Macaron 马卡龙

翻译| 郝志强 审校| 许少欢 梁新珍

Macarons from Ladurée, Paris, France.

马卡龙来自法国巴黎的拉杜丽。

A macaron (/ˌmɑːkəˈroʊn/ mah-kə-rohn; French pronunciation:[makaʁɔ̃]) is a French sweet meringue-based confection made with egg white, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, and food colouring. The macaron is commonly filled with ganache, buttercream or jam filling sandwiched between two biscuits (cookies). The name is derived from the Italian word macarone, maccarone or maccherone, the Italian meringue.

马卡龙(/ˌmɑːkəˈroʊn/ mah-kə-rohn;法语发音:[makaʁɔ̃])是一种以调和蛋白为基础原料的法式甜点,主要由鸡蛋清,糖粉,砂糖,杏仁粉或者杏仁霜,以及食用色素制成。通常在两块饼干之间夹有巧克力酱,奶油乳酪或果酱等内馅。它的名字来源于意大利单词 macarone, maccarone or maccherone,一种意大利甜点。

The confection is characterised by smooth, squared top, ruffled circumference (referred to as the "foot" or "pied"), and a flat base. It is mildly moist and easily melts in the mouth. Macarons can be found in a wide variety of flavors that range from the traditional (raspberry, chocolate) to the new (foie gras, matcha).

这种甜点的特点是:细腻,方顶,圆形并且圆周有褶边,以及一个平底作基础。它的湿度适中,入口即化。马卡龙有着各种各样的口味,无论是传统口味(树莓,巧克力)还是新口味(鹅肝酱,抹茶),都应有尽有。

The macaroon is often mistaken as the macaron; many have adopted the French spelling of macaron to distinguish the two items in the English language. However, this has caused confusion over the correct spelling. Some recipes exclude the use of macaroon to refer to this French confection while others think that they are synonymous. In reality, the word macaroon is simply the English translation of the French word macaron, so both pronunciations are technically correct depending on personal preference and context. In a Slate article on the topic, Stanford Professor of Food Cultures Dan Jurafsky indicates that 'macaron' (also, "macaron parisien", or "le macaron Gerbet") is the correct spelling for the confection.

马卡龙的单词macaroon经常和 macaron弄混;很多人已经采用了法语的拼法 macaron来区分二者。然而,这又给到底哪种才是正确的拼法带来了困扰。一些菜谱排斥用macaroon来表示这种法国甜点,然而其他的却认为它们是同义词。实际上,单词macaroon仅仅是法语单词macaron的英语翻译,因此从严格意义上讲,这两个发音都是对的,只不过是建立在不同的个人喜好和语境上。在有关这一话题的一篇文章中,斯坦福的食物文化教授Dan Jurafsky指出“Macaron”("macaron parisien", or "le macaron Gerbet")是这一甜点的正确拼法。

Contents/目录

• 1 History/历史

• 2 Common flavors/常见口味

• 3 Variations/分类

o 3.1 French regional variations/法国原始种类

o 3.2 Switzerland/瑞士

o 3.3 Korea/韩国

o 3.4 Japan/日本

• 4 Popularity/流行程度

History/历史

Picture from Dictionnaire encyclopédique de l'épicerie et des industries annexes, by Albert Seigneurie, edited by L'Épicier in 1904, page 431.

图片来自Dictionnaire encyclopédique de l'épicerie et des industries annexes, Albert Seigneurie著,L'Épicier编,1904年,第431页。

Although the macaron is predominantly a French confection, there has been much debate about its origins. Larousse Gastronomique cites the macaron as being created in 791 in a convent near Cormery. Some have traced its French debut back to the arrival of Catherine de' Medici's Italian pastry chefs whom she brought with her in 1533 upon marrying Henry II of France. In 1792, macarons began to gain fame when two Carmelite nuns, seeking asylum in Nancy during the French Revolution, baked and sold the macaron cookies in order to pay for their housing. These nuns became known as the "Macaron Sisters". In these early stages, macarons were served without special flavors or fillings.

尽管在主流观点看来,马卡龙是法国甜点,但是有关它的起源仍有很多争论。法国美食百科全书写道,马卡龙是在791年在位于 Cormery附近的女修道院里被创造出来的。一些人把马卡龙在法国的首次出现追溯到凯瑟琳•德•梅第奇的糕点厨师,她在1533年嫁给法国国王亨利二世时把他们带到了法国。1792年,马卡龙才开始名声大噪,当时处于在法国大革命期间,两个加尔默罗修女在南希寻求避难。她们烤制并出售马卡龙以支付她们的房租。这些修女开始以“马卡龙姐妹”被熟知。在早期,马卡龙没有什么特别的风味或夹心。

It was not until the 1830s that macarons began to be served two-by-two with the addition of jams, liqueurs, and spices. The macaron as it is known today, composed of two almond meringue discs filled with a layer of buttercream, jam, or ganache filling, was originally called the "Gerbet" or the "Paris macaron." Pierre Desfontaines of the French pâtisserie Ladurée has sometimes been credited with its creation in the early part of the 20th century, but another baker, Claude Gerbet, also claims to have invented it.

直到19世纪30年代,马卡龙才开始被做成双面夹心的样子,加入了果酱,利口酒和香料。如现在所熟知的样子,马卡龙由两片杏仁粉做成的面饼构成,其中添加了一层奶油乳酪,果酱和巧克力酱夹心,最初被叫做"Gerbet"或者"Paris macaron"。法国糕点师Pierre Desfontaines有时被人们认为是20世纪初马卡龙的发明者,但是,另一位糕点师, Claude Gerbe,也宣称创造了马卡龙。

Common flavors

常见口味

Almond macaron

杏仁味马卡龙

Blueberry macaron

蓝莓味马卡龙

Caramel macaron

焦糖马卡龙

Chocolate macaron

巧克力味马卡龙

Coconut macaron

椰香马卡龙

Honey macaron

蜂蜜马卡龙

Lemon macaron

柠檬味马卡龙

Orange macaron

橙味马卡龙

Peppercorn macaron

胡椒马卡龙

Pistachio macaron

开心果味马卡龙

Rose macaron

玫瑰马卡龙

Vanilla macaron

香草味马卡龙

Variations/分类

Macarons in a variety of colours.

各种颜色的马卡龙

Macarons in Paris (foremost plate)

巴黎马卡龙(首要餐盘)

Macarons from La Grande Épicerie, the deli department of Le Bon Marché, Paris

来自La Grande Épicerie的马卡龙, Le Bon Marché 熟食部,巴黎

Macaron cookie base

马卡龙面饼

French regional variations

法国传统种类

Several French cities and regions claim long histories and variations, notably Lorraine (Nancy and Boulay), Basque Country(Saint-Jean-de-Luz), Saint-Emilion, Amiens, Montmorillon, Le Dorat, Sault, Chartres, Cormery Joyeuse and Sainte-Croix in Burgundy.

一些法国城市和地区宣称他们所产的马卡龙历史悠久,种类多样,尤其是在洛林(南锡和布雷), 巴斯克地区(圣让德吕),圣埃米里翁,亚眠,蒙特莫里隆,勒多拉,索村,沙特尔,科尔默里茹瓦厄斯和勃艮第的圣克鲁瓦。

Macarons d'Amiens, made in Amiens, are small, round-shaped biscuit-type macarons made from almond paste, fruit and honey, which were first recorded in 1855.

由法国亚眠出产的亚眠马卡龙,是一种小而圆形的马卡龙,面饼由杏仁糊,水果和蜂蜜制成,最早记载日期在1855年。

The city of Montmorillon is well known for its macarons and has a museum dedicated to it. The Maison Rannou-Métivier is the oldest macaron bakery in Montmorillon, dating back to 1920. The traditional recipe for Montmorillon macarons remains unchanged for over 150 years.

蒙特莫里隆城因为它的马卡龙而著名,那里还有一座马卡龙博物馆。Rannou-Métivier公司是 蒙特莫里隆城里历史最悠久的马卡龙生产者,可以追溯至1920年。 蒙特莫里隆城的马卡龙配方至今未变,保存了有150年之久。

The town of Nancy in the Lorraine region has a storied history with the macaron. It is said that the abbess of Remiremont founded an order of nuns called the "Dames du Saint-Sacrement" with strict dietary rules prohibiting the consumption of meat. Two nuns, Sisters Marguerite and Marie-Elisabeth are credited with creating the Nancy macaron to fit their dietary requirements. They became known as the 'Macaron Sisters' (Les Soeurs Macarons). In 1952, the city of Nancy honored them by giving their name to the Rue de la Hache, where the macaron was invented.[16]

洛林地区的南锡城有一段关于马卡龙的有名历史。传说,雷米雷蒙修女院的院长创立了一套叫做"Dames du Saint-Sacrement"的修女规矩,这套规矩在饮食方面相当严格,禁止吃肉。两个修女Marguerite 和Marie-Elisabeth据说创造了南锡马卡龙以满足她们饮食上的需要。她们以“马卡龙姐妹”而著名。1952年,南锡城为了纪念她们,以她们的名字命名Rue de la Hache,也就是马卡龙的诞生地。

Switzerland

瑞士

In Switzerland the Luxemburgerli (also Luxembourger) is a brand name of confectionery made by the Confiserie Sprüngli inZürich, Switzerland. A Luxemburgerli is a macaron comprising two disks of almond meringue with a buttercream filling. Luxemburgerli are smaller and lighter than macarons from many other vendors. It is said to be lighter and more airy in consistency. Flavors include: vanilla, chocolate, stracciatella (chocolate chip), caramel, hazelnut,champagne, amaretto, chestnut, mocha, cinnamon, lemon, mandarin, and raspberry. Many flavors are seasonal. The shelf life is three to five days, refrigerated.

在瑞士, Luxemburgerli (也叫做Luxembourger)是位于瑞士苏黎世,由 Confiserie Sprüngli创办的糕点品牌。Luxemburgerli是一种由两片杏仁粉面饼夹奶油乳酪的马卡龙。Luxemburgerli比别的马卡龙更小更轻。据说它们更轻更薄。 Luxemburgerli马卡龙的口味有:香草味,巧克力味,巧克力脆皮味,焦糖味,榛果味,香槟味,杏仁酒味,板栗味,抹茶味,肉桂味,柠檬味,橘子味以及树莓味。很多口味都是季节性的。在冷藏的情况下保质期是三到五天。

Zurich, Switzerland, Sprüngli confectionery shop display with Luxemburgerli.

位于瑞士苏黎世的斯布隆里糕点店,正在在展示Luxemburgerli牌的马卡龙

Luxemburgerli were invented by the confectioner Camille Studer who brought the recipe to Zürich after creating them in aLuxembourg confectionery shop (Confiserie Namur) in 1957. There, the recipe was refined for a confectionery contest. The name Luxemburgerli is derived from the nickname which a colleague bestowed on Studer, whose family originated in Luxembourg. The original name, Baiser de Mousse (foam kiss in French), perceived as appropriate for the new creation, was changed toGebäck des Luxemburgers ("Luxemburger's confection") which became, in Swiss German, Luxemburgerli ("little Luxembourger").

Luxemburgerli是糕点师 Camille Studer 发明的。1957年,他在 Luxemburgerli糕点店(Confiserie Namur)创造了 Luxemburgerli后,将配方带到了苏黎世。在苏黎世,配方因为一场糕点比赛而变得更加完美。 Luxemburgerli这个名字来源于一个同事赠与Studer的昵称,他的家族起源于卢森堡。一开始的名字Baiser de Mousse(法语中慕斯之吻的意思)被认为是一个适合这一新发明的名字。这个名字后来又变成了Gebäck des Luxemburgers ,在瑞士德语中叫Luxemburgerli。

Korea

韩国

Macarons are popular in South Korea, pronounced as "ma-ka-rong" in Korean. Green tea powder or leaves can be used to make green tea macarons.

马卡龙在韩国十分流行。它在韩语里被叫做"ma-ka-rong"。绿茶粉或叶子可以被用来制作绿茶马卡龙。

Japan

日本

Macarons in Japan are a popular confection known as "makaron". There is also a version of the same name which substitutes peanut flour for almond and is flavored in wagashi style, widely available in Japan.

马卡龙在日本被叫做 "makaron",也是一种流行的糕点。有一种版本也叫马卡龙,但是用花生粉代替了杏仁粉,是和果子口味的,在日本广泛流行。

Popularity

流行程度

In Paris, the Ladurée chain of pastry shops has been known for its macarons for about 150 years. In France, McDonald'ssells macarons in their McCafés (sometimes using advertising that likens the shape of a macaron to that of a hamburger). McCafé macarons are produced by Château Blanc, which, like Ladurée, is a subsidiary of Groupe Holder, though they do not use the same macaron recipe.

在巴黎, 拉杜丽连锁糕点店因为它的马卡龙而闻名于世长达150年。在法国,麦当劳在他们的 McCafés咖啡馆里销售马卡龙(有时使用把马卡龙的形状比做成汉堡形状的广告)。 McCafés的马卡龙由 Château Blanc生产,就像拉杜丽一样,是Groupe Holder集团的子公司,尽管他们采用不同的马卡龙配方。

Outside of Europe, the French-style macaron can be found in Canada and the United States. In Australia, Adriano Zumbo along with the TV series MasterChef have seen the macaron become a popular sweet treat, and it is now sold by McDonald's in its McCafe outlets.

欧洲以外的地方,法式马卡龙还可见于加拿大和美国。在澳大利亚, Adriano Zumbo连同电视剧《主厨》,一同见证了马卡龙如何成为了一道广受欢迎的甜品,它现在被麦当劳放在 McCafe的出口处销售。

On an global level, March 20 celebrates "Macaron Day". Created in 2005 in Paris by la Maison Pierre Hermé, it is a tradition that spread across the world. On this day, participating bakeries and macaron shops around the world offer customers one free sample macaron. A percentage of all additional macaron sales is donated to a local charity.

3月20日是全球的“马卡龙日”。2005由皮埃尔•艾尔梅糕点坊在巴黎创设了这一节日,并作为一个传统而传遍世界。在这一天,世界上参与节日活动的面包店和马卡龙门店向顾客提供一份免费的马卡龙样品。马卡龙所有额外销售的百分之一将被捐献给当地的慈善组织。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

内容根据CC BY-SA 3.0可用