Ross Sea party 罗斯海支队

翻译| 小梨子 审校| 许少欢 梁新珍

The Ross Sea party was a component of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914–17. Its task was to lay a series of supply depots across the Great Ice Barrier from the Ross Sea to the Beardmore Glacier, along the polar route established by earlier Antarctic expeditions. The expedition's main party, under Shackleton, was to land on the opposite, Weddell Sea coast of Antarctica, and to march across the continent via the South Pole to the Ross Sea. As the main party would be unable to carry sufficient fuel and supplies for the whole distance, their survival depended on the Ross Sea party's depots, which would cover the final quarter of their journey.

罗斯海支队是欧内斯特•沙克尔顿爵士从1914年至1917年领导的大英帝国横跨南极探险队的组成部分,主要任务是在罗斯海至比德摩尔冰川的大冰障上,沿着早期南极探险路线建立一系列补给站。沙克尔顿率领的主队将在南极洲对面的威德尔海着陆,经由南极点穿过整个大陆,再抵达罗斯海。由于主队不可能携带全程所需的燃料和补给品,因此罗斯海支队建立的补给站是至关重要的,可以支援队伍后期的旅程。

Shackleton set sail from London on his ship Endurance, bound for the Weddell Sea in August 1914. Meanwhile, the Ross Sea party personnel gathered in Australia, prior to departure for the Ross Sea in the second expedition ship, SY Aurora. Organisational and financial problems delayed their start until December 1914, which shortened their first depot-laying season. After their arrival the inexperienced party struggled to master the art of Antarctic travel, in the process losing most of their sled dogs. A greater misfortune occurred when, at the onset of the southern winter, Aurora was torn from its moorings during a severe storm and was unable to return, leaving the shore party stranded.

1914年8月,沙克尔顿乘着坚忍号(Endurance)从伦敦出发驶向威德尔海。同时,罗斯海支队的成员在澳大利亚会合,将乘坐蒸汽艇Aurora号前往罗斯海。一些组织上和财政上的问题使得罗斯海支队的出发时间推迟到1914年12月,这也缩短了第一阶段建站的可用时间。到达南极洲后,由于经验不足,队伍在冰上的行进变得十分艰难,途中损失了不少拉雪橇的狗。而在南半球冬季刚开始的时候,队伍又遭受了更大的不幸:Aurora号被一场暴风雪刮离锚地,然后不知去向,海岸部陷入孤立无援的境地。

Despite these setbacks, the Ross Sea party survived inter-personnel disputes, extreme weather, illness and the deaths of three of its members, to carry out its mission in full during its second Antarctic season. This success proved ultimately without purpose, because Shackleton's main expedition was unable to land after Endurance was crushed in the Weddell Sea ice. Shackleton eventually led his men to safety, but the transcontinental march did not take place and the Ross Sea party's depots were not required. The Ross Sea party remained stranded until January 1917, when Aurora, which had been repaired and refitted in New Zealand, arrived to rescue them. Public recognition of their efforts was slow in coming, but in due course four Albert Medals were awarded to members of the party, two posthumously. Shackleton later wrote that those who died "gave their lives for their country as surely as those who gave up their lives in France or Flanders."

尽管如此,罗斯海支队还是克服了内部意见分歧、极端的天气、疾病以及三名成员遇难等问题,成功在第二建站时期完成了既定任务。然而,他们的成功最后却毫无意义,因为沙克尔顿带领主队在威德尔海撞到了海冰上,无法着陆。虽然沙克尔顿最终把他的船员都带到了安全地带,但是横跨任务中断,罗斯海支队建立的补给站也因此成为徒劳。罗斯海支队在此后一直滞留在该地,直到在新西兰得到整修的Aurora号在1917年1月将其营救。罗斯海支队所做的努力渐渐被公众认可,4名幸存队员被授予阿尔伯特勋章,2名已去世队员被追授同样的奖章。沙克尔顿后来写到,这些逝去的人“为祖国做出的贡献可以比肩在法国或佛兰德斯献身的人”。

Map of the sea routes of Endurance, the James Caird, and Aurora, the overland supply depot route of the Ross Sea party, and the planned overland route of the Weddell Sea party led by Ernest Shackleton on his trans-Antarctic expedition of 1914–15:

坚忍号、James Caird号、Aurora号航海路线图,罗斯海支队建立陆上补给站路线图,沙克尔顿率领的威德尔海支队原定于1914年至1915年横跨南极大陆的路线图

Voyage of Endurance 坚忍号航海路线

Drift of Endurance in pack 坚忍号漂流路线

Ice drift after Endurance sinks 坚忍号沉没后海冰漂流路线

Voyage of James Caird James Caird号航海路线

Planned transcontinental route 原定跨越南极路线

Voyage of Aurora to Antarctica Aurora号南极之旅路线

Drift and retreat of Aurora Aurora号漂流及撤回路线

Supply depot routes 补给站设置路线

Contents 目录

• 1 Background背景

• 2 Personnel人员

• 3 Problems in Australia在澳大利亚遇到的问题

• 4 First season, 1914–15建站的第一阶段(1914-1915)

o 4.1 Depot-laying, January–March 1915建立补给站(1915年1月至3月)

o 4.2 Loss of the Aurora 丧失Aurora号

o 4.3 Improvisation摆脱困境的自力更生

• 5 Second depot-laying season 1915–16建站的第二阶段(1915-1916)

o 5.1 Journey to Mount Hope霍普山之旅

o 5.2 Return返回

o 5.3 Deaths of Mackintosh and Hayward麦金托什和海沃德之死

• 6 Rescue营救

• 7 Aftermath后记

Background 背景

After the conquest of the South Pole by Roald Amundsen in December 1911 Shackleton, who had sought this achievement himself, was forced to rethink his polar ambitions. He believed that there remained "one great main objective of Antarctic journeyings—the crossing of the South Polar continent from sea to sea." Basing his strategy on plans developed earlier by the Scottish explorer William Spiers Bruce, Shackleton planned to land with his main party as far south as possible, on the Weddell Sea coast. His transcontinental team would then march southward to the Pole, before continuing across the polar plateau and descending via the Beardmore Glacier (which Shackleton had discovered in 1909) to the Great Ice Barrier. The final stretch would take them across the Barrier to McMurdo Sound on the Ross Sea coast.

在罗尔德•阿蒙森于1911年12月成功征服南极后,曾同样渴求该成就的沙克尔顿不得不重新审视自己的极地目标,他认为“南极之旅还存在着一个重大的目标,即横跨南极大陆。”基于苏格兰探险家威廉•施皮尔斯•布鲁斯(William Spiers Bruce)的计划,他形成了自己的策略,沙克尔顿计划将主力探险队尽可能地在更靠南的地方,即威德尔海沿岸着陆。他横跨大陆的探险队在跨过南极高原,经由比德莫尔冰川(由沙克尔顿于1909年发现)下降至大冰障前,先向南前进到达南极点,最后跨过冰障将抵达罗斯海沿岸的麦克默多海峡。

Shackleton estimated that the crossing would cover approximately 1,800 miles (2,900 km), a distance too great for his party to carry all its supplies. In support of the main journey, therefore, a separate Ross Sea party would land in McMurdo Sound and would lay a series of supply depots across the 400 miles (640 km) width of the Barrier, to assist the crossing group home. It would also carry out scientific investigations. Shackleton described the depot-laying as vital to the success of the whole undertaking, but believed it would not present any great difficulties in execution. The Ross Sea party's vessel would be SY Aurora, a ship recently used by Douglas Mawson and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition.

沙克尔顿估计此次横跨的总距离将近1800英里(约2900千米),全程不可能携带全部的补给物品。因此,为了支援主力探险队,另外一个队伍,即罗斯海支队将于麦克默多湾着陆,在广度为400英里(约640千米)的大冰障上建立一系列的补给站,协助横跨探险队返航。罗斯海支队也会实施一些科学考察。沙克尔顿认为建立补给站对整个行动的成功有着至关重要的作用,但他并未料到在实践中会有任何重大困难,罗斯海支队将搭乘Aurora号,而Aurora号此前刚由道格拉斯•莫森和澳大利亚南极探险队使用。

Personnel 人员

Ross Sea party members: Back row from left: Joyce, Hayward, Cope, Spencer-Smith. Centre: Mackintosh third from left, Stenhouse fourth from left

罗斯海支队成员:后排左起依次是乔伊斯、海沃德、科普、斯潘塞-史密斯,中间左起第三个是麦金托什、第四个是斯滕豪斯。

To lead the Ross Sea party Shackleton chose Aeneas Mackintosh, having first attempted to persuade the Admiralty to provide him with a naval crew. Mackintosh, like Shackleton, was a former Merchant Navyofficer, who had been on the Nimrod expedition until his participation was cut short by an accident that resulted in the loss of his right eye. Another Nimrod veteran, Ernest Joyce, whose Antarctic experiences had begun with Captain Scott's Discovery Expedition, was appointed to take charge of sledging and dogs. Joyce was described by Shackleton's biographer, Roland Huntford, as "a strange mixture of fraud, flamboyance and ability", but his depot-laying work during the Nimrod expedition had impressed Shackleton. Ernest Wild, a Royal Naval petty officer, was added to the party possibly through the persuasion of his brother, Frank Wild, who was travelling as Shackleton's second-in-command on Endurance.

沙克尔顿首先说服海军部给自己配备一名海军船员,随后指令埃尼亚斯•麦金托什领导罗斯海支队。和沙克尔顿一样,麦金托什是前商船队的一名军官,曾参加过宁录号的探险,直到在一次意外事故中失去右眼才被迫中断。另一名宁录号上的老兵--欧内斯特•乔伊斯,被任命掌管雪橇和狗,而他的南极之旅早在斯科特船长的发现号探险时期便已开始。给沙克尔顿作传的罗兰•亨特福德将乔伊斯描述为“一个骗子的综合体,既浮华自傲又富有能耐”,不过乔伊斯在宁录号探险时建造补给站的表现给沙克尔顿留下了深刻印象。欧内斯特•怀尔德是皇家海军的一个士官,他能参加到该支队来可能是由于哥哥弗兰克•怀尔德的劝说,因为弗兰克在沙克尔顿直接率领的坚忍号上担任副指挥官。

Some of the appointments to the party were made rather hurriedly, reflecting the limited time frame that Shackleton had allowed for preliminary organisation. Joseph Stenhouse, a young officer from the British India Steam Navigation Company, was appointed as the Aurora's First Officer after travelling from Australia to London to seek an interview with Shackleton The Reverend Arnold Spencer-Smith, a Scottish Episcopal Church priest and former schoolmaster, joined as a replacement for one of the original members of the expedition who had left for active service in the First World War. Victor Hayward, a London finance clerk with a taste for adventure was recruited on the basis of his having worked on a ranch in Canada.

一些人员的任命相当仓促,可以看出沙克尔顿用于初期组织的时间很有限。约瑟夫•斯滕豪斯是英属印度轮船航运公司的一名年轻长官,从澳大利亚返回伦敦与沙克尔顿会面后便被任命为Aurora号的大副。阿诺德•斯潘塞-史密斯是苏格兰圣公会的一名牧师,也曾任校长,他作为替补加入进来,因为原定的一名成员投身一战去了。 维克托•海沃德是伦敦的一名财务职员,富有冒险精神,凭着曾在加拿大某农场的工作经历也被招募进队。

Although the Ross Sea party's main role was to lay supply depots, Shackleton's programme required a scientific team to carry out biological, meteorological and magnetic research in the region. The chief scientist was Alexander Stevens, a Scots geologist and former theology student. John Cope, a 21-year-old Cambridge graduate, was the team's biologist; a would-be medical student, he later became ship's surgeon. Two other scientists were appointed in Australia, the physicist Dick Richards (who signed up for a nominal wage of £1 per week) and industrial chemist Keith Jack. An Australian cousin of Spencer-Smith's, Irvine Gaze, was taken on as a general assistant.

尽管罗斯海支队的主要目的是建立补给站,沙克尔顿也需要一组科学家,在南极地区进行生物、气象和地磁学的调查研究。首席科学家是亚历山大•史蒂文斯,苏格兰人,地质学家,曾经也研究过神学。约翰•科普是一名21岁的剑桥大学毕业生,是探险队的生物学家,自称是学医的学生,后来在船上作为外科医生。在澳大利亚又招了两名科学家,分别是物理学家迪克•理查兹和工业化学家基思•杰克,前者是因所谓的每周1英镑的报酬而报名的。斯潘塞-史密斯的一个澳裔表弟欧文•加泽则作为助理加入团队。

Problems in Australia 在澳大利亚遇到的问题

Mackintosh and the nucleus of the party arrived in Sydney, Australia, late in October 1914. They were shocked to find that Aurora was in no condition for an Antarctic voyage, and required an extensive overhaul. Furthermore, Shackleton had apparently misunderstood the terms under which he had acquired the vessel from Mawson—even the registration of the ship in Shackleton's name had not been properly completed. Mawson had reclaimed much of the equipment and stores that had been aboard; essential navigational instruments, as well as basic necessities in the ship's living quarters, all needed replacing. To compound the problem, Shackleton had reduced the funds available to Mackintosh from £2,000 to £1,000, expecting him to bridge the difference by soliciting for supplies as free gifts and by mortgaging the ship. There was no cash available to cover the wages and living expenses for the party.

1914年10月下旬,麦金托什和罗斯海支队的主要成员抵达悉尼。但他们震惊地发现,Aurora 号根本不适于南极之行,需要彻底的大修。另外,当初沙克尔顿从莫森手中接收Aurora 号时显然误解了条款,即使是将船只登记到沙克尔顿名下一事也没妥善地完成。莫森据有了船上大部分的设备和物资,所以像基本的航海仪器、居住舱等必需品都需要重新更换。使问题更加严重的是,沙克尔顿把交给麦金托什的航海基金从2000英镑削减到1000英镑,不够的只能指望麦金托什募集一些作为免费礼物的供给品并且抵押船只。这样,也没有现金可支付队员们的工资或生活费。

Shackleton was now beyond reach, aboard Endurance en route for Antarctica. Supporters of the expedition in Australia, notably Edgeworth David who had served as chief scientist on the Nimrod expedition, were concerned at the plight in which Mackintosh's party had been placed. They helped to raise sufficient funds to keep the expedition alive, but several members of the party resigned or abandoned the venture. Some of the last-minute replacements were raw recruits; Adrian Donnelly, a locomotive engineer with no sea experience, signed as second engineer, while wireless operator Lionel Hooke was an 18-year-old electrical apprentice.

沙克尔顿正乘着坚忍号前往南极,如今已遥不可及。澳大利亚本土上赞助此次探险的人,尤其是埃奇沃斯•大卫,曾是宁录号探险队中的首席科学家,对麦金托什率领的队伍所面临的困境十分关切,并帮助筹集到充分的资金,但还是有数名成员中途退出了此次冒险活动。最后时刻替补上来的一些人员都是新手,如作为大管轮的阿德里安•唐纳利,原先是机车工程师,没有航海经验;无线电操作员莱昂内尔•胡克,当时还只是一个18岁的电力学徒。

Despite all these difficulties, progress was sufficient for the Aurora to set sail from Sydney on 15 December 1914, bound for Hobart, where she arrived on 20 December to take on final stores and fuel before departing south. On 24 December, three weeks later than the original target sailing date, the Aurora finally sailed for the Antarctic, arriving off Ross Island on 16 January 1915. Mackintosh decided to establish a shore base at Cape Evans, Captain Scott's headquarters during the 1910–13 Terra Nova Expedition, and to find a safe winter mooring nearby for Aurora.

尽管面临这些困难,Aurora号还是于1914年12月15号顺利从悉尼出发,当月20号抵达霍巴特,为南行作最后的准备,装备所需的物资和燃料。12月24号,即在原定起航日期的三周后,Aurora号终于开始向南极进发,并于1915年1月16号到达罗斯岛附近海域。麦金托什决定在埃文斯角建立一个海岸基地,这里曾是斯科特1910—1913年率领的新地号(Terra Nova)探险队的大本营,并在附近为Aurora号找到一个冬天停泊的安全地点。

First season, 1914–15 建站的第一阶段(1914—1915)

Depot-laying, January–March 1915 建立补给站(1915年1月至3月)

Believing that Shackleton might attempt a crossing during the first season, Mackintosh decided that the first two depots had to be laid without delay, one at 79°S near Minna Bluff, a prominent Barrier landmark, and another further south at the 80° mark. These were, in his view, the minimum that would enable Shackleton's party to survive a crossing of the Barrier. The delayed arrival of Aurora in the Antarctic had given little time for acclimatisation for the dogs and for the untrained men, and this led to differences of view about how to proceed. Ernest Joyce, by far the most experienced Antarctic traveller in the party, favoured a cautious approach and wanted to delay the start by at least a week. Joyce claimed that Shackleton had given him independent control over sledging activities, a view rejected by Mackintosh and later demonstrated as without foundation.

麦金托什认为沙克尔顿可能会在第一阶段尝试跨越,便决定即刻着手建立两个补给站,一个位于南纬79度,靠近大冰障上一个极为显著的地标--明纳海崖,另一个位于南纬80度的标记处。在他看来,为了保证沙克尔顿的队伍成功跨越大冰障,这些是最起码的准备。由于Aurora号到达南极的日期比预计的晚,因而几乎就没有时间让狗和一些未受训练的队员适应当地的条件,这也导致队里对如何开展建站工作产生了分歧。欧内斯特•乔伊斯是当时队里南极探险经验最丰富的人,他主张小心谨慎,至少一周后再开始工作。乔伊斯声称沙克尔顿赋予他对雪橇事物的独立控制权,但麦金托什不以为然,后来乔伊斯的话也被证实毫无依据。

Mackintosh's view having prevailed, on 24 January 1915 the first of three parties set out for the Barrier journey, the others following on the next day. Further dissension soon arose between Joyce and Mackintosh about how far south the dogs should be taken. Joyce wanted them to go no further than the Bluff, but Mackintosh's sense of urgency meant that they were taken on to 80°S. A further setback was the failure of the attempts to move stores by motor tractor. Although, ultimately, the depots were laid at Minna Bluff and at 80°S, the overall operation was beset by problems. Not all the stores had reached the depots, and, as well as the motor tractor failure, all ten dogs taken on the journey perished during the return. By the time that all parties were reunited at Hut Point on 25 March, the men themselves were exhausted and frostbitten, and there was a significant loss of confidence in Mackintosh. The condition of the sea ice in McMurdo Sound made the journey back to Cape Evans impossible, so the party was stranded until 1 June, in spartan conditions and relying on seals for fresh meat and blubber fuel.

麦金托什的主张最后被采纳,罗斯海支队的第一个小分队在1915年1月24号开始向大冰障进发,另外两个分队在第二天紧随其后。麦金托什和乔伊斯之间又产生了新的分歧,即要将狗队拉倒何处。乔伊斯认为狗队到达明纳海崖就可以了,但麦金托什迫切地希望狗队到达南纬80度的地方。另外,利用机动拖拉机拖运物资的尝试也失败了。尽管最终在明纳海崖和80度地区都建立了补给站,但整个过程都是困难重重:并不是所有的物资都运到了补给站,机动拖拉机也不理想,回程中原先的10只狗全都死掉了。3月25号,三个分队在哈特角会合,所有人都疲惫不堪,又饱受冻害,对麦金托什的信心也大大下降。由于麦克默多湾的海冰情况,整支队伍无法返回到埃文斯角,所以一直搁浅到6月1号,在这艰苦的条件下,大家以捕猎海豹为食,靠鲸脂补充燃料。

It was later revealed that this first depot-laying season, and its attendant hardships, had been unnecessary. Shackleton had stated, in a letter sent from South Georgia on 5 December 1914 (the date that Endurance left South Georgia for the Weddell Sea) to Ernest Perris of the Daily Chronicle, that he had "no chance of crossing that season". Mackintosh was to have been informed of this, but "the cable was never sent".

后来显示,在第一阶段建立补给站的工作以及所经受的困难都是不必要的。1914年 12月5号(即坚忍号从南乔治亚岛出发驶向威德尔海的日子)沙克尔顿从南乔治亚岛致信给《每日纪事报》的欧内斯特•佩里斯,他说自己不可能在第一阶段完成横跨任务。这一消息本应告知麦金托什,但是“电报信息一直没有送出”。

Loss of the Aurora Aurora号的丧失

The Aurora, pictured in New Zealand after the drift

漂流后绘于新西兰的Aurora号

When Mackintosh departed on 25 January 1915 to lead the depot-laying parties he left the Aurora under the command of First Officer Joseph Stenhouse. The priority task for Stenhouse was to find a winter anchorage in accordance with Shackleton's instructions not to attempt to anchor south of the Glacier Tongue, an icy protrusion midway between Cape Evans and Hut Point. This search proved a long and hazardous process. Stenhouse manoeuvred in the Sound for several weeks before eventually deciding to winter close to the Cape Evans shore headquarters. After a final visit to Hut Point on 11 March to pick up four early returners from the depot-laying parties, he brought the ship to Cape Evans and made it fast with anchors and hawsers, thereafter allowing it to become frozen into the shore ice.

当麦金托什率领建站分队于1915年1月25号离开时,他将Aurora号交到大副约瑟夫•斯滕豪斯手中。斯滕豪斯的主要任务就是按沙克尔顿的指令寻找到一个过冬的停泊地,而不要试图在处于埃文斯角和哈特角之间的冰质突出物--冰舌的南部下锚。这次寻找最终是一段既漫长又危险的过程。斯滕豪斯驾着Aurora号在麦克默多湾里找了几日,最终决定在靠近埃文斯角海岸基地的地方过冬。3月11日驶到哈特角接到建站分队4名早归的队员后,斯滕豪斯把船开到埃文斯角,并用锚和绳索将之牢牢固定,此后就导致了船被冻到岸冰里。

On the night of 7 May a severe gale erupted, tearing the Aurora from its moorings and carrying it out to sea attached to a large ice floe. Attempts to contact the shore party by wireless failed. Held fast, and with its engines out of commission, the Aurora began a long drift northward away from Cape Evans, out of McMurdo Sound, into the Ross Sea and eventually into the Southern Ocean. Ten men were left stranded ashore at Cape Evans. Aurora finally broke free from the ice on 12 February 1916 and sailed for New Zealand, arriving on 2 April.

5月7号的晚上突然起了狂风,Aurora号被迫刮离锚地,被带到跟一块浮冰相连的海域中。虽然尝试通过无线电联系海岸上的队员,但是失败。由于紧紧与浮冰相连,发电机也出现故障,Aurora号开始不断漂离埃文斯角,接着漂出了麦克默多湾,进入罗斯海,最终到达了南大洋。10名成员被滞留在埃文斯角海岸上。在1916年2月12号,Aurora号终于摆脱了海冰,向新西兰漂去,并于4月2号抵达。

Improvisation 摆脱困境的自力更生

Mackintosh had intended to use Aurora as the party's main living quarters, most of the shore party's personal gear, food, equipment and fuel was still aboard when the ship departed. Although the sledging rations intended for Shackleton's depots had been landed, the ten stranded men were left with "only the clothes on their backs". With no knowledge of the ship's whereabouts, or when or if it might return, the men were dependent on their own initiative and resourcefulness for their survival and for the completion of their depot-laying task.

由于麦金托什原打算将Aurora号作为所有人的住处,所以当它漂走的时候,大部分的食物、装备和燃料都在船上。尽管提供给沙克尔顿补给站的物资全都用雪橇运上岸,但是当时滞留下来的十人除了身上的衣服外一无所有。他们不知道Aurora号漂到哪里,也不知道它什么时候能回来或者是否能回来,所以只能凭着自发精神和为了存活的智谋,继续建站工作。

Mackintosh now summarised their situation thus: "We have to face the possibility that we may have to stay here, unsupported, for two years. We cannot expect rescue before then, and so we must conserve and economize on what we have, and we must seek and apply what substitutes we can gather".Their first recourse was to the food and materials from supplies left behind by Scott's and Shackleton's earlier expeditions. These supplies provided a harvest of material, which enabled clothing, footwear and equipment to be improvised, while the party used seal meat and blubber as extra sources of food and fuel. "Joyce's Famous Tailoring Shop" fashioned clothes from a large canvas tent abandoned by Scott's expedition. Even a brand of tobacco—"Hut Point Mixture"—was concocted by Ernest Wild from sawdust, tea, coffee and a few dried herbs. By these means the party equipped itself for the sledging journeys that lay ahead in the second season. On the last day of August Mackintosh summarised in his diary the work that had been completed during the winter, and ended: "Tomorrow we start for Hut Point".

麦金托什在总结他们的境遇时这样说:“我们很可能在这里无依无靠地渡过两年,在此之前我们不能期待有救援来到,因此我们必须力行节制,探寻一切能得到的替补品。”他们首先找到了先前斯科特和沙克尔顿探险时留下来的物资,有食物,也有可制成衣服、鞋子和装备的材料。另外,他们也用海豹肉和鲸脂补充食物和燃料。乔伊斯用斯科特的探险队留下的巨大的帆布帐篷制成时尚的衣服;欧内斯特•怀尔德用木屑、茶叶、咖啡和一些干草药进行混合,制成了香烟。通过如此种种方法,大家为即将来临的第二阶段雪橇之旅做好了准备。在8月的最后一天,麦金托什在日记中总结了这个冬天大家所做的工作,最后写道,“明天我们将向哈特角出发”。

Second depot-laying season 1915–16建站的第二阶段(1915—1916)

Journey to Mount Hope霍普山之旅

The second season's work was planned in three stages. First, all depot stores—3,800 pounds (1,700 kg) in total—were to be transferred from Cape Evans to Hut Point. These stores would then be transported from Hut Point to a base depot at Minna Bluff. Finally, a journey south would be made, to reinforce the 80° depot and lay new ones at 81°, 82°, 83°, and lastly at Mount Hope, near the foot of the Beardmore Glacier, at 83°30'.

第二阶段的工作计划分为三个步骤。首先,要将所有重3800磅,约1700千克的补给物资从埃文斯角运到哈特角。然后,这些物资再从哈特角运送到明纳海崖的基站。最后,继续向南进发,巩固南纬80度的补给站,并分别在81度、82度、83度处以及在位于南纬83°30',靠近比德摩尔冰川山脚的霍普山建立新站。

On the left is Mount Hope, the site of the Ross Sea party's final depot

左边是霍普山,罗斯海支队建立最后一个补给站的所在地

Nine men in teams of three would undertake the sledging work. The first stage, hauling over the sea ice to Hut Point, started on 1 September 1915, and was completed without mishap by the end of the month. The second stage, hauling back and forth between Hut Point and the Bluff, proved more problematic, with unfavourable weather, a difficult Barrier surface, and more dissension between Mackintosh and Joyce over methods. This time, Mackintosh favoured man-hauling while Joyce wanted to use the four fit dogs—of the six dogs that had survived the winter, two were pregnant and could not work. Mackintosh allowed Joyce to proceed in his own way, leading a party of six with the dogs, while Mackintosh continued to man-haul with Wild and Spencer-Smith. Joyce's methods proved the more effective in terms of loads carried and the fitness of the men. The base depot at Minna Bluff was completed by 28 December.

三支分队总共派出9名队员完成雪橇搬运任务。第一阶段的任务是将物资沿冰面搬运至哈特角,开始于1915年9月1号,并且在月底顺利结束。第二阶段需要在哈特角和明纳海崖之间来回搬运物资,但此时出现很多难题:天气恶劣,冰面难行,麦金托什和乔伊斯之间又出现了更多的意见分歧。麦金托什主张用人力拖拉,而乔伊斯想要用上4只健康的狗来拉物资,他们总共有6只狗度过了冬天,其中2只怀孕了,不能工作。麦金托什允许乔伊斯按自己的想法,带领六人加上几只雪橇狗组成队伍去工作,而麦金托什和怀尔德、斯潘塞-史密斯一起用人力拖运。事实证明,乔伊斯的方法更有效,运送的物资更多,人也更轻松。明纳海崖处的补给站最终在12月28号建成。

Shortly after the main march to Mount Hope began, on 1 January 1916, the failure of a Primus stove led to three men (Cope, Jack and Gaze) returning to Cape Evans, where they joined Stevens. The scientist had remained at the base to take weather measurements and watch for the ship. The remaining six sledged south, with Spencer-Smith failing rapidly and Mackintosh complaining of a painful knee. They battled on, laying the depots, using only minimum provisions themselves although, at Joyce's insistence, keeping the dogs well-fed: "The dogs are our only hope; our lives depend on them." As they neared Mount Hope, Spencer-Smith collapsed, unable to proceed. The others left him alone in a small tent and travelled the remaining few miles to lay the final depot at Mount Hope on 26 January 1916. Ernest Wild left a letter for his brother Frank who he imagined was travelling across from the Weddell Sea with Shackleton.

1916年1月1号,大家又向霍普山出发。不久后,一个火炉出了故障,3名队员(分别是科普、杰克和加泽)被迫返回埃文斯角,与科学家史蒂文斯会合,当时史蒂文斯留在基地做气象实验,并等候船只的消息。剩下的6名队员继续向南滑,当中斯潘塞-史密斯的健康每况愈下,而麦金托什也不断抱怨自己的膝盖疼。他们在艰苦的条件下继续建站任务,自己尽可能得省吃少用,但让狗吃得饱饱的,因为乔伊斯说,“狗是我们唯一的希望,我们要活下去就得靠他们。”当他们抵达霍普山附近时,斯潘塞-史密斯终于倒下了,不能再继续前进。其他人把他放在一个小帐篷里,然后继续剩下的路,终于在1916年1月26号建立了最后一个补给站。欧内斯特•怀尔德给自己的哥哥弗兰克写了一封信,他想着哥哥应该正随沙克尔顿从地球对面的威德尔海驶来。

Return 返回

The party turned for home on 27 January, picking up Spencer-Smith on 29th. He was by now physically helpless and had to be loaded on to the sledge. Mackintosh was soon unable to pull, and could only stagger along beside the sledge; by this time the de facto leadership of the group had passed to Joyce and Richards. Joyce summarised the situation: "I have never known such shocking conditions. This is one of the hardest pulls since we have trekked...all we can do is to slog on with the greatest possible speed."

队伍于1月27号开始返回,29号接上了斯潘塞-史密斯。斯潘塞-史密斯已经不能行走,只能躺在雪橇上被拖着走。麦金托什很快也拉不动雪橇,只能在一旁摇摇晃晃地走。此时,事实上的领导权已经转到乔伊斯和理查兹手中。乔伊斯在总结当时的情况时说,“我从未听闻过如此骇人的状况。这是我们搬运物资以来最难的时刻之一……我们能做的仅仅是竭尽全力,并用最快的速度艰难前进。”

Mackintosh and Spencer-Smith being drawn on the sledge by Joyce and Wild

麦金托什和斯潘塞-史密斯在雪橇上被乔伊斯和怀尔德拉着

In spite of their difficulties the party made good progress until, on 17 February about 10 miles (16 km) short of the Bluff depot, they were halted by a blizzard. They remained tent-bound for five days, by which time their supplies had run out. In desperation the party left the tent the next day, but it soon proved impossible for Mackintosh and Spencer-Smith to travel further. Joyce, Richards and Hayward then sledged through the blizzard to the depot, leaving the invalids in a tent under the care of Wild. This round trip of about 20 miles (32 km) took them a week to complete. They returned with food and fuel to sustain their comrades, and the march resumed. Within a short time Mackintosh joined Spencer-Smith on the sledge, and before long, Hayward too collapsed. The three men still on their feet were by now too weak to haul three invalids, so on 8 March Mackintosh volunteered to stay in the tent while the others attempted to take Spencer-Smith and Hayward to Hut Point. A day later Spencer-Smith died, utterly worn out by exhaustion and scurvy, and was buried in the ice. Joyce and Wild reached Hut Point with Hayward on 11 March and went back for Mackintosh. By 16 March the whole surviving party had reached the hut.

尽管如此,队伍还是在不断前进,直到2月17号一场暴风雪将他们困住,此时他们距离明纳海崖的补给站大约10英里(约16千米)。他们在帐篷里待了5天,所有的物品都用完了。抱着孤注一掷的想法,队伍第二天离开帐篷,但是很快麦金托什和斯潘塞-史密斯都不能继续上路了。二人被留在帐篷中,由怀尔德照料,乔伊斯、理查兹和海沃德则冒着风雪到达补给站。一来一回的过程仅约20英里(约32千米),他们却用了整整一个星期。他们带着食物和燃料返回,整个队伍又继续上路了。不久后,麦金托什和斯潘塞-史密斯一样都躺到了雪橇上,海沃德也倒下了。仍在前进的三个人也已经很虚弱,拉不动三个行动不便的人一起走,于是3月8号麦金托什主动提出留在帐篷里,剩下的人拉着斯潘塞-史密斯和海沃德前去哈特角。一天后,精疲力竭又苦于坏血病的斯潘塞-史密斯去世,被埋在了冰下。乔伊斯和怀尔德带着海沃德在3月11号抵达哈特角,两人再返回去接麦金托什。3月16号,幸存下来的所有人都到达了哈特角。

From the start of the hauling of loads from Cape Evans on 1 September 1915 to the arrival of the survivors back at Hut Point, a total of 198 days had passed, the longest sledging journey in terms of elapsed time undertaken on any expedition up to that time.

自1915年9月1号从埃文斯角搬运物资开始,到所有幸存队员抵达哈特角为止,一共历时198天。这是截至那时所有探险活动中耗时最长的雪橇之旅。

Deaths of Mackintosh and Hayward 麦金托什和海沃德之死

The five survivors slowly recovered their strength with a diet of seal meat. The ice was too thin for them to risk the final trip to Cape Evans, and the monotony of their diet and surroundings became wearisome. On 8 May Mackintosh announced that he and Hayward intended to risk the ice and walk to Cape Evans. Against the strenuous objections of their companions they departed, and within the hour disappeared into a blizzard. The others went to look for them after the storm and found only tracks leading to the edge of the broken ice. Mackintosh and Hayward were never seen again. They had either fallen through the thin ice or had been carried out to sea on an ice floe. Richards, Joyce and Wild waited until 15 July to make the trip to Cape Evans, where they were at last reunited with Stevens, Cope, Jack and Gaze, despite the partial lunar eclipse which reduced the amount of light during the crossing.

吃过一顿海豹肉之后,五名幸存者慢慢恢复了力气。由于海冰太薄,他们不敢贸然前往埃文斯角,但单调的食物和周围环境使他们感到很厌倦。5月8号,麦金托什决定和海沃德冒一次险,尝试沿着冰走回埃文斯角。尽管同伴强烈反对,他们还是离开了,一个小时内便消失在暴风雪中。风雪后其余人出去寻找二人,但是沿着痕迹只来到了一块破冰的边缘。麦金托什和海沃德从此便再无消息。或许他们掉下了薄冰,或许他们在浮冰上被带到了海里。理查兹、乔伊斯和怀尔德又等到15号,才开始返回埃文斯角,虽然期间遇到一次月偏食,路上光线暗淡,但最终还是和史蒂文斯、科普、杰克以及加泽重聚。

Rescue 营救

Ernest Shackleton at the time of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition

大英帝国横跨南极探险队时期的欧内斯特•沙克尔顿

After Aurora's arrival in New Zealand in April 1916, Stenhouse began the task of raising funds for the ship's repair and refit, prior to its return to Antarctica to rescue the marooned men. This proved difficult: nothing had been heard from Shackleton since Endurance had left South Georgia in December 1914, and it seemed likely that relief expeditions were necessary for both strands of the expedition. However, the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was completely out of funds, and there was no obvious alternative source of finance. Given the chaotic financial circumstances in which Aurora had departed from Australia, private subscribers were hard to find. Finally, the governments of Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain agreed jointly to fund the refit of Aurora, but insisted on their joint committee having full control of the relief expedition.

1916年4月Aurora号到达新西兰后,斯滕豪斯开始集资用于修缮船只,并准备返回到南极去营救陷入困境的队员们。这段过程显得相当艰难:自从坚忍号于1914年12月离开南乔治亚岛后,沙克尔顿便音讯全无,看样子两边的探险队都需要营救探险队前去帮助。然而,大英帝国横跨南极探险队却是相当缺钱,而且显然没有其他资金来源。鉴于Aurora号离开澳大利亚后,财政状况一直很混乱,也很难找到私人赞助者。最终,澳大利亚、新西兰和大英帝国三家政府同意共同出资,修缮Aurora号,但是前提是成立一个联合委员会,并且委员会对探险队的营救享有绝对控制权。

On 31 May, Shackleton arrived in the Falkland Islands with the story of his escape after the loss of Endurance in the Weddell Sea. His first priority was to effect the rescue of the rest of the Weddell Sea party, stranded on Elephant Island, and it was early December before he arrived in New Zealand. He was too late to influence the organization of the Ross Sea party's relief; the joint committee had appointed John King Davis to lead the expedition and had dismissed Stenhouse and Aurora's other officers. Davis was a veteran of Mawson's recent Australasian expedition, and had turned down Shackleton's offers in 1914 of the command of eitherEndurance or Aurora. As a gesture, Shackleton was permitted to sail as a supernumerary officer when the ship left on 20 December. On 10 January 1917, when Aurora reached Cape Evans, the survivors were astonished to see Shackleton approaching them; they then learned for the first time the futility of their labours. After a further week spent in a vain search for the bodies of Mackintosh and Hayward, Aurora headed north for New Zealand, carrying the seven survivors of the original shore party.

5月31号,沙克尔顿抵达福克兰群岛,他在威德尔海丢失坚忍号后逃亡的故事也随之传开。沙克尔顿的首要任务是营救滞留在象岛上的威德尔海支队的其余成员,而且12月初他才到达新西兰。他没赶上组织对罗斯海支队的营救任务,联合委员会委任约翰•金•戴维斯领导救援探险队,并解雇了斯滕豪斯和Aurora号上原先的其他人员。戴维斯是莫森刚刚领导的澳大利亚探险队中的一名老手,1914年沙克尔顿曾邀请他领导坚忍号或Aurora号,但被拒绝。由于沙克尔顿的影响力,他被允许作为后备人员随着Aurora号于12月20号一同出发。1917年1月10号,当Aurora号抵达埃文斯角时,幸存者们惊讶地发现沙克尔顿竟然也在船上,同时他们也第一次意识到自己所做的工作都是徒劳的。花了一周搜寻麦金托什和海沃德的尸体无果后,Aurora号载着原先海岸部队仅剩的7名幸存者向北返回新西兰。

Aftermath 后记

The Discovery and Terra Nova huts remain, protected by the Antarctic Heritage Trust and the New Zealand government. Within the Cape Evans hut an inscription by Richards on the wall near his bunk, listing the names of those lost, can still be read, but the generally deteriorating condition of the huts has caused concern.

发现号和新地号探险时的所建的小屋都保存了下来,受到南极遗产信托机构和新西兰政府的保护。在埃文斯角的小屋里,理查兹在睡铺的墙上将逝去之人的名字刻了下来,现在字迹仍可辨认。不过,这些小屋正渐渐退化的情况也引起了人们的担忧。

The Aurora survived for less than a year after her final return from the Ross Sea. Shackleton had sold her for £10,000, and her new role was as a coal-carrier between Australia and South America. She disappeared in the Pacific Ocean, on or about 2 January 1918, having either foundered in a storm or been sunk by an enemy raider. Aboard her was James Paton of the Ross Sea ship's party, who was still serving as her boatswain. Ernest Wild was also a victim of the First World War. He died of typhoid in Malta, on 10 March 1918, whilst serving with the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean.

从罗斯海最终返回后, Aurora号幸存的时间不足一年。沙克尔顿以10,000英镑的价格将之出售,随后它的角色便成了运煤船,装载煤块在澳大利亚与南美洲之间往来。在1918年1月2日左右, Aurora号在太平洋上消失,它或许淹没在风暴中,或许被敌对的袭击者击沉。当时在船上的水手长是詹姆斯•佩顿,在罗斯海支队时期做的是同样的工作。欧内斯特•怀尔德也是一战的受害者, 1918年3月10日,他在马耳他死于伤寒,当时他正作为一名皇家海军成员在地中海地区服役。

On 4 July 1923, Joyce and Richards were awarded Albert Medals by George V for their bravery and life-saving efforts during the second depot-laying journey. Wild and Victor Hayward received the same award, posthumously. Many of the survivors enjoyed long and successful careers. The young wireless operator, Lionel Hooke, joined Amalgamated Wireless Australasia Ltd and was responsible for many technological innovations. He became the company's managing director in 1945 and its chairman in 1962, having been knighted for services to industry in 1957. Of the four dogs who survived the trek, Con was killed by the other dogs in a fight before the rescue. The others, Oscar, Gunner and Towser, returned in the ship to New Zealand and were placed in Wellington Zoo, where Oscar lived, allegedly, to the age of 25. Near the end of his life Dick Richards, the last survivor of the party, was without regrets and did not regard the struggle as futile. Rather, he believed, it was something that the human spirit had accomplished, and that no undertaking carried through to conclusion was for nothing.

1923年7月4号,乔治五世授予乔伊斯和理查兹阿尔伯特勋章,以表彰他们在第二次建站时的英勇表现和救人行为。怀尔德和维克多•海沃德也被追授同样的奖章。大多数的幸存者此后的事业都非常成功。年轻的无线电操作员莱昂内尔•胡克进入澳大拉西亚混合无线电有限公司,1945年升任总经理,1962年又成为董事长,而且在1957年因为所作贡献被授予爵位。至于在拖运中幸存下来的四只狗,Con在与其他狗的争斗中被咬死,没赶上营救队的到来,其他三只Oscar, Gunner and Towser返回到了新西兰,被安置在惠灵顿动物园中,而且据称Oscar活到了25岁。作为罗斯海支队的最后一名幸存者,迪克•理查兹在晚年表示自己并无遗憾,也不认为大家的辛苦都是徒劳,相反,他认为是人类伟大的精神得到了展示,而且任何坚持到最后的工作都不是一无所获的。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

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