Globalization and women in China 全球化与中国女性

翻译| 陈霞 审校| 许少欢 梁新珍

The study of the impact of globalization on women in China examines the role and status of Chinese women relative to the political and cultural changes that have taken place in the 20th century as a consequence of globalization.

一份关于全球化对中国女性有何影响的研究,考察了在20世纪由全球化引起的政治和经济变革中,中国女性的角色和地位的问题。

Globalization refers to the interaction and integration of people, products, cultures and governments between various nations around the globe; this is fostered by trade, investment, and information technology. Globalization affected women's rights and the gender hierarchy in China, in aspects of domestic life such as marriage and primogeniture, as well as in the workplace.

全球化是指世界上不同国家之间在人、产品、文化和各政府方面的互动和一体化;由贸易、投资和信息技术所促进。在中国,全球化影响着女性的权利和性别等级,在家庭生活方面例如婚姻和长子继承权,在工作中也有同样的影响。

These changes altered the quality of life and the availability of opportunities to women at different junctures throughout the modern globalization process.

这些变化改变了女性在整个全球化进程中的生活质量和不同时刻的机遇。

The dynamics of gender inequity are correlated with the ideological principles held by the ruling political regime. The imperial era (221-206 BCE) was dominated by the social paradigm of Confucianism, which was a pervasive philosophy throughout the Orient.

性别不平等的动态变化与取决于国家政治体制的意识形态原则相关。在帝国时代(公元前221-206),儒家学说的社会模式占主导地位,它一种普遍的东方哲学思想。

Confucian ideals emphasized morality, character, social relationship, and the status quo. Confucius preached jen (humanity) and the equality and educability of all people; Neo-Confucianists and Imperial leaders used his beliefs in social hierarchy, particularly in the family setting, for the physical and social oppression of women.

儒家思想强调道德,品质,社会关系和现状。孔子宣扬仁(仁慈),以及人人平等并且享有平等的受教育的权利,新儒学家们和帝国领袖们将他的信仰运用于社会等级中,尤其是在家庭环境中,以对女性进行身体和社会上的压迫。

As the Chinese government began to re-assimilate themselves into the global community in the late 19th to early 20th century, it shifted away from conventional Confucian ideals and women’s role in society changed as well.

由于中国政府在19世纪末20世纪初意图把自己重新纳入国际社会,儒家思想中传统的女性观念发生了偏离,她们的社会角色也因此而改变。

After Mao Zedong established the People’s Republic of China in 1949, a change in traditional gender roles came about. Mao’s death marked the beginning of the current communist administration and an influx of international communications in the areas of commerce, politics and social ideals.

毛泽东在1949年成立了中华人民共和国之后,传统的性别角色便开始改变。毛泽东的去世标志着当代共产主义政府的开始以及中国在贸易、政治和社会理想等领域中开始了大量的国际交流。

Since the 1980s, under the new communist party, the women’s rights movement has gained momentum and has become a national issue and a sign of modernization.

自20世纪80年代以来,在新共产党的领导下,妇女权利运动呈上升势头,已经变为一个民族问题和现代化的一个标志。

Contents

目录

• 1 Western bias

• 1西方偏见

• 2 History of female oppression

• 2女性压迫史

o 2.1 Traditional roles and Confucianism

o 2.1传统角色和儒家思想

o 2.2 Married life

o 2.2婚姻生活

o 2.3 May Fourth Movement

o 2.3五四运动

• 3 Domestic life of a Chinese woman

• 3中国女性的家庭生活

o 3.1 Foot binding

o 3.1缠足

o 3.2 Trafficking of women

o 3.2贩卖妇女

o 3.3 Confucianism and Communism

o 3.3儒家思想和共产主义

o 3.4 Population control

o 3.4人口控制

• 4 Chinese women in the workplace

• 4中国女性的工作环境

o 4.1 History of working women

o 4.1中国女性的工作史

o 4.2 Rural areas

o 4.2农村地区

o 4.3 Urban areas

o 4.3城市地区

 4.3.1 Reasons for migrant labor

 4.3.1农民工外出务工的原因

 4.3.2 Degradation

 4.3.2退化

Western bias

西方偏见

Western scholarship has historically used ideas of subordinance and victimization to characterize traditional Chinese womanhood.

西方学术界历来就用从属和牺牲这两个词来形容传统中国女性。

These beliefs were largely constructed on the basis of ideological and political agendas, and were widely accepted despite their ethnocentrism.

这些理念大都建立在西方意识形态和政治目的的基础上,虽带有强烈的种族优越感,却被广泛接受。

Early European writings pertaining to Chinese women were produced by missionaries and ethnologists at the conclusion of the 19th century. The goal of the missionaries was to “civilize China,” and highlighting weakness and victimization provided for the continuance of their work. This belief prompted scholars to use female subordination as a means to validate Western ideas about Chinese culture and Confucian principles.

早期的欧洲作品中关于中国女性的形象是由传教士和人种学者在19世纪得出的结论。传教士的目标是“教化中国”,并且在他们的作品中持续突出弱势和受害的主题,这种理念促使学者把女性的从属地位作为一种证实中国文化和儒家原则的手段。

In the 1970s, as the feminist movements were forming, they began to affect the literature surrounding women in China. Studies on Chinese women from this period were concerned with women’s liberation, and were sympathetic to the feminist movement.

在20世纪70年代,随着女权运动的逐渐形成,他们开始影响中国女性的文学形象。从这一时期开始,关于中国女性的研究开始关注妇女解放并且开始同情女权运动。

This sentiment largely influenced the topics and methodology of the research. With this shift in perspective, the focus of discourse remained on subordination, patriarchal oppression, and victimization.

这个观点在很大程度上影响了研究的主题和方法。虽然有了观点上的转变,但论述的焦点仍在从属关系、父权压迫和受害上。

These studies examined such issues as foot binding and the chastity of widows. Literature formulated by feminist writers did nothing to dispel the myth of the weak, subservient woman.

这些研究对缠足以及寡妇的贞洁这类问题进行了检查。女权主义作家在文学作品中的阐述并没有消除有关妇女的软弱、屈从的论调。

These works provided a new bias that had not before been articulated. Feminists believed that Chinese women were a part of a “universally subordinated womanhood". This line of thinking illustrates the cultural superiority inherently felt by Western women. Writings on Chinese woman rarely account for differences in time, ethnicity, class, region or age, preferring to describe the status of women as a static, unitary fixture of Chinese culture, despite the political and geographic boundaries that defined different regions and the economic and social changes that occurred throughout history.

这些作品提供了一种之前尚未阐明的偏见。女权主义者认为中国女性是“普遍从属气质女性”的一部分。这种思路体现了西方女性固有的文化优越感。描述中国女性的作品很少对时间、种族、阶级、宗教和年龄等的差异作出说明,而是更愿意将中国女性的形象描述为一种静态的、单一的、固有的中国文化,尽管不同的政治理念和地域边界定义了不同的地区,经济和社会的变化贯穿了整个历史。

History of female oppression

女性压迫史

Traditional roles and Confucianism

传统的角色和儒家思想

From the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 CE) until the modern period (1840–1919), scholars and rulers developed a male-dominated patriarchal society in China. Confucianism was at the root of the development of the patriarchal society in China, and emphasized the distinctions between the sexes and the roles they have within the family.

从汉朝(公元前206年-公元220年)直到现代(1840-1919),学者和统治者在中国发展形成了一种以男性为主导的男权社会。儒家思想是中国男权社会发展的根源,强调性别的差异以及男女在家庭生活中所扮演的不同角色。

These ideologies continued through the Tang dynasty (618-907), and girls were taught from a very young age to be submissive to their fathers, then to their husbands, and later to their sons. During the Song Dynasty (960-1297), Confucian scholars further developed the patriarchal tradition with more restrictions for females, including foot binding for girls at a very young age.

这种意识在整个唐朝得到延续(618年-907年),女孩子在很小的时候就被教导要顺从他们的父亲,然后是她们的丈夫,继而是她们的儿子.在宋朝(960年-1297年)时期,儒家学者进一步发展了更多限制女性的父权传统,包括女孩从小就开始缠足。

Married life

婚姻生活

The traditional Chinese marriage system is organized by the parents of the groom and bride in order to obtain alliances between the two families to ensure the continuance of the family line. There were three types of marriages that emerged in the late Chou Dynasty (951-960).

为了获取两个家庭间的联盟,中国传统的婚姻制度是由新郎和新娘的父母安排,以确保延续家族血脉。在后周时期,出现了三种形式的婚姻。

In these three marriages, the Chinese woman's main function was to produce children. The first marriage was called a capture marriage, in which the groom would go to his prospective bride's house at dusk to "kidnap" her. The second type of marriage was called a purchase marriage, in which women were paid for by their husbands. Once women were purchased, they became their husband's possession and could be traded or sold. The third type of marriage was the arranged marriage, which was accomplished by a matchmaker who acted as a go-between for both families. If there was not a matchmaker, the marriage could be deemed unacceptable and the husband had the right to dissolve the marriage.

在这三种婚姻中,中国女性的主要功能是生孩子。第一种婚姻叫做抢婚,新郎会在黄昏时到准新娘的家里把她“绑走”。第二种叫做买婚,女性被卖给丈夫。女性一旦被购买,就变成了丈夫的私有财产,可以任意买卖。第三种婚姻形式是包办婚姻,这类婚姻是通过一个媒人作为两个家庭之间的中间人来完成的。如果没有媒人,婚姻可视为不被承认的,并且丈夫有权解除婚姻。

The married woman's role at home depended upon the social rank of her spouse, but the prime mission of married women, regardless of their social status, was to bear a son in order to carry on the family name. In addition, a married woman was to be obedient to her in-laws as if they were her own parents.

已婚妇女在家庭中的角色取决于配偶的社会地位,但是不论社会地位如何,已婚妇女的首要任务就是生一个儿子去延续家族的香火。另外,已婚妇女要顺从自己的公婆,把他们当成自己的亲生父母。

The marriage law of 1950 was issued after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. It declared the abolition of the feudal marriage system characterized by arranged and forced marriage, male superiority, and the disregard for the interests of children. This law also asserted the rights of adults to divorce, which embraced the free-choice marriage, and helped transfer power from the older to the younger generations.

中华人民共和国成立后的第二年颁布了1950年婚姻法。它宣布废除以包办婚姻,强迫婚姻,男性至上以及漠视儿童利益为特点的封建婚姻制度。本法律还规定了成人的离婚权利,包括婚姻自由,将婚姻的权利由父母这一代转移到年轻人自己这一代等内容。

May Fourth Movement

五四运动

The "New Culture" movement began in China around 1916 following the unsuccessful activities of the 1911 Revolution to establish a republican government, and continued through the 1920s.

伴随着1911年辛亥革命建立共和政府的失败,新文化运动于1916年左右开始,持续到20世纪20年代。

The May Fourth Movement, which took place on May 4, 1919, was a demonstration led by students at the National Peking University against the government, in which they protested the abolition of Confucianism and changes in the traditional value system. Many believed that the solution to China's problems would be to adopt Western notions of equality and democracy. Since the movement stressed group efforts and propaganda, women were involved in numerous collective tasks such as publication, drama production, and fund raising, which helped them gain more social contact with men and win respect.

发生于1919年5月4日的五四运动,是由国立北京大学的学生领导的反对政府的游行示威运动,他们在抗议中要求废除儒家思想并且改变传统价值体系。许多人认为中国问题的解决之道在于采取西方平等和民主的观念。由于运动强调团队协作和宣传,女性也参与到了众多的集体任务中,比如出版,编剧和筹资等,使她们获得了更多的与男性社会接触机会,并且得到了尊重。

Domestic life of a Chinese woman

中国女性的家庭生活

Foot binding

缠足

Foot binding is the process in which the arch of a woman's feet is broken and the toes are wrapped up against the foot to create a smaller looking foot with an acute arch. These "fists of flesh" were seen as attractive and arousing for men and the practice was passed down as a prerequisite to marriage from mother to daughter across generations. Special shoes were made to accentuate the small size of the women's feet. This process was painful and often confined women to their rooms. Few lower class women were able to have their feet bound because they needed to be able to walk normally to accomplish house work. Bound feet came to be an indication of high class and wealth for women. The practice has been outlawed multiple times since its inception in the 13th century. It was finally banned as the Communists came to power around 1949.

在缠足的过程中,女性双脚的形状被破坏,脚趾被包裹起来,使双脚看起来更尖更小。这些“紧握的肉团”看起来更具吸引力,且更吸引男性,这种做法被作为婚姻的先决条件,并从母亲到女儿代代相传。特殊的鞋子还被制作了出来以突出女性的小脚。缠足的过程是很痛苦的,而且往往使女性局限于自己的房间里。少数下层阶级的女性可以不用缠足,因为她们必须能够正常行走以完成家务。对女性来说,缠足也因此成为上层阶级和富足的象征。这种做法自13世纪被创立以来,就已多次被宣布为不合法。最终在1949年左右,缠足在共产党执政时被禁止。

Trafficking of women

拐卖妇女

Women are sold through gangs of women traffickers who kidnap and transport young women and girls across large distances from their homes. Their papers and documentation are taken from them. These women are purchased by men who bar them from leaving the home for fear of the women escaping. Some of these women feel a sense of duty to the family once they have committed to them and had children. They also have no means of escape. This practice has been banned by the government since Mao Zedong and the Communists came to power. Men who buy wives are subject to time in jail, and those convicted for trafficking women face execution.

女性被妇女拐卖团伙拐卖,他们绑架年轻的妇女和女孩并把她们运送到离家很远的地方进行贩卖。她们的证件和档案被带走,然后被其他男性购买,买主禁止她们出门,以防她们逃跑。一些妇女一旦听命于这个家庭并且有了孩子,就会对这个家庭产生责任感。更何况她们也没办法逃脱。这种做法在毛泽东和共产党执政时期就已经被禁止,买妻子的男人会有牢狱之灾,拐卖和运送妇女的人将面临死刑。

Confucianism and Communism

儒家思想和共产主义

Under Confucianism the typical family was patriarchal because men have the capability to pass on the family name and carry on the lineage of the ancestors; women were expected to be subservient. As the Communist regime changed the structure of Chinese society through economic reform, the structure of the Chinese family was altered. "The Four Olds" (sijiu) - old ideas, old habits, old customs, old cultures - were discouraged and were replaced by Communist ideology particularly during the Cultural Revolution. The economy was shifted to total government control with few chances to own private property and communal property. Collectivization destroyed "clan-based" systems and had a great effect on motivation of workers and family loyalties.

在儒家思想的影响下,中国家庭是典型的家长制家庭,因为男性可以继承父姓并沿袭家族血统;女性则被认为是男性的从属。共产党执政后通过经济改革改变了中国的社会结构,家庭结构也因此而改变。四旧(四旧)-旧观念、旧习惯、旧风俗、旧文化都被摒弃,被共产主义思想所取代,尤其是在文化大革命期间。经济体制转变为完全由政府控制,几乎没有机会去拥有私有财产和公共财产。集体化摧毁了“宗族本位”系统,对工人的积极性和家族的忠诚产生了很大影响。

The traditional social structure was further degraded by the Cultural Revolution. The Red Guards turned members of a family against one another as they sought out "class enemies" to be sent for "re-education," ultimately resulting in a loss of family ties. Women were elevated to equal status as men through a series of laws which prohibited practices such as arranged marriages, concubinages, dowries, and child betrothals. Under these marriage laws, women enjoyed joint property in marriage and could file for a divorce.

传统的社会结构通过文化大革命进一步衰退。红卫兵使家庭成员之间相互反目以找出“阶级敌人”,然后送去进行“再教育”,最终导致家庭关系的丧失。女性的地位通过一系列法律例如禁止包办婚姻、纳妾、嫁妆和订立娃娃亲等提升到与男性平等的地位。在这些婚姻法的规定下,女性享有婚后财产共有权以及申请离婚的权利。

As a result of Communist rule in China, the social status of women improved greatly. Women were empowered to work outside the home. Communist rule also brought about the end of practices such as foot binding, child marriages, prostitution, and arranged marriages. China has seen a decrease in domestic violence due to government-supported grassroots programs to counter these practices. Women in rural areas remain largely uneducated.

在共产党的领导下,女性的地位有了很大的提高,她们获得外出工作的权利。共产党的统治也终结了缠足、娃娃亲、卖淫和包办婚姻的做法。中国已经减少了家庭暴力,因为政府支持的基层项目打击这种做法。大部分的农村妇女仍然未接受教育。

Population control

人口控制

During the reform period, the Communist regime in China regulated birth control. The party legalized abortion in 1953 and then created public birth control study groups in 1954. There was a push for a limit on childbirth in 1956, which had no immediate effect on the population. In 1979, the One Child Policy was implemented and is still in effect today.

在改革时期,中国共产党实行计划生育政策。共产党在1953年使人工流产合法化,并且在1954年成立了公共计划生育研究小组。1956年虽然推动限制生育,但是没有产生立竿见影的效果。1979年开始实施独生子女政策,至今仍然有效。

Another instance of population control is the prevalence of female infanticide. Due to the One Child Policy, most families want a boy rather than a girl. Since the 1980s, roughly 200,000 female infants would be killed per year because of the preference for male children and the advancement in technologies such as ultrasound, which help to find out the sex of the fetus. In addition to female infanticide, girls are being unregistered or are abandoned by their families, which stops them from receiving education and legal benefits the government offered. These methods of controlling population have resulted in a huge gender gap in China.

另一个控制人口的事实就是溺杀女婴的现象普遍存在。因为独生子女政策,大多数家庭都想生一个男孩而不是女孩。自20世纪80年代已来,由于重男轻女的思想观念,以及可以辨认胎儿性别的超声波技术的发展,每年大约有200,000女婴被杀死。除了杀死女婴之外,有些出生的女孩不会被登记或者直接被家庭抛弃,不能接受教育以及政府提供的合法权益。这种控制人口的方法导致中国出现了巨大的性别失衡。

Chinese women in the workplace

中国女性的工作环境

History of working women

女性的工作史

Women working in rice fields.在稻田里工作的女性

In the imperial era, women were prohibited from having official positions. It was unimaginable for women to hold these positions because during this time women underwent foot bindings, which prevented them from doing any sorts of physical labor. They held jobs that required minimal physical activity like domestic chores and producing textiles to sell or use.

在帝国时代,禁止女性拥有官职。女性拥有这些职位是不可想象的,因为她们在此期间经历了缠足,这阻止了她们从事任何类型的体力劳动。她们从事的都是对体力要求很少的工作,例如做家务和纺织品的售卖和使用等。

During Mao's rule (1949–1976), Chinese women were needed for their manual labor for farming and for urban industrialization. To compensate for their hard work, they were provided access to education and politics. The Chinese government supported women's education. The percentage of girls attending school was 96.2% compared to below 20% before the People's Republic (1949). The Chinese government has tried to decrease the amount of women illiterates while promoting adult and vocational schools. The amount of illiterates has gone down from 90% in 1949 and 32% from 1993. In the first 30 years of Communist rule women's discrimination was decreasing, but they did not have jobs that had real decision-making power.

在毛泽东执政期间,中国女性需要从事体力劳动,以为农业和城市的现代化做贡献。为了补偿她们的辛勤劳动,她们获得了受教育权和政治权利。中国政府支持女性教育事业,女孩的入学率由中华人民共和国成立前(1949)的低于20%增长到了96.2%。中国政府试图通过提升成人教育和职业学校来减少女性文盲的数量。文盲的比例已经从1949年的90%下降到了1993年的32%。在共产党执政的前30年里,对女性的歧视逐渐减少,但是她们并未获得真正有决策权的工作。

Now in the present day, there are more employed Chinese women. They receive the same amount of money for the same amount of work that they do. The Chinese government has made great efforts to achieve a high level of economic status for women. Since 1949, with the founding of the People' Republic, the rate for employed women has risen. Chinese women account for 44% of the work force and 34.5% account for the women's work force in the world.

现在,越来越多的中国女性得到了工作,她们获得了与工作量等同的收入。中国政府努力为女性争取更高的经济地位,自1949年建国以来,中国女性的就业率在上升。中国女性占国内劳动人口的44%,占世界女性劳动人口的34.5%。

Rural areas

农村地区

The key role women have in farming is to maintain ownership of the main sources of production in rural areas. In traditional China. women were not allowed to own land. Land was inherited through the sons, and if there was no son in the family, it was taken by a close male relative. In less populated areas, women do more agricultural work than men because of shifting cultivation. In more populated areas, men do more work than women because extensive plough cultivation is used.

在农村地区,女性在农业生产中扮演的最关键的角色是维护对生产资料的所有权。在中国的传统中,女性不能拥有土地。土地需通过儿子继承,如果家里没有儿子的话,土地则由男性近亲继承。在人口稀疏的地区,由于迁移农业的缘故,女性要做更多的农活。在人口密集区,由于广泛的犁地种植,需要男性做更多的农活。

During the busy periods of planting, transporting, and harvesting, women are brought onto the field to work rather than working in the house. Female involvement is high in the double-cropping rice area. Women also play a role in tea cultivation. Other types of work women perform in the countryside include pig and poultry rearing, spinning, weaving, basket-making, and other handicrafts. This type of work supplements agricultural income.

在种植、运送、收割的繁忙期间,女性不是在家里工作而是被带到田间劳作。在双季稻田地区,女性的参与度很高。她们同样也在茶叶种植中扮演了重要的角色。农村妇女的工作还包括猪和家禽的饲养,纺纱,编织,制作篮子和其他手工艺品。这类工作主要是为了补充农业收入。

Urban areas

城市地区

China's economic policies laid the basis of the industrialization drive in export-oriented development, and its reliance on low-wage manufacturing to produce consumer goods for the world market. Young migrant women left their homes in rural settings to work in urban industrial areas. Work included export-oriented industrialization, manufacturing in electronics and toy assembly, sewing in garment production, and mixed assembly and sewing in the footwear industry. Hong Kong and Shenzhen were cities established as centers of export-oriented industrialization, and migrant women workers have made up 70% of Shenzhen's three million people. Private sector employers are reluctant to hire women because Chinese law requires that the employer cover maternity leave and childbirth costs.

中国的经济政策奠定了工业化的基础,推动发展出口导向型经济,这依赖于低工资的制造业以为世界市场生产消费品。年轻女工离开家乡到城市的工业区工作。工作类型包括出口导向型工业,电子产品和玩具的装配制造,服装制造,混合装配和鞋类制造行业等。香港和深圳是出口导向型工业的中心,年轻女工占深圳300万总人口的70%。私营业主不愿意雇佣女性工作者,因为中国的法律规定雇主要为员工提供产假并支付分娩费用。

Reasons for migrant labor

农民工外出务工的原因

Workers perform final testing and QA before sending drives off to customers on its 2.5-inch notebook lines.

在将驱动交付给客户之前,工人在2.5英寸的notebook硬盘上进行最后的测试和质量检验。

A recent phenomenon, the migration of rural Chinese workers began in 1984 when the Regulations of Permanent Residence Registration became less punitive and allowed people to move to find employment. People left rural areas to escape poverty, and females left due to the lack of local opportunities for women. In the cities, women could find new, low-paid factory-based jobs that did not require highly skilled workers. According to national statistics, the ratio of male to female migrant workers averages 2:1, and an estimated 30-40 million of the migrant women work in the cities, namely Hong Kong and Shenzhen.

近年来出现了中国农民工的移民潮,这开始于1984年,当时的永久居住登记制度变得不像以前严格了,允许人们移居到别的地方找工作。人们离开农村以求摆脱贫穷,女性离开是因为当地的工作机会有限。在城市里,女性可以在工厂里找到一份新的低薪工作,这些工作对技能的要求不是很高。根据国家统计局统计,男女民工数量的比例平均为2:1,预计有3000万到4000万女工在城市里工作,也就是香港和深圳这样的大城市。

In 2003, 70% of the 5.5 million migrant workers were females in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. In the Nanshan district of Shenzhen, females comprised 80% of the workforce with the average age of 23. Young female workers are preferred over older females or males for several reasons. First, as married women are less mobile, female migrant workers are younger and more likely to be single than their male counterparts. Young rural women are preferred for these jobs primarily because they are less likely to get pregnant, and are able and willing to withstand longer working hours, have “nimble fingers, and will be less experienced in asking for their statuatory rights. In many cases, migrant women sign contracts stating that they will not get pregnant within their period of employment.”

2003年,在深圳经济特区550万民工中,70%为女性。在深圳南山区,女性占整个劳动力的80%,平均年龄为23岁。年轻女工比年长的女工和男性都有优势,原因如下:第一,已婚女工流动性不高,较之于男性,女工越年轻就越可能是单身。年轻农村女工的优势主要在于她们不太可能怀孕,而且愿意也能够承受长时间的工作,她们拥有“灵巧的手指,也没有经验去诉求她们的法定权利。很多情况下,女工会签订表明她们不会在工作期间怀孕的劳动合同”。

In the interest of the family, rural females are sent to find urban employment over male counterparts, mainly to supplement familial income at home and to support the males, who are more likely to attend college. The male standard of education in China is higher; particularly when a family is under financial stress, females are more likely to drop out of school to generate income for the family. Because females have lesser impact on the family’s long-term financial stability, their rights for opportunities development are consequently unequal.

为了家庭利益,农村女性比同龄的男性更容易被送往城市工作,主要是赚钱补贴家用并支持家中更有可能上大学的哥哥或弟弟。在中国,男性的受教育程度要高于女性,尤其是当一个家庭面临经济压力时,女性往往会辍学打工补贴家用。因为女性对家庭长远的财政稳定影响较小,因此也就没有了平等的发展机会。

This new system allowed rural residents to migrate, it did not allow them to change their residence or accept any benefits in the cities. This resulted in a growing population of migrant laborers without the minimal benefits of residency including medical care, housing, or education. Many migrants, particularly less educated, younger women are unaware of their rights. Today, up to 90% of migrants work without contracts, in violation of the Chinese labour law.

新的制度允许农民迁移,但是不允许他们改变户籍或是享受迁往城市的任何福利。这就导致了外来务工人口迅速增长,而他们却不能享受到居住地包括医疗,住房和教育在内的任何福利待遇。许多外来务工人员特别是教育程度低的年轻女性,都没有意识到她们的权利。现如今,90%的外来务工人员都没有签订劳动合同,这是违反中国《劳动法》的。

Degradation

退化

Women factory workers are known as "dagongmei" (working girls). They are traditionally young women migrants who experience a segmented labor market in informal and low-wage employment sectors. Workers in export-oriented factories receive minimum wage and minimum overtime pay, they pay for meals and lodging at the factory, and they pay fines for breaking factory rules. The average daily wage, for a 12-hour day in a toy factory, in the mid-1990s was $1.10 USD for migrant women workers in Shenzhen.

工厂女工被称为“打工妹”。通常她们都是外来务工的年轻女性人员,且经历了非正式劳动力市场的分割,就职于低薪部门。出口导向型工厂的工人获得的是最低的薪水和最低的加班费,工厂提供食宿,但他们会因为违反工厂的规定而被扣工资。在20世纪90年代中期深圳的玩具工厂里,她们一天工作12小时,而平均日薪仅为1.10美元。

These conditions create "maximum surplus appropriation"; workers' daily lives revolve around factory production and are dependent on the regional economy. The state disallows local unionization and has the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) as the legitimate forum of worker representation. Without the right to form unions and with the state sanctioned ACFTU, migrant women workers find it hard to effectively gain suitable rights and treatment from the factory management. The 2003 statistics from the People's University show 90% of migrants work without contracts, directly violating the Chinese Labour Law. According to the ACFTU, migrant workers are owed over 100 billion Yuan in back wages.

这些条件实现了“最大利润”,工人的日常生活围绕着工厂生产,也依赖于周边的区域经济。国家不允许当地存在工会组织,并让全国总工会作为代表工人的合法论坛。在没有权利成立工会而只有受国家制约的全国总工会的情况下,外来务工女性很难获得合法的权利以及工厂公正的管理及待遇。中国人民大学2003年数据统计显示,90%的外来务工人员没有签订劳动合同,直接违反了中国的劳动法。根据全国总工会统计,农民工被拖欠工资达1000亿元。

Organizations are now attempting to assist and empower female migrant workers through training and education on their labor-related rights. Legal clinics have begun to assist female migrants in filing claims against employers and local labor bureaus. One case of female worker exploitation in the Hua Yi garment factory in Beijing resulted in mistreatment by management as well as withholding pay for at least 24 women. After filing complaints, in collaboration with the Center for Women's Law Studies and Legal Services of Beijing University, the women received 170,000 Yuan in back wages and compensation.

相关组织正在努力通过职业培训和教育来帮助女性外来务工者获得劳动相关的权利。法律诊所开始帮助女性农民工向雇主和当地劳动局申请索赔。列举一个案例,北京华艺服装厂剥削女性员工,管理部门虐待员工的同时,还克扣了至少24名女工的工资。提出投诉后,妇女法律研究中心联合北京大学法律服务部帮助这些女工获得了170,000元的工资和补偿。

Relations between workers and employers represent both the immediate need of manufacturing plants for large quantities of low wage laborers, and the insecurities young workers face in relocating long distances to life in factory dormitories. Hiring single young women serve needs of management. The employment of young females allow management to exhibit maximum control and authority over the labor force. Compared to older women and male workers, young single women are susceptible to the authority and demands of management. The common manipulation of "factory as family" by owners and managers suggests how workers hold a subliminal status within the factory environment. Uneven power relations inside the factory result in demands from management for personal services from women workers, from hair washing to sex.

工人和雇主的关系代表了双方的需求,工厂直接需求大量低工资的劳动力,而年轻的工人却面临着长距离迁移后在工厂宿舍生活的不安全感。雇佣年轻的单身女性是为了方便管理。对于年轻女性的雇佣允许管理部门展示出最大的控制力和超越劳动力的权威。较之于年长的女性和男性工作者,年轻的单身女性更容易接受权威和管理要求。工厂主通常的做法是宣扬把工厂当作家庭,工厂管理者也建议注重工人在工厂这个环境中的潜意识。工厂内部的权力不均,导致管理者要求女工进行私人服务,从洗发到性服务。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

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