Groundhog Day 土拨鼠日

翻译| Maisi Corner 审校| 许少欢 梁新珍

Groundhog Day (Canadian French: Jour de la Marmotte; Pennsylvania German: Grundsaudaag, Murmeltiertag) is a day celebrated on February 2. According to folklore, if it is cloudy when a groundhog emerges from its burrow on this day, then spring will come early; if it is sunny, the groundhog will supposedly see its shadow and retreat back into its burrow, and the winter weather will persist for six more weeks.

Modern customs of the holiday involve celebrations where early morning festivals are held to watch the groundhog emerging from its burrow.

土拨鼠日(加拿大法语:Jour de la Marmotte;宾夕法尼亚德语:Grundsaudaag, Murmeltiertag)在每年的2月2日来庆祝。根据民间传说,如果当天是阴天,土拨鼠从洞穴里冒出来,就表示春天将会早到;如果当天是晴天,土拨鼠能看到它的影子,然后又躲回它的洞穴里,就表示冬天还将持续六个星期。

当下节日庆祝的习俗包括清晨举办活动,来观看土拨鼠走出洞穴等。

In southeastern Pennsylvania, Groundhog Lodges (Grundsow Lodges) celebrate the holiday with fersommlinge, social events in which food is served, speeches are made, and one or more g'spiel (plays or skits) are performed for entertainment. The Pennsylvania German dialect is the only language spoken at the event, and those who speak English pay a penalty, usually in the form of a nickel, dime, or quarter per word spoken, with the money put into a bowl in the center of the table.

在宾夕法尼亚的东南部,人们在土拨鼠小屋庆祝节日,在这个社交活动中,人们提供食物,发表演讲,并进行一个或多个话剧或短剧的娱乐表演。宾夕法尼亚的德语方言是在该活动中唯一所讲的语言,而那些讲英语的人将被罚款,通常每说一个词罚五美分,一角或两角五分,这些罚金被放在桌子中间的一个碗里。

The largest Groundhog Day celebration is held in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, with Punxsutawney Phil. Groundhog Day, already a widely recognized and popular tradition, received widespread attention as a result of the 1993 film Groundhog Day.

最盛大的土拨鼠日庆祝活动是在宾夕法尼亚州的旁苏托尼镇举行的,那里有著名的土拔鼠菲尔。土拨鼠日已经被广泛认可并且成为一个流行的传统节日,该节日由于1993年的电影《土拨鼠日》而受到广泛关注。

Contents 目录

• 1 History

• 1 历史

o 1.1 Historical origins

o 1.1 历史起源

o 1.2 Alternative origin theories

o 1.2 可供选择的起源理论

• 2 Locations

• 2 地理位置

• 3 Meteorological accuracy

• 3 气象精准度

• 4 In popular culture

• 4 流行文化

• 5 Similar customs

• 5 相似习俗

• 6 Incidents

• 6 偶发事件

History 历史

The celebration began as a Pennsylvania German custom in southeastern and central Pennsylvania in the 18th and 19th centuries. It has its origins in ancient European weather lore, wherein a badger or sacred bear is the prognosticator, as opposed to a groundhog. It also bears similarities to the Pagan festival of Imbolc (the seasonal turning point of the Celtic calendar, which is celebrated on February 2 and also involves weather prognostication), and to St. Swithun's Day on July 15.

该庆典始于十八和十九世纪宾夕法尼亚州的东南部和中部,作为该州德国人的一个习俗。这一庆典起源于古代欧洲的天气谚语,在谚语中獾或神圣的熊是预言者,而不是土拨鼠。这个节日与异教节日圣烛节(凯尔特人日历中的季节性转折点,在二月二日庆祝,也包括天气预测),并且和七月十五日的圣•斯威辛节也相类似。

Historical origins 历史起源

The groundhog (Marmota monax) is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels.

土拨鼠(Marmota monax)是一种啮齿类松鼠,属于大型地松鼠种群。

Banner of Grundsow Lodsh Nummer Sivva (Groundhog Lodge Number Seven), of Pennsburg, Pennsylvania.

宾夕法尼亚州彭斯堡七号土拨鼠小屋的旗帜

The first documented American reference to Groundhog Day can be found in a diary entry, dated February 4, 1841, of Morgantown, Pennsylvania, storekeeper James Morris:

美国第一部关于土拨鼠有记录可查的参考文献在一篇日记里被发现,该日记由宾夕法尼亚州摩根城的仓库保管员詹姆斯•莫里斯于1841年2月4日所写:

Last Tuesday, the 2nd, was Candlemas day, the day on which, according to the Germans, the Groundhog peeps out of his winter quarters and if he sees his shadow he pops back for another six weeks nap, but if the day be cloudy he remains out, as the weather is to be moderate.

上周二的2号是圣烛节,在这一天,根据德国人的观点,土拨鼠会露出他的冬季营地,如果他看见自己的影子,他会马上回到洞里再睡六个星期,但如果这一天是阴天的话,他就会呆在外面,因为天气就要转暖。

From England, the poem:

If Candlemas be fair and bright,

Winter has another flight.

If Candlemas brings clouds and rain,

Winter will not come again.

From Scotland, the poem:

If Candlemas Day is bright and clear,

There'll be two winters in the year.

From Germany, the poem:

For as the sun shines on Candlemas Day,

So far will the snow swirl until May.

For as the snow blows on Candlemas Day,

So far will the sun shine before May.

来自英格兰的诗:

如果圣烛节天气晴朗,

冬天还会持续。

如果圣烛节多云有雨,

冬天便不会再来。

来自苏格兰的诗:

如果圣烛节天气晴朗,

今年就会有两个冬天。

来自德国的诗:

当太阳照耀在圣烛节,

大雪将纷纷扬扬一直到5月。

如果大雪吹白了圣烛节,

五月前阳光将一直照耀。

Alternative origin theories 可供选择的起源理论

In western countries in the Northern Hemisphere, the official first day of spring is almost seven weeks (46–48 days) after Groundhog Day, on March 20 or March 21. The custom could have been a folk embodiment of the confusion created by the collision of two calendrical systems. Some ancient traditions marked the change of season at cross-quarter days such as Imbolc when daylight first makes significant progress against the night. Other traditions held that spring did not begin until the length of daylight overtook night at the Vernal Equinox. So an arbiter, the groundhog/hedgehog, was incorporated as a yearly custom to settle the two traditions. Sometimes spring begins at Imbolc, and sometimes winter lasts six more weeks until the equinox.

在北半球的西方国家,春天正式开始的第一天差不多是在土拨鼠日的七周之后(46–48天),即三月二十日或三月二十一日。这一习俗可能是由两种历法系统碰撞所产生的混乱在民间的体现。一些古老的传统认为,季节变化的标志是在那些跨季的天里,比如圣烛节,白天相对于夜晚第一次明显变长。其他传统则认为,直到春分那天白天的时长超过夜晚时,春天才开始。所以作为裁决者,土拨鼠或者刺猬被纳入解决两种传统的年度习俗。有时春天在圣烛节开始,有时冬季则还会持续六周以上直到春分。

Locations 地理位置

The largest Groundhog Day celebration is held in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, where crowds as large as 40,000 have gathered to celebrate the holiday since at least 1886. Other celebrations of note in Pennsylvania take place in Quarryville in Lancaster County, the Anthracite Region of Schuylkill County, the Sinnamahoning Valley of Bucks County.

最大的土拨鼠日庆祝活动在宾夕法尼亚州的旁苏托尼镇举行,至少始于1886年,镇上多达4万人聚在一起庆祝该节日。宾夕法尼亚州其他著名的庆祝活动包括兰开斯特郡的阔里维尔,斯古吉尔郡的无烟煤区以及巴克斯郡的Sinnamahoning山谷。

The day is observed with various ceremonies at other communities in North America, including in Wiarton, Ontario, at the Shubenacadie Wildlife Park in Nova Scotia, and at the University of Dallas in Irving, Texas (which has what is claimed to be the second largest Groundhog celebration in the world).

这一天在北美的其他社区举办各种典礼,这些地区包括威尔顿,安大略,新斯科舍的苏贝纳卡迪野生动物公园,以及德克萨斯州欧文的达拉斯大学(据称是世界上第二大土拨鼠庆祝地)。

Meteorological accuracy 气象精准度

According to Groundhog Day organizers, the rodents' forecasts are accurate 75% to 90% of the time. However, a Canadian study for 13 cities in the past 30 to 40 years found that the weather patterns predicted on Groundhog Day were only 37% accurate over that time period. According to the StormFax Weather Almanac and records kept since 1887, Punxsutawney Phil's weather predictions have been correct 39% of the time. The National Climatic Data Center has described the forecasts as "on average, inaccurate" and stated that "[t]he groundhog has shown no talent for predicting the arrival of spring, especially in recent years."

根据土拨鼠日活动的组织者所述,啮齿动物预测时间的准确率达到75%到90%。然而,加拿大一项在过去30到40年对13个城市的研究显示,在该段时间内,土拨鼠日所预测的天气模式准确率只有37%。根据自1887年以来的记录以及 Stormfax的天气年鉴,土拨鼠菲尔的准确率只有39%。国家气候数据中心把这种预测描述为“平均预测,不准确的”,并指出“尤其是在最近几年,土拨鼠在预测春天的到来上并没有天赋。”

In popular culture 流行文化

 At the end of Disney's 1930 Silly Symphonies short film Winter, Mr. Groundhog the Weather Prophet comes out of his hole to determine whether or not there will be

more winter. At first, he does not see his shadow, but the clouds clear and his shadow appears, causing him to run back inside. At this point, the winds picks up

again and winter continues.

 在迪士尼1930年的糊涂交响曲冬季短片结束时,天气先知土拨鼠先生,走出洞穴来确定冬天是否会更长。刚开始,他没有看见自己的影子,但后来乌云消散,他的影子出现,导致他跑回洞里。这时候,风又

起,冬日持续。

 Tex Avery's 1940 Warner Brothers cartoon Wacky Wildlife features a brief gag with a groundhog that peeks outside, then retreats into a burrow filled with high-tech

(for the time) weather equipment.

 特克斯•艾弗里在1940年华纳兄弟出品的动画片--Wacky Wildlife中,塑造了一个的土拨鼠的卡通形象,它窥视外面,然后撤退到一个充满高科技气象设备(限于当时)的洞穴里。

 The 1941 Woody Woodpecker short Pantry Panic portrays the groundhog as a weather forecaster, although in this case he forecasts the timing of the beginning of

winter, not the end of it.

 1941年有关啄木鸟伍迪的短片《潘神的餐具室》,刻画了一只成为一名天气预报员的土拨鼠,但在这里他预测的是冬季开始的时间,而不是冬季结束的时间。

 The 1947 Warner Bros. cartoon One Meat Brawl features Grover Groundhog singing the "Groundhog Song" with music by Carl W. Stalling and lyrics by Warren Foster.

 1947年华纳兄弟卡通片One Meat Brawl 中突出了土拨鼠格罗弗唱的《土拨鼠之歌》,该音乐由卡尔•W•斯达林作曲,沃伦•福斯特作词。

 In the 1979 Rankin-Bass Christmas TV special Jack Frost, a crucial plot point in the story involves Jack casting his own shadow on Groundhog Day for six more weeks

of winter. At the end of the story it is revealed that the narrator (voiced by Buddy Hackett) is the groundhog.

 1979年 蓝金贝斯公司在圣诞节电视特辑《杰克冻人》中,故事中的一个关键情节是杰克在土拨鼠日铸造自己的影子,想把冬季再延长六周。故事的结尾揭示了叙述者(巴迪•哈克特配音)是只土拨鼠。

 Ground Hog's Day appears as the second track from the 1990 album Frizzle Fry by the San Francisco area trio Primus. The song is set on Ground Hog's day, from the

anthropomorphic perspective of the groundhog. The song's theme deals with growth, perseverance, and fresh starts.

 《土拨鼠日》是旧金山地区普莱玛斯三重唱在1990年的专辑Frizzle Fry中的第二首歌曲。这首歌在土拨鼠日发行,从拟人化的视角描述土拨鼠。该歌曲的主题有关生长,毅力,和新的开始。

 The 1993 comedy movie Groundhog Day is set in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania on this day. The main character is forced to relive the day over and over again until he can learn to give up his selfishness and become a better person.

 1993年的喜剧电影《土拨鼠日》,在土拨鼠日当天首映,以宾夕法尼亚州庞克托尼为背景。电影中的主角被迫一遍又一遍地重复着土拨鼠日当天的一切,直到他学会放弃他的自私并成为一个更好的人。

 In "Franklin and the Grump" from Franklin (Season 3, 2000), the character Mr. Groundhog was an anthropomorphic groundhog with a great interest in meteorology who

didn't want to participate in Groundhog Day anymore because there were always those who were upset regardless of what he predicted. He "officially canceled" the

holiday, but the title character told his friends and family about the problem and the entire community gathered to give him a day just for him. Mr. Groundhog was

later featured as more regular character in the series.

 《富兰克林和坏脾气的人》(第3季,2000年)中富兰克林,土拨鼠先生是一只拟人化的土拨鼠,对气象很有兴趣,但他不想参加土拨鼠日,因为无论他预测到什么,都会有人因此而不高兴。他“正式取消了

这个节日”,但领衔角色告诉他的朋友和家人这个问题,整个社区都聚在一起,专门给了他一天的时间。土拨鼠先生后来在随后的剧集里成为更常规的人物。

 In Disney's 2006 film Bambi II, Bambi accompanies his friends Thumper and Flower to go and see the Groundhog, whose shadow will foretell if winter will end soon.

 在迪士尼2006年的一部电影《斑比2》中,小鹿斑比陪他的朋友桑普和小花去看土拨鼠,土拨鼠的影子将预示冬天是否即将结束。

 The Man in the Moon is about to choose a new Guardian in the 2012 Dreamworks film Rise of the Guardians, and Bunnymund hopes that it isn't the Groundhog.

 2012年梦工厂的电影《守护者联盟》中,月球上的人将要选择新的守护者,并且复活节邦尼兔希望它不是一只土拨鼠。

Similar customs 相似习俗

A similar custom is celebrated among Orthodox Christians in Serbia on February 15 (February 2 according to local Julian calendar) during the feast of celebration of Sretenje or The Meeting of the Lord. It is believed that the bear will awaken from winter dormancy on this day, and if it sees (meets) its own shadow in this sleepy and confused state, it will get scared and go back to sleep for an additional 40 days, thus prolonging the winter. Thus, if it is sunny on Sretenje, it is the sign that the winter is not over yet. If it is cloudy, it is a good sign that the winter is about to end.

类似的一种习俗,是在二月十五日(根据当地朱利安日历是二月二日)那天,塞尔维亚东正教基督徒在Sretenje或主的会议庆典上庆祝。据认为,熊也会在这一天从冬眠中苏醒,如果它以困倦迷惑的状态看到(或遇见)自己的影子,它会吓得回去再睡40天,从而延长了冬天。因此,如果在Sretenje这天是晴天,它标志着冬天还没有结束。如果当天是阴天,将是一个好迹象,因为预示着冬季即将结束。

In Germany, June 27 is "Siebenschläfertag" (Seven Sleepers Day). If it rains that day, the rest of summer is supposedly going to be rainy. It might seem to refer to the "Siebenschläfer" squirrel (Glis glis), also known as the "edible dormouse", but it actually commemorates the Seven Sleepers (the actual commemoration day is July 25).

在德国,六月二十七日是“七睡仙节”。如果那天下雨,剩下的夏天可能会下雨。这似乎是在指“睡鼠”,也被称为“食用睡鼠”,但它实际上是为了纪念七睡仙(实际的纪念日是七月二十五日)。

In the United Kingdom, July 15 is known as St. Swithun's day. It was traditionally believed that, if it rained on that day, it would rain for the next 40 days and nights.

在英国,七月十五日被称为圣斯威辛节。传统上认为,如果那一天下雨,那么在接下来的40个日日夜夜将一直下雨。

In Alaska, February 2 is observed as Marmot Day rather than Groundhog Day because few groundhogs exist in the state.

在阿拉斯加,二月二日庆祝的是旱獭日而不是土拨鼠日,因为这个州没有几只土拨鼠。

Incidents 偶发事件

Several unforeseen incidents have involved animals handled during Groundhog Day events. During New York City's annual Groundhog Day event at the Staten Island Zoo on February 2, 2009, a groundhog named "Chuck" drew blood when biting Mayor Michael Bloomberg's gloved finger while Bloomberg was trying to lure Chuck out of his wooden shelter. Five years later, on February 2, 2014, Bloomberg's mayoral successor, Bill de Blasio, dropped "Chuck" (subsequently revealed to be Chuck's granddaughter, "Charlotte"), who seven days later died of "acute internal injuries". At the city's next Groundhog Day event on February 2, 2015, "Staten Island Chuck" walked out of a hutch that an elevator had lifted onto the stage of a portable Plexiglass-enclosed habitat, while de Blasio watched from six feet away.

在土拨鼠日活动期间,也出现了一些无法预料的情况。2009年2月2日,纽约市一年一度的土拨鼠日庆祝活动在史坦顿岛动物园举办,在这期间,当纽约市市长迈克尔•布隆伯格试图把一只名叫“查克”的土拔鼠从其木屋引诱出来时,他戴着手套的手指却被“查克”咬出了血。五年后的2014年2月2日,布隆伯格市长的继任者,比尔•德•布拉西奥,不慎把“查克”(后来发现是查克的孙女,“夏洛特”)从其掌心摔落,七天后她死于“严重的内伤”。该市的下一个土拨鼠日活动在2015年2月2日举行,当“史坦顿岛查克”走出笼子时,市长布拉西奥不再用手捧着它,而是将它放在一个玻璃箱里进行展示,市长则在六英尺外的地方进行观看。

During Sun Prairie, Wisconsin's annual Groundhog Day celebration on February 2, 2015, "Jimmy the Groundhog" bit Mayor Jonathan Freund's ear while being held by Jimmy's caretaker. The next day, Freund issued a proclamation that officially pardoned and absolved Jimmy "of any perceived wrongdoing and charges" under the city's ordinance. The proclamation stated that Jimmy had "created an international media sensation, thereby helping the world to learn more about our great City".

2015年2月2日,在威斯康星州的森普雷里,一年一度的土拨鼠节举行庆祝活动,当“土拨鼠吉米”被其管理员拿着凑在市长佛莱德的耳旁,以聆听其对春天的预言时,它却一口咬住了市长的耳朵。次日,佛莱德发表公告,根据城市的法令,正式原谅并赦免了吉米“所收到的任何指控”,公告表示,吉米的行为已经引起了国际媒体的轰动,从而使世界更加地了解我们这座伟大的城市”。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

内容根据CC BY-SA 3.0可用