship with Jordan, and moves back to the Midwest, disillusioned with the Eastern lifestyle.


Major characters/主要人物

• Nick Carraway – a Yale graduate originating from the Midwest, a World War I veteran, and, at the start of the plot, a newly arrived resident of West Egg, who is aged 29 (later 30).

• 尼克.卡罗威-来自中西部的耶鲁大学毕业生,第一次世界大战老兵,在小说开始,刚刚入住西卵,当时29岁(小说后期30岁)。

• He also serves as the first-person narrator of the novel. He is Gatsby's next-door neighbor and a bond salesman.

• 尼克在小说中充当第一叙述人的角色。他是盖茨比的邻居,以卖债券为生。

• He is easy-going, occasionally sarcastic, and somewhat optimistic, although this latter quality fades as the novel progresses.

• 尼克为人随和,偶尔比较尖刻,处世态度较为乐观,尽管随着故事的发展,尼克的乐观态度也慢慢消失了。

• Jay Gatsby (originally James "Jimmy" Gatz) – a young, mysterious millionaire with shady business connections (later revealed to be a bootlegger), originally from

North Dakota.

• 杰伊•盖茨比(最初版本叫詹姆斯“吉米”盖茨)-是一个年轻,神秘的大富豪,做一些非正当的生意(后来知道是做私酒生意),出生于美国北达科他州。

• He is obsessed with Daisy Buchanan, a beautiful debutante, whom he had met when he was a young military officer stationed in the South during World War I.

• 黛西•布坎南让盖茨比着迷,她是一位美丽的少女,盖茨比遇到她时自己还是一名一战时驻守在南部的年轻军官。

• The character is based on the bootlegger and former World War I officer Max Gerlach, according to Some Sort of Epic Grandeur, Matthew J. Bruccoli's biography of F.

Scott Fitzgerald.

• 据《一种史诗般的宏伟》(Matthew J. Bruccoli所写关于斯科特•菲茨杰拉德的传记)中称,盖茨比这个角色取材于第一次世界大战前军官Max Gerlach,他同时也是一名走私者。

• Gatsby is said to have briefly studied at Trinity College, Oxford in England after the end of World War I.

• 据说在一战结束后,盖茨比曾在英格兰牛津大学三一学院有过短暂的学习经历。

• Daisy Fay Buchanan – an attractive and effervescent, if shallow and self-absorbed, young debutante and socialite, identified as a flapper.

• 黛西• 费伊•布坎南是一位美丽并且喜欢社交的年轻女子,她是社会名流,同时也是一个浅薄,自私,轻佻的女子。

• She is Nick's second cousin, once removed; and the wife of Tom Buchanan.

• 她是尼克隔代的二表妹,是汤姆•布坎南的妻子。

• Daisy is believed to have been inspired by Fitzgerald's own youthful romances with Ginevra King.

• 人们认为黛西是菲茨杰拉德所爱的年轻女子吉尼芙拉•金在书中的写照。

• Daisy once had a romantic relationship with Gatsby, before she married Tom.

• 黛西在嫁给汤姆之前曾和盖茨比私定终身。

• Her choice between Gatsby and Tom is one of the central conflicts in the novel.

• 她在盖茨比和汤姆二人之间的选择是小说中最主要的冲突之一。

• Thomas "Tom" Buchanan – a millionaire who lives on East Egg, and Daisy's husband.

• 托马斯“汤姆”布坎南-是居住在东卵的大富豪,也是黛西的丈夫。

• Tom is an imposing man of muscular build with a "husky tenor" voice and arrogant demeanor.

• 汤姆处事咄咄逼人,身体强壮,声音粗大,音调高,行为举止傲慢。

• He is a former football star at Yale. Buchanan has parallels with William Mitchell, the Chicagoan who married Ginevra King.

• 汤姆曾经是耶鲁大学的足球明星。在现实生活中,他是威廉•米切尔的写照,米切尔是芝加哥人,也是吉尼芙拉•金的丈夫。

• Buchanan and Mitchell were both Chicagoans with an interest in polo.

• 布坎南和米切尔都是芝加哥人,而且都喜欢马球。

• Like Ginevra's father, whom Fitzgerald resented, Buchanan attended Yale and is a white supremacist.[14]

• 正像菲茨杰拉德所憎恨的吉尼芙拉的父亲一样,布坎南在耶鲁大学接受过教育,是白人至上者。

• Jordan Baker – Daisy Buchanan's long-time friend with "autumn-leaf yellow" hair, a firm athletic body, and an aloof attitude.

• 乔丹•贝克-与黛西•布坎南相识已久,头发就像秋天的叶子一样黄,是一位身体健壮的运动员,为人冷淡。

• She is Nick Carraway's girlfriend for most of the novel and an amateur golfer with a slightly shady reputation and a penchant for untruthfulness.

• 在书中的大部分剧情中,乔丹是尼克•卡罗威的女朋友,一名业余的高尔夫运动员,名声略带狼藉,为人比较虚伪。

• Fitzgerald told Maxwell Perkins that Jordan was based on the golfer Edith Cummings, a friend of Ginevra King.

• 菲茨杰拉德告诉麦克斯韦帕金斯,乔丹这个角色是高尔夫选手卡明斯的化身,卡明斯是吉尼芙拉•金的朋友。

• Her name is a play on the two then-popular automobile brands, the Jordan Motor Car Company and the Baker Motor Vehicle, alluding to Jordan's "fast" reputation and

the freedom now presented to Americans, especially women, in the 1920s.

• 乔丹•贝克的名字来源于当时两种倍受欢迎的汽车品牌,即乔丹汽车公司和贝克机动车,暗指乔丹的声誉传播快速,也指代了20世纪20年代美国人,尤其是女性所获得的自由。

• George B• Wilson – a mechanic and owner of a garage.

• 乔治B•威尔逊- 是一名机修工和汽车修理厂的拥有者。

• He is disliked by both his wife, Myrtle Wilson, and Tom Buchanan, who describes him as "so dumb he doesn't know he's alive."

• 他的妻子莫提•威尔逊和汤姆•布坎南都不喜欢他,汤姆•布坎南是这样描述他的“很木讷,都不知道自己还活着。”

• When he learns of the death of his wife, he shoots and kills Gatsby, wrongly believing he had been driving the car that killed Myrtle, and then kills himself.

• 当得知自己的妻子死了时,他枪击了盖茨比,错误地认为盖茨比是驾车撞死自己妻子的凶手,最后自尽而亡。

• Myrtle Wilson – George's wife, and Tom Buchanan's mistress. Myrtle, who possesses a fierce vitality, is desperate to find refuge from her complacent marriage, but

unfortunately this leads to her tragic ending.

• 莫提•威尔逊-乔治的妻子,也是汤姆•布坎南的情人。莫提生性暴躁,竭力想要为她自满的婚姻找到避难所,但这也导致了她悲剧的结局。

• She is accidentally killed by Gatsby's car (driven by Daisy, though Gatsby insists he would take the blame for the accident).

• 莫提死于意外,被盖茨比的车所撞死,(尽管当时是黛西驾车,但盖茨比誓死要替黛西承担罪责)。

• Meyer Wolfshiem – a Jewish friend and mentor of Gatsby's, described as a gambler who fixed the World Series.

• 迈耶•沃尔夫山姆-是犹太人,盖茨比的良师益友,同时也是一个赌徒,操纵了世界职业棒球大赛。

• Wolfshiem appears only twice in the novel, the second time refusing to attend Gatsby's funeral.

• 沃尔夫山姆在小说中只出现过两次,第二次出现在小说中是在盖茨比死后,他拒绝参加盖茨比的葬礼。

• He is a clear allusion to Arnold Rothstein, a New York crime kingpin who was notoriously blamed for the Black Sox Scandal which tainted the 1919 World Series.

• 这个角色明显针对的是阿诺德•罗斯斯坦,他是纽约一个犯罪集团的主要人物,最臭名昭著的事件是操纵了1919年的世界职业棒球大赛,这一事件被称为黑袜事件。

Writing and production/写作和作品

The now-demolished Beacon Towers served as an inspiration for Gatsby's home


Oheka Castle was another North Shore inspiration for the novel's setting


Fitzgerald began planning his third novel in June 1922, but it was interrupted by production of his play, The Vegetable, in the summer and fall.

1922年6月正值菲茨杰拉德准备第三部小说之时,由于他的戏剧《蔬菜》(The Vegetable)要在夏秋季制片,所以该小说被中断。

The play failed miserably, and Fitzgerald worked that winter on magazine stories struggling to pay his debt caused by the production.


The stories were, in his words, "all trash and it nearly broke my heart,"[23] although included among those stories was "Winter Dreams", which Fitzgerald later described as "a sort of first draft of the Gatsby idea".


After the birth of their child, the Fitzgeralds moved to Great Neck, New York, on Long Island, in October 1922; the town was used as the scene for The Great Gatsby.


Fitzgerald's neighbors in Great Neck included such prominent and newly wealthy New Yorkers as writer Ring Lardner, actor Lew Fields, and comedian Ed Wynn.

在大颈,菲茨杰拉德的邻居包括名流和新兴的纽约富人,比如作家林•拉德纳,演员Lew Fields和喜剧演员艾德•温 。

These figures were all considered to be "new money", unlike those who came from Manhasset Neck or Cow Neck Peninsula, places which were home to many of New York's wealthiest established families, and which sat across a bay from Great Neck.


This real-life juxtaposition gave Fitzgerald his idea for "West Egg" and "East Egg".


In this novel, Great Neck (King's Point) became the new-money peninsula of "West Egg" and Port Washington (Sands Point) the old-money "East Egg".


Several mansions in the area served as inspiration for Gatsby's home, such as Oheka Castle and the now-demolished Beacon Towers.


By mid-1923, Fitzgerald had written 18,000 words for his novel but discarded most of his new story as a false start, some of which resurfaced in the 1924 short story "Absolution".


Work on The Great Gatsby began in earnest in April 1924; Fitzgerald wrote in his ledger, "Out of woods at last and starting novel."


He decided to make a departure from the writing process of his previous novels and told Perkins that the novel was to be a "consciously artistic achievement" and a "purely creative work — not trashy imaginings as in my stories but the sustained imagination of a sincere and yet radiant world."


He added later, during editing, that he felt "an enormous power in me now, more than I've ever had."


Soon after this burst of inspiration, work slowed while the Fitzgeralds made a move to the French Riviera where a serious crisis in their personal relationship soon developed.


By August, however, Fitzgerald was hard at work and completed what he believed to be his final manuscript in October, sending the book to his editor, Maxwell Perkins, and agent, Harold Ober, on October 30.


The Fitzgeralds then moved to Rome for the winter.


Fitzgerald made revisions through the winter after Perkins informed him in a November letter that the character of Gatsby was "somewhat vague" and Gatsby's wealth and business, respectively, needed "the suggestion of an explanation" and should be "adumbrated".


Content after a few rounds of revision, Fitzgerald returned the final batch of revised galleys in the middle of February 1925.


Fitzgerald's revisions included an extensive rewriting of Chapter VI and VIII.


Despite this, he refused an offer of $10,000 for the serial rights in order not to delay the book's publication.


He had received a $3939 advance in 1923 and $1981.25 upon publication.


Cover art/封面艺术

The cover of the first printing of The Great Gatsby is among the most celebrated pieces of art in American literature.


It depicts disembodied eyes and a mouth over a blue skyline, with images of naked women reflected in the irises.


A little-known artist named Francis Cugat was commissioned to illustrate the book while Fitzgerald was in the midst of writing it.

在菲茨杰拉德创作当中,委托了并不出名的Francis Cugat给书配插图。

The cover was completed before the novel; Fitzgerald was so enamored with it that he told his publisher he had "written it into" the novel.


Fitzgerald's remarks about incorporating the painting into the novel led to the interpretation that the eyes are reminiscent of those of fictional optometrist Dr. T. J. Eckleburg (depicted on a faded commercial billboard near George Wilson's auto repair shop) which Fitzgerald described as "blue and gigantic – their retinas are one yard high.


They look out of no face, but instead, from a pair of enormous yellow spectacles which pass over a non-existent nose."


Although this passage has some resemblance to the painting, a closer explanation can be found in the description of Daisy Buchanan as the "girl whose disembodied face floated along the dark cornices and blinding signs."


Ernest Hemingway wrote in A Moveable Feast that when Fitzgerald lent him a copy of The Great Gatsby to read, he immediately disliked the cover, but "Scott told me not to be put off by it, that it had to do with a billboard along a highway in Long Island that was important in the story.


He said he had liked the jacket and now he didn't like it."



Fitzgerald had difficulty choosing a title for his novel and entertained many choices before reluctantly choosing The Great Gatsby, a title inspired by Alain-Fournier's Le Grand Meaulnes.

菲茨杰拉德在为小说确定标题时遇到了很大的困难,在他并不情愿地选择了《了不起的盖茨比》这个书名之前尝试了很多选择,而这个书名是受到亚兰•傅尼叶的作品 《美丽的约定》的启发。

Prior, Fitzgerald shifted between Gatsby; Among Ash-Heaps and Millionaires;Trimalchio; Trimalchio in West Egg; On the Road to West Egg; Under the Red, White, and Blue; Gold-Hatted Gatsby; and The High-Bouncing Lover.


He initially preferred titles referencing Trimalchio, the crude parvenu in Petronius's Satyricon, and even refers to Gatsby as Trimalchio once in the novel: "It was when curiosity about Gatsby was at its highest that the lights in his house failed to go on one Saturday night—and, as obscurely as it had begun, his career as Trimalchio was over."


Unlike Gatsby's spectacular parties, Trimalchio participated in the audacious and libidinous orgies he hosted but, according to Tony Tanner's introduction to the Penguin edition, there are subtle similarities between the two.


In November 1924, Fitzgerald wrote to Perkins that "I have now decided to stick to the title I put on the book ... Trimalchio in West Egg" but was eventually persuaded that the reference was too obscure and that people would not be able to pronounce it.


His wife, Zelda, and Perkins both expressed their preference for The Great Gatsby and the next month Fitzgerald agreed.


A month before publication, after a final review of the proofs, he asked if it would be possible to re-title it Trimalchio or Gold-Hatted Gatsby but Perkins advised against it.


On March 19, 1925, Fitzgerald asked if the book could be renamed Under the Red, White and Blue but it was at that stage too late to change.


The Great Gatsby was published on April 10, 1925. Fitzgerald remarked that "the title is only fair, rather bad than good."


Early drafts of the novel entitled Trimalchio: An Early Version of The Great Gatsby have been published.


A notable difference between the Trimalchio draft and The Great Gatsby is a less complete failure of Gatsby's dream in Trimalchio.


Another difference is that the argument between Tom Buchanan and Jay Gatsby is more even, although Daisy still returns to Tom.



Sarah Churchwell sees The Great Gatsby as a "cautionary tale of the decadent downside of the American dream."


The story deals with human aspiration to start over again, social politics and its brutality and also betrayal, of one's own ideals and of people.


Using elements of irony and tragic ending, it also delves into themes of excesses of the rich, and recklessness of youth.


Others, like journalist Nick Gillespie, see The Great Gatsby as a story "about the breakdown of class differences in the face of a modern economy based not on status and inherited position but on innovation and an ability to meet ever-changing consumer needs."

其他人,比如记者尼克•吉莱斯皮认为,《了不起的盖茨比》揭示了 “现代经济不是以身份和继承为基础,而是以创新和满足消费者需求的能力来界定的,这使得阶级划分被打破。”

This interpretation asserts that The Great Gatsby captures the American experience because it is a story about change and those who resist it;


Wether the change comes in the form of a new wave of immigrants (Southern Europeans in the early 20th century, Latin Americans today), the nouveau riche, or successful minorities, Americans from the 1920s to modern day have plenty of experience with changing economic and social circumstances.


As Gillespie states, "While the specific terms of the equation are always changing, it's easy to see echoes of Gatsby's basic conflict between established sources of economic and cultural power and upstarts in virtually all aspects of American society."


Because this concept is particularly American and can be seen throughout American history, readers are able to relate to The Great Gatsby (which has lent the novel an enduring popularity).



The Great Gatsby was published by Charles Scribner's Sons on April 10, 1925.


Fitzgerald called Perkins on the day of publication to monitor reviews: "Any news?" "Sales situation doubtful," read a wire from Perkins on April 20, "[but] excellent reviews."


Fitzgerald responded on April 24, saying the cable "depressed" him, closing the letter with "Yours in great depression."


Fitzgerald had hoped the novel would be a great commercial success, perhaps selling as many as 75,000 copies.


By October, when the original sale had run its course, the book had sold fewer than 20,000 copies.


Despite this, Scribner's continually kept the book in print; they carried the original edition on their trade list until 1946, by which time Gatsby was in print in three other forms and the original edition was no longer needed.


Fitzgerald received letters of praise from contemporaries T. S. Eliot, Edith Wharton, and Willa Cather regarding the novel;

同时代的T. S. 艾略特, 伊迪丝•华顿和 薇拉•凯瑟都写信对菲茨杰拉德的这本书表示了赞赏。

However, this was private opinion, and Fitzgerald feverishly demanded the public recognition of reviewers and readers.


The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews from literary critics of the day.


Generally the most effusive of the positive reviews was Edwin Clark of The New York Times, who felt the novel was "A curious book, a mystical, glamourous story of today."


Similarly, Lillian C. Ford of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "[the novel] leaves the reader in a mood of chastened wonder," calling the book "a revelation of life" and "a work of art."

与之类似的评论有莉莲•C•福特在《洛杉矶时报》发表的评论称,“(小说)让读者处于受难的好奇之中,” 称这本书为“对生命的揭示”和“艺术品”。

The New York Post called the book "fascinating … His style fairly scintillates, and with a genuine brilliance; he writes surely and soundly."


The New York Herald Tribune was unimpressed, but referred to The Great Gatsbyas "purely ephemeral phenomenon, but it contains some of the nicest little touches of contemporary observation you could imagine-so light, so delicate, so sharp …. a literary lemon meringue."

《纽约先驱论坛报》对此无动于衷,而且《认为了不起的盖茨比》“纯粹是暂时的现象, 当下你所能想象的一些细微洞察它有所包含——很轻盈、很细致、很尖锐 …. 是文学的柠檬糕点。”

In The Chicago Daily Tribune, H.L. Mencken called the book "in form no more than a glorified anecdote, and not too probable at that," while praising the book's "careful and brilliant finish."

在《芝加哥每日论坛报》中,H.L. 门肯在赞扬此书精细和结尾出色的同时,又评论此书形式上不过是一个华美的轶事,而且可能还不是这样。”

Several writers felt that the novel left much to be desired following Fitzgerald's previous works and promptly criticized him.


Harvey Eagleton of The Dallas Morning News believed the novel signaled the end of Fitzgerald's success: "One finishes Great Gatsby with a feeling of regret, not for the fate of the people in the book, but for Mr. Fitzgerald."


John McClure of The Times-Picayune said that the book was unconvincing, writing, "Even in conception and construction, The Great Gatsby seems a little raw."


Ralph Coghlan of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch felt the book lacked what made Fitzgerald's earlier novels endearing and called the book "a minor performance … At the moment, its author seems a bit bored and tired and cynical."


Ruth Snyder of New York Evening World called the book's style "painfully forced", noting that the editors of the paper were "quite convinced after reading The Great Gatsby that Mr. Fitzgerald is not one of the great American writers of to-day."


The reviews struck Fitzgerald as completely missing the point: "All the reviews, even the most enthusiastic, not one had the slightest idea what the book was about."


Fitzgerald's goal was to produce a literary work which would truly prove himself as a writer, and Gatsby did not have the commercial success of his two previous novels, This Side of Paradise and The Beautiful and Damned.


Although the novel went through two initial printings, some of these copies remained unsold years later.


Fitzgerald himself blamed poor sales on the fact that women tended to be the main audience for novels during this time, and Gatsby did not contain an admirable female character.


According to his own ledger, now made available online by University of South Carolina's Thomas Cooper library, he earned only $2,000 from the book.


Although 1926 brought Owen Davis's stage adaption and the Paramount-issued silent film version, both of which brought in money for the author, Fitzgerald still felt the novel fell short of the recognition he hoped for and, most importantly, would not propel him to becoming a serious novelist in the public eye.


For several years afterward, the general public believed The Great Gatsby to be nothing more than a nostalgic period piece.


Legacy and modern analysis/遗产和现代分析

In 1940, Fitzgerald suffered a third and final heart attack, and died believing his work forgotten.


His obituary in The New York Times mentioned Gatsby as evidence of great potential that was never reached.


However, a strong appreciation for the book had developed in underground circles; future writers Edward Newhouse and Budd Schulberg were deeply affected by it and John O'Hara showed the book's influence.


The republication of Gatsby in Edmund Wilson's edition of The Last Tycoon in 1941 produced an outburst of comment, with the general consensus expressing the sentiment that the book was an enduring work of fiction.


In 1942, a group of publishing executives created the Council on Books in Wartime.


The Council's purpose was to distribute paperback books to soldiers fighting in the Second World War.


The Great Gatsby was one of these books.


The books proved to be "as popular as pin-up girls" among the soldiers, according to the Saturday Evening Post 's contemporary report.


155,000 copies of Gatsby were distributed to soldiers overseas, and it is believed that this publicity ultimately boosted the novel's popularity and sales.


By 1944, full-length articles on Fitzgerald's works were being published, and the following year, "the opinion that Gatsby was merely a period piece had almost entirely disappeared."


This revival was paved by interest shown by literary critic Edmund Wilson, who was Fitzgerald's friend.


In 1951, Arthur Mizener published The Far Side of Paradise, a biography of Fitzgerald.

1951年,亚瑟•麦兹纳出版了菲茨杰拉德的传记 《天堂的那边》。

He emphasized The Great Gatsby 's positive reception by literary critics, which may have influenced public opinion and renewed interest in it.


By 1960, the book was steadily selling 50,000 copies per year, and renewed interest led The New York Times editorialist Arthur Mizener to proclaim the novel "a classic of twentieth-century American fiction".


The Great Gatsby has sold over 25 million copies worldwide, annually sells an additional 500,000 copies, and is Scribner's most popular title; in 2013, the e-book alone sold 185,000 copies.


In 2013, cultural historian, Bob Batchelor, authored Gatsby: The Cultural History of the Great American Novel, in which he explored the enduring influence of the book by tracing it "from the book's publication in 1925 through today's headlines filled with celebrity intrigue, corporate greed, and a roller-coaster economy".




• In 2010, The Washington Ballet premiered a version at the Kennedy Center.

• 2010年,华盛顿芭蕾舞团在肯尼迪中心首次公演了改编芭蕾舞剧。

• It was popularly demanded for an encore run the following year.

• 由于深受大众的喜爱,剧团应邀在第二年又上演了一次。

• In 2013, the Northern Ballet premiered a version of The Great Gatsby at Leeds Grand Theatre in the UK, with choreography and direction by David Nixon, a musical

score by Richard Rodney Bennett, and set designs by Jerome Kaplan.

• 2013年,英国北部芭蕾舞团在利兹大剧院首次上演了《了不起的盖茨比》的改编芭蕾舞剧,这次舞剧由大卫•尼克松负责舞蹈编排,理查德. 贝内特谱曲,Jerome Kaplan指导舞台布局。

• Nixon also created the scenario and costumes designs.

• 尼克松同时也负责了情景和服装工作。

Computer games/电脑游戏

• In 2010, Oberon Media released a casual hidden object game called Classic Adventures: The Great Gatsby.

• 2010年Oberon Media发行了名为经典冒险:了不起的盖茨比的休闲类型的隐藏目标类的游戏。

• The game was released for iPad in 2012.

• 2012年发行了该游戏的平板电脑版本。

• In 2011, as a tribute to old NES games, developer Charlie Hoey and editor Pete Smith created an 8-bit-style online game of The Great Gatsby.

• 2011年,为了向NES游戏致敬,开发商查理•霍利和编辑史密斯共同推出了《了不起的盖茨比》8字节网游。

• Ian Crouch of The New Yorker compared it to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1989) for the NES.

• 《纽约客》的伊恩•克劳奇将其与FC游戏机游戏《汤姆•索亚历险记》(1989)进行了比较。


The Great Gatsby has resulted in a number of film adaptations:


• The Great Gatsby (1926), by Herbert Brenon – a silent movie of a stage adaptation, starring Warner Baxter, Lois Wilson, and William Powell. It is a famous example

of a lost film.

• 1926年赫伯•布雷农导演了一部舞台剧改编的无声电影《了不起的盖茨比》,主要演员包括沃纳•巴克斯特, 洛伊斯•威尔逊,和 威廉•鲍威尔。但是这部著名的电影已经遗失了,实为可惜。

• Reviews suggest that it may have been the most faithful adaptation of the novel, but a trailer of the film at the National Archives is all that is known to exist.

• 评论认为这部电影是最接近小说内容的改编版本,但是目前国家档案馆仅存这部电影的预告片了。

• The Great Gatsby (1949), by Elliott Nugent – starring Alan Ladd, Betty Field, and Shelley Winters; for copyright reasons, this film is not readily available.

• 1949年伊里渥•纽真执导了另一部《了不起的盖茨比》,主要演员有阿伦•列特, 比提•菲露和 雪莉•云达丝,由于涉及版权,这部电影并没有公之于众。

• The Great Gatsby (1974), by Jack Clayton – starring Sam Waterston, Mia Farrow, and Robert Redford, with a script by Francis Ford Coppola.

• 1974年杰克•克莱顿执导的新版本,主演包括 萨姆•沃特森, 米亚•法罗和罗伯特•雷德福,剧本由 弗朗西斯•科波拉编写。

• The Great Gatsby (2000), by Robert Markowitz – a made-for-TV movie starring Toby Stephens, Paul Rudd, and Mira Sorvino.

• 2000年的版本由罗伯特•马科维茨执导,电影后来被改编为了电视剧,主要阵容包括陶比•史蒂芬, 保罗•活特和米拉•索维诺。

• G (2002), by Christopher Scott Cherot – a loose hip-hop adaptation set in the Hamptons.

• 2002年版本由克里斯多佛•史考特•雪洛执导,在汉普顿斯上演了放任的嘻哈改编剧。

• The Great Gatsby (2013), by Baz Luhrmann – starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Tobey Maguire, Carey Mulligan, and Joel Edgerton.

• 巴兹•鲁尔曼执导了2013年的版本,主要阵容有 莱昂纳多•迪卡普里奥, 托比•马奎尔, 凯莉•穆里根和乔尔•埃哲顿。


• Daisy's Dilemma, a collection of short fiction pieces published by S. Williams of Momzone magazine, retells the plot with Daisy Buchanan portrayed as an especially

mature and insightful character.

• 《黛西的困境》源于一组威廉姆斯在Momzone杂志发表的短篇小说,对黛西•布坎南进行了又一次的描写,特别是其成熟和富有洞察力的人物形象。

• The Double Bind (2007) by Chris Bohjalian imagines the later years of Daisy and Tom Buchanan's marriage as a social worker in 2007 investigates the possibility that

a deceased elderly homeless person is Daisy's son.

• 克里斯•波杰里安在《双重约束》(2007)中想象描述了黛西和汤姆•布坎南的晚年婚姻生活,因为2007年一个社会工作者认为一位已故无家可归的老人可能是黛西的儿子。

• Great (2014) by Sara Benincasa is a modern-day young adult fiction retelling of The Great Gatsby with a female Gatsby (JacintaTrimalchio).[96]

• Sara Benincasa创作的《伟大的》是一部现代年轻成人小说,小说中以女性盖茨 比(JacintaTrimalchio)的视角重新讲述了《了不起的盖茨比》。


The New York Metropolitan Opera commissioned John Harbison to compose an operatic treatment of the novel to commemorate the 25th anniversary of James Levine's debut. The work, called The Great Gatsby, premiered on December 20, 1999.

为了纪念 詹姆斯•莱文第25个首次登台纪念日,纽约大都会歌剧院委托 约翰•哈比森编写了小说的歌剧版本。该剧为《了不起的盖茨比》的同名剧,1999年12月20日首次公演。


• In October 2008, the BBC World Service commissioned and broadcast an abridged 10-part reading of the story, read from the view of Nick Carraway by Trevor White.

• 2008年10月, 英国广播公司国际频道受委托并广播了10部分删节版的阅读版本,由 Trevor White以尼克•卡罗威的口吻进行了阅读。

• In May 2012, BBC Radio 4 broadcast The Great Gatsby, a Classic Serial dramatisation by Robert Forrest.

• 2012年5月,BBC广播4台播出了《了不起的盖茨比》,这是由罗伯特•福勒斯特出品的连续剧。


• In July 2006, Simon Levy's stage adaptation, the only one authorized and granted exclusive rights by the Fitzgerald Estate, had its world premiere at The Guthrie

Theater to commemorate the opening of its new theatre, directed by David Esbjornson. It was subsequently produced by Seattle Repertory Theatre. In 2012, a

revised/reworked version was produced at Arizona Theatre Companyand Grand Theatre in London, Ontario, Canada.

• 2006年7月,由菲茨杰拉德独家授权的西蒙•利维出品了舞台改编剧,在格思里剧院举行了全球首映仪式,以此来纪念新剧院的开幕,此次是由David Esbjornson进行执导。 后来由西雅图戏院制片出品。2012


• Gatz by Elevator Repair Service earned the #1 in the best in 2010 NYC theatre from The New York Times's Ben Brantley.[102] An award-winning Off-Broadway production.

• 据《纽约时报》的 Ben Brantley报道,《了不起的盖茨比》通过ERS获得了纽约市2010年电影院最佳作品。这是一部获奖的的非百老汇戏剧界产品。

• On August 7, 2012, The Great Gatsby Musical opened at the Kings Head Theatre, London.

• 2012年8月7日,《了不起的盖茨比》音乐剧在伦敦的Kings Head Theatre上演。

• A Ruby In The Dust production, it is adapted by Joe Evans and Linnie Reedman with music and lyrics by Joe Evans, directed by Linnie Reedman, with Matilda Sturridge

as Daisy Buchanan.

• 本剧由A Ruby In The Dust制作,乔•埃文斯和 Linnie Reedman改编,乔•埃文斯作词作曲,Linnie Reedman执导,由玛蒂尔达•斯图里奇饰演黛西.布坎南。

• The show transferred to the Riverside Studios in 2013 with the music orchestrated by Chris Walker and musical staging by choreographer Lee Proud.

• 2013年该演出由河畔剧院接手,克里斯•沃克将音乐转化为了管弦乐风格,音乐场景由舞台编剧Lee Proud所负责。



内容根据CC BY-SA 3.0可用