Buffalo Soldier 布法罗士兵

翻译| Mary 审校| 许少欢

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. This nickname was given to the "NegroCavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866:

布法罗士兵原本是1866年9月21日成立于堪萨斯州利文沃斯堡的美国陆军第10骑兵团的成员。这个名称是美国原住民部落给黑人骑兵所起的绰号;此术语最终成了所有成立于1866年的非裔美国军队的同义词,包括有:

• 9th Cavalry Regiment

• 第9骑兵团

• 10th Cavalry Regiment

• 第10骑兵团

• 24th Infantry Regiment

• 第24步兵团

• 25th Infantry Regiment

• 第25步兵团

Although several African-American regiments were raised during the Civil War as part of the Union Army (including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and the many United States Colored Troops Regiments), the "Buffalo Soldiers" were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army. On September 6, 2005, Mark Matthews, who was the oldest living Buffalo Soldier, died at the age of 111. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

尽管一些非裔美国兵团在美国内战时期得到晋升,成为北方同盟军的一部分(包括马萨诸塞州第54志愿步兵团和许多美国有色人种军团),“布法罗士兵”是第一个在和平时期由美国国会建立的全部由黑人组成的军团。

2005年9月6日,最年长的原布法罗战士马克•马修斯逝世,享年111岁。他被安葬在美国阿灵顿国家公墓。

Contents

目录

• 1 Etymology

• 1 词源

• 2 Service

• 2 服役

• 3 History

• 3 历史

o 3.1 Indian Wars

o 3.1 印第安战争时期

o 3.2 1898–1918

• 4 Park rangers

• 4 公园管理员

• 5 West Point

• 5 西点军校

• 6 Systemic prejudice

• 6 体系歧视

• 7 Pershing

• 7 潘兴

• 8 The Punitive Expedition, U.S.-Mexico Border, and World War I

• 8 讨伐战争,美国墨西哥边境战争和第一次世界大战

• 9 World War II

• 9 第二次世界大战

• 10 Korean War and integration

• 10 朝鲜战争和一体化

• 11 Controversy

• 11 争议

• 12 Legacy

• 12 遗产

• 12.1 Historical markers

• 12.1 标志性历史事件

• 13 In popular culture

• 在流行文化中

Etymology 词源

Sources disagree on how the nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" began. According to the Buffalo Soldiers National Museum, the name originated with the Cheyenne warriors in the winter of 1877, the actual Cheyenne translation being "Wild Buffalo." However, writer Walter Hill documented the account of Colonel Benjamin Grierson, who founded the 10th Cavalry regiment, recalling an 1871 campaign against Comanches. Hill attributed the origin of the name to the Comanche due to Grierson's assertions. The Apache used the same term ("We called them 'buffalo soldiers,' because they had curly, kinky hair...like bisons") a claim supported by other sources. Some sources assert that the nickname was given out of respect for the fierce fighting ability of the 10th Cavalry. Still other sources point to a combination of both legends. The term Buffalo Soldiers became a generic term for all black soldiers. It is now used for U.S. Army units that trace their direct lineage back to the 9th and 10th Cavalry units whose service earned them an honored place in U.S. history.

关于“布法罗士兵”这一绰号的来源存有争议。根据布法罗士兵国家博物馆,此名于1877年冬起源于夏延族战士,实际的夏延族翻译是“野生水牛。”然而,作家沃尔特•希尔用创立第10骑兵团的上校本杰明•格里尔生对1871年针对“科曼奇族”战役的记录为参考, 根据格里尔生的断言,希尔认为此名称是科曼奇族所创造。阿帕切族使用了相同的术语(“我们称之为'布法罗士兵',因为他们有卷曲而古怪的头发…像美洲野牛”),这也受到了其他来源的支持。另外还有一些主张是为了表示对第10骑兵团激烈战斗能力的尊重而得此绰号。还有一种说法结合了这两种传说。“布法罗士兵”的称号成了所有黑人士兵的通称。这一称号现在仍被美国陆军的一些部队所使用,这些部队是曾经的第九第十骑兵部队的直系,这两个骑兵部队服役期间的表现在美国历史上留下了光辉的一笔。

In September 1867, Private John Randall of Troop G of the 10th Cavalry Regiment was assigned to escort two civilians on a hunting trip. The hunters suddenly became the hunted when a band of 70 Cheyenne warriors swept down on them. The two civilians quickly fell in the initial attack and Randall's horse was shot out from beneath him. Randall managed to scramble to safety behind a washout under the railroad tracks, where he fended off the attack with only his pistol and 17 rounds of ammunition until help from the nearby camp arrived. The Cheyenne beat a hasty retreat, leaving behind 13 fallen warriors. Private Randall suffered a gunshot wound to his shoulder and 11 lance wounds, but recovered. The Cheyenne quickly spread word of this new type of soldier, "who had fought like a cornered buffalo; who like a buffalo had suffered wound after wound, yet had not died; and who like a buffalo had a thick and shaggy mane of hair."

1867年9月,第10骑兵团G部队的二等兵约翰•兰德尔被指派陪护送两名平民打猎。当70个夏安族战士向他们发动突袭时,这两个猎人突然成了被追捕的对象。二人很快便在敌人的攻击中倒下,而兰德尔则成功地爬到了一个安全地带,位于铁轨下一个冲溃区的后部,他在此处用其仅有的一把手枪和17发子弹来抵挡敌人的进攻,直到来自附近营地援军的到达。夏安人匆忙撤退,留下13个倒下的战士。兰德尔的肩部有一处枪伤,另外还有11处 长矛伤口,后来他康复了。夏安族中迅速传播了这这种“新型的”士兵,“他们像长角的水牛一样战斗;虽然不断地受伤,但却死不了;他们的头发如水牛的毛发一样一样,厚而蓬松。

Service 服役

During the American Civil War, the U.S. government formed regiments known as the United States Colored Troops, composed of black soldiers. After the war, Congress reorganized the Army and authorized the formation of two regiments of black cavalry with the designations 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry, and four regiments of black infantry, designated the 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st Infantry Regiments (Colored). The 38th and 41st were reorganized as the 25th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters in Jackson Barracks in New Orleans, Louisiana, in November 1869. The 39th and 40th were reorganized as the 24th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters at Fort Clark, Texas, in April 1869. All of these units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by both white and black officers. These included the first commander of the 10th Cavalry Benjamin Grierson, the first commander of the 9th Cavalry Edward Hatch, Medal of Honor recipient Louis H. Carpenter, Nicholas M. Nolan, and the first black graduate of West Point, Henry O. Flipper.

在美国南北战争期间,美国政府成立了由黑人士兵组成的美国有色人种兵团。战争结束后,美国国会重组了军队,并授权组建了两个黑人骑兵团,番号分别为美国第9和第10骑兵团,还组建了四个黑人步兵团,番号分别为第38、39、40、和第41步兵团。1869年11月,第38和第41团被重组为第25步兵团,总部设 在路易斯安那州 新奥尔良的杰克逊军营 。 1869年4月,第39和第40团 被重组为第 24步兵团,总部设在德克萨斯州的克拉克堡 。所有这军团都由现役黑人士兵组成,指挥官既有黑人军官,又有白人军官。其中包括第10骑兵团的第一指挥官本杰明•格里尔生、第9骑兵团的第一指挥官爱德华•哈奇、 荣誉勋章获得者路易斯•H•卡本特、尼古拉斯• M • 诺兰和第一个西点军校的黑人毕业生欧亨利•Flipper。

History 历史

Indian Wars 印地安战争

From 1866 to the early 1890s, these regiments served at a variety of posts in the Southwestern United States and the Great Plains regions. They participated in most of the military campaigns in these areas and earned a distinguished record. Thirteen enlisted men and six officers from these four regiments earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars. In addition to the military campaigns, the "Buffalo Soldiers" served a variety of roles along the frontier from building roads to escorting the U.S. mail. On April 17, 1875, regimental headquarters for the 9th and 10th Cavalries were transferred to Fort Concho, Texas. Companies actually arrived at Fort Concho in May 1873. At various times from 1873 through 1885, Fort Concho housed 9th Cavalry companies A–F, K, and M, 10th Cavalry companies A, D–G, I, L, and M, 24th Infantry companies D–G, and K, and 25th Infantry companies G and K.

从1866年到19世纪90年代初, 这些骑兵团在美国西南部和大平原地区的各个哨所服役。他们参与了这些区域大部分的军事行动并取得了良好的战绩。来自这4个骑兵团的13名现役军人和6个军官在印第安战争中获得了荣誉勋章。除了军事行动,“布法罗士兵”在边境从事从修路到护送美国邮件等不同角色的工作。1875年4月17日,第9和第10骑兵团的总部被迁移到德克萨斯州的康桥堡 。部队实际上于1873年5月到达康桥堡。在1873年到1885年的不同时期,康桥堡驻扎了第9骑兵团的A–F连队, 以及K和M连队,第10骑兵团的A, D–G, I, L和M连队,第24步兵团D-G和K连队,和第25步兵团G和K连队。

Buffalo Soldier in the 9th Cavalry, 1890 

1890年第9步兵团的布法罗士兵

A lesser known action was the 9th Cavalry's participation in the fabled Johnson County War, an 1892 land war in Johnson County, Wyoming between small farmers and large, wealthy ranchers. It culminated in a lengthy shootout between local farmers, a band of hired killers, and a sheriff's posse. The 6th Cavalry was ordered in by President Benjamin Harrison to quell the violence and capture the band of hired killers. Soon afterward, however, the 9th Cavalry was specifically called on to replace the 6th. The 6th Cavalry was swaying under the local political and social pressures and was unable to keep the peace in the tense environment.

一个鲜为人知的行动是第9骑兵团参与了传说中的约翰逊县战争,即1892年发生在美国怀俄明州约翰逊县的小农户和大富农场主之间的一场土地战争。它最终以当地农场主、一群雇佣的杀手和郡治安队之间冗长的枪战而结束。本杰明•哈里森总统下令第6骑兵团去平息暴乱,并抓捕雇佣的杀手。然而之后不久,第9骑兵团被特别指派取代第6骑兵团。第6骑兵团当时在当地的政治和社会压力之下摇摆不定,而且在紧张的环境中无法保持和平。

The Buffalo Soldiers responded within about two weeks from Nebraska, and moved the men to the rail town of Suggs, Wyoming, creating "Camp Bettens" despite a racist and hostile local population. One soldier was killed and two wounded in gun battles with locals. Nevertheless, the 9th Cavalry remained in Wyoming for nearly a year to quell tensions in the area.

大约两周内,布法罗士兵从内布拉斯加作出反应,将人转移到怀俄明州的铁路小镇萨格斯,在当地种族主义和充满敌意的人种建立“柏唐营地”。在与当地人的枪战中一人被杀、两人受伤。 最终,第9骑兵团在怀俄明州驻扎了近一年才平息了当地的紧张局势。

1898–1918年

Buffalo Soldiers who participated in the Spanish American War

参加美西战争的布法罗士兵

After most of the Indian Wars ended in the 1890s, the regiments continued to serve and participated in the 1898 Spanish-American War (including the Battle of San Juan Hill) in Cuba, where five more Medals of Honor were earned.

19世纪90年代当大部分印第安战争结束后,这些兵团继续服役并参加了1898年在古巴的美西战争(包括圣胡安山的战役),又获得了5枚荣誉勋章。

The men of the Buffalo soldiers were only some of the 5,000 Black men who served in the Spanish-American war. The regiments took part in the Philippine-American War from 1899 to 1903 and the 1916 Mexican Expedition. 

布法罗士兵仅仅是曾在美西战争中服役的5000个黑人中的一部分。这一兵团还参与了从1899年到1903年的美菲战争,以及1916年的墨西哥远征。

In 1918 the 10th Cavalry fought at the Battle of Ambos Nogales during the First World War, where they assisted in forcing the surrender of the federal Mexican and Mexican militia forces. 

1918年第10骑兵团在第一次世界大战期间参与了诺加利斯战役,这次战役中他们迫使墨西哥联邦军队及民兵武装力量投降。

Buffalo soldiers fought in the last engagement of the Indian Wars; the small Battle of Bear Valley in southern Arizona which occurred in 1918 between U.S. cavalry and Yaqui natives.

布法罗士兵在印第安战争最后的交战阶段作战;1918年美国骑兵与雅基族原住民在亚利桑那州南部发生了熊谷战役。

Park rangers 公园守护员

Another little-known contribution of the Buffalo Soldiers involved eight troops of the 9th Cavalry Regiment and one company of the 24th Infantry Regiment who served in California's Sierra Nevada as some of the first national park rangers. In 1899, Buffalo Soldiers from Company H, 24th Infantry Regiment briefly served in Yosemite National Park, Sequoia National Park and General Grant (Kings Canyon) National Parks.

布法罗士兵还有一个鲜为人知的贡献,那就是第九骑兵军团的8支部队以及第24步兵团的一个连队曾作为第一批国家公园的护林员,在加利福尼亚州的内华达山脉服役。1899年,来自24步兵团H连的布法罗士兵曾在约塞米蒂国家公园、美国加州红杉国家公园和格兰特将军(国王峡谷)国家公园短暂地服役。

U.S. Army regiments had been serving in these national parks since 1891, but until 1899 the soldiers serving were white. Beginning in 1899, and continuing in 1903 and 1904, African-American regiments served during the summer months in the second and third oldest national parks in the United States (Sequoia and Yosemite). Because these soldiers served before the National Park Service was created (1916), they were "park rangers" before the term was coined.

自1891年以来,美国陆军军团一直在这些国家公园服役,而在1899年之前,这些服役的士兵都是白人。从1899年开始,而且持续到1903和1904年,非裔美国军团曾在夏季服役于美国第二和第三古老的国家公园(红杉和约塞米蒂)。因为这些士兵在美国国家公园管理局成立前(1916)在此服务, 所以在这个术语被创立前他们是“公园守护员”。

A lasting legacy of the soldiers as park rangers is the Ranger Hat (popularly known as the Smokey Bear Hat). Although not officially adopted by the Army until 1911, the distinctive hat crease, called a Montana Peak, (or pinch) can be seen being worn by several of the Buffalo Soldiers in park photographs dating back to 1899. Soldiers serving in the Spanish American War began to recrease the Stetson hat with a Montana "pinch" to better shed water from the torrential tropical rains. Many retained that distinctive "pinch" upon their return to the U.S. The park photographs, in all likelihood, show Buffalo Soldiers who were veterans from that 1898 war.

作为公园管理员的士兵留下的恒久性遗产是管理员的帽子(俗称护林熊帽)。虽然直到1911年才正式被军队所采用,但在1899年的公园照片中,可以看到好几个布法罗士兵戴着被称为“蒙大拿峰”的独特的折痕帽。在美西战争中服役的士兵也开始把斯泰森毡帽重新折出一个蒙大拿式的折痕,以更好地将热带雨林倾盆的大雨排出。许多人在他们回到美国仍保留这种独特的折痕。公园的照片十分可能表明这些布法罗士兵是来自于1898年战争中的退伍军人。

One particular Buffalo Soldier stands out in history: Captain Charles Young who served with Troop "I", 9th Cavalry Regiment in Sequoia National Park during the summer of 1903. Charles Young was the third African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy. At the time of his death, he was the highest ranking African American in the U.S. military. He made history in Sequoia National Park in 1903 by becoming Acting Military Superintendent of Sequoia and General Grant National Parks.

一个出色的布法罗士兵在历史上脱颖而出:他就是1903年夏天在红杉国家公园第9骑兵团的 "I"连队服役的上尉查尔斯扬 。查尔斯扬是第三个从美国军事学院毕业的非裔美国人。在他逝世时,他是美国军队中排名最高的非裔美国人。1903年他在红杉国家公园历史性地成为红杉和格兰特将军国家公园军事行动的负责人。

Charles Young was also the first African-American superintendent of a national park. During Young's tenure in the park, he named a Giant Sequoia for Booker T. Washington. Recently, another Giant Sequoia in Giant Forest was named in Captain Young's honor. Some of Young's descendants were in attendance at the ceremony.

查尔斯扬也是国家公园的第一位非裔美国负责人。扬在公园的任期内,将一棵巨大的红杉命名为布克尔•华盛顿。最近,另一棵巨大的红杉以上尉扬的名字被命名。一些扬的后裔参加了命名仪式。

Buffalo Soldiers National Museum in Houston, Texas

德克萨斯州休斯顿市的布法罗士兵国家博物馆

Entrance to Buffalo Soldiers National Museum in Houston, Texas

德克萨斯州休斯顿市的布法罗士兵国家博物馆的入口

In 1903, 9th Cavalrymen in Sequoia built the first trail to the top of Mount Whitney, the highest mountain in the contiguous United States. They also built the first wagon road into Sequoia's Giant Forest, the most famous grove of Giant Sequoia trees in Sequoia National Park.

1903年,第9骑兵团在红杉公园建造了通往与其相邻的美国最高峰—惠特尼峰的一条小路。他们还建造了通往红杉国家公园里最著名的巨杉树林,即巨人森林的第一条马车路。

In 1904, 9th Cavalrymen in Yosemite built an arboretum on the South Fork of the Merced River in the southern section of Yosemite National Park. This arboretum had pathways and benches, and some plants were identified in both English and Latin. Yosemite's arboretum is considered to be the first museum in the National Park System. The NPS cites a 1904 report, where Yosemite superintendent (Lt. Col.) John Bigelow, Jr. declared the arboretum "To provide a great museum of nature for the general public free of cost ..." Unfortunately, the forces of developers, miners and greed cut the boundaries of Yosemite in 1905 and the arboretum was nearly destroyed.

1904年,驻扎在约塞米蒂的第9骑兵团在约塞米蒂国家公园南面莫瑟得河的南福克镇建造了一个植物园。这个植物园有小径和长椅,有些植物用英文和拉丁文两种语言标识。约塞米蒂植物园被认为是国家公园系统的首个博物馆。NPS引用了一份1904年的报告,约塞米蒂负责人(有限公司)约翰•毕格罗宣布植物园“为公众提供一个免费的大的自然博物馆…”不幸的是,开发人员 和矿工等在1905年切断了约塞米蒂的边界,此植物园几乎被摧毁。

In the Sierra Nevada, the Buffalo Soldiers regularly endured long days in the saddle, slim rations, racism, and separation from family and friends. As military stewards, the African-American cavalry and infantry regiments protected the national parks from illegal grazing, poaching, timber thieves, and forest fires. Yosemite Park Ranger Shelton Johnson researched and interpreted the history in an attempt to recover and celebrate the contributions of the Buffalo Soldiers of the Sierra Nevada.

在内华达山脉驻扎的布法罗士兵经常忍受着长时间的马鞍生活、缺少的给养、种族主义以及与家人和朋友的分离。作为军事管理的一部分,非裔美国人的骑兵和步兵兵团保护着国家公园免受非法放牧、偷猎、木材盗贼和森林火灾的破坏。约塞米蒂公园的管理员谢尔顿约翰逊研究并解释了此段历史,以试图恢复并歌颂内华达山脉的布法罗士兵所做的贡献。

In total, 23 "Buffalo Soldiers" received the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars.

总共有23名“布法罗士兵”在印第安战争期间获得了荣誉勋章。

马修中士的骑兵部队1936年在阿林顿梅尔堡的照片,马修位于后排左数第二个

West Point 西点军校

On March 23, 1907, the United States Military Academy Detachment of Cavalry was changed to a "colored" unit. This had been a long time coming. It had been proposed in 1897 at the "Cavalry and Light Artillery School" at Fort Riley, Kansas that West Point Cadets learn their riding skills from the black non-commissioned officers who were considered the best. The one hundred man detachment from the 9th Cavalry served to teach future officers at West Point riding instruction, mounted drill and tactics until 1947.

1907年3月23日,美国军事学院的骑兵支队被更改为包含“有色人种”的部队。这一刻的到来经历了很长时间。这一提议于1897年在堪萨斯州莱利堡的“骑兵和炮兵学校”被提出,当时西点军校的学员向没有委任状的黑人士官学习骑马术,这些黑人士官的骑术被认为是最好的。直到1947年,由来自第9骑兵团的100人组成的支队才开始在西点军校给未来军官上骑术指导、 骑乘演习 和用兵战术等课程。

Systemic prejudice 系统性的偏见

The "Buffalo Soldiers" were often confronted with racial prejudice from other members of the U.S. Army. Civilians in the areas where the soldiers were stationed occasionally reacted to them with violence. Buffalo Soldiers were attacked during racial disturbances in Rio Grande City, Texas in 1899, Brownsville, Texas in 1906, and Houston, Texas in 1917.

“布法罗士兵”经常面临来自美国陆军其他成员的种族歧视。士兵驻扎区域的平民偶尔对他们使用暴力。布法罗士兵1899年在德克萨斯州的格兰德河城市、1906年在德克萨斯州的布朗斯维尔以及1917年在德克萨斯州休斯顿市的种族骚乱期间曾遭到袭击。

Pershing 潘兴

General of the Armies John J. Pershing is a controversial figure regarding the Buffalo Soldiers. He served with the 10th Cavalry from October 1895 to May 1897. He served again with them for less than six months in Cuba. Because he saw the "Buffalo Soldiers" as good soldiers, he was looked down upon and called "Nigger Jack" by white cadets and officers at West Point. It was only later during the Spanish-American War that the press changed that insulting term to "Black Jack." During World War I Pershing bowed to the racial policies of President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker and the southern Democratic Party with its "separate but equal" philosophy. For the first time in American history, Pershing allowed American soldiers (African-Americans) to be under the command of a foreign power.

美军的约翰•潘兴将军是一个对待布法罗士兵存有争议的人物。他曾从1895年10月到1897年5月服役于第10骑兵团。这是他又一次与布法罗士兵一起服役,这次他们在古巴服役了不到六个月的时间。因为他视“布法罗士兵”为好士兵,因此被西点军校的白人学员和军官看不起,还被称作“黑鬼杰克”。后来在美西战争期间,媒体把那个侮辱性的词改为了“黑人杰克”。第一次世界大战期间,潘兴屈服于美国总统伍德罗•威尔逊、战争部长牛顿•贝克和南部民主党“隔离但平等”的理念。在美国历史上,潘兴首次允许美国士兵(非裔美国人)受外国势力的指挥。

The Punitive Expedition, U.S.-Mexico Border, and World War I

讨伐战斗,美国墨西哥边境战争和第一次世界大战

The outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910 against the long-time rule of President Porfirio Díaz initiated a decade-long period of high-intensity military conflict along the U.S.-Mexico border as different political/military factions in Mexico fought for power. The access to arms and customs duties from Mexican communities along the U.S.-Mexico boundary made border towns like Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Ojinaga, Chihuahua, and Nogales, Sonora, important strategic assets. As the various belligerents in Mexico vied for power, the U.S. Army, including the Buffalo Soldier units, was dispatched to the border to maintain security. The Buffalo Soldiers played a key role in U.S.-Mexico relations as the maelstrom that followed the ouster of Díaz and the assassination of his successor Francisco Madero intensified.

1910年反对波费里奥•迪亚斯总统长期统治的墨西哥革命爆发,美国-墨西哥边界爆发了长达十年的高强度军事冲突,以不同的政治/军事派系为墨西哥权力而战。在美国-墨西哥边界从墨西哥社区获得的武器和关税使像马塔莫罗斯、塔毛利帕斯州、奥希纳加、吉娃娃、诺加利斯和索诺拉这样的边境城镇成为重要的战略资产。因为各交战方都在墨西哥争取权力,包括布法罗士兵在内的美国军队被派往边境维持安全。布法罗士兵在美国-墨西哥关系中发挥了关键作用,随后迪亚兹的下台及其继任者弗朗西斯科•马德罗被刺杀而使局势愈演愈烈。

Buffalo Soldiers of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment who were taken prisoner during the Battle of Carrizal, Chihuahua, Mexico in 1916.

1916年在墨西哥奇瓦瓦州的卡里萨尔战役期间被俘的第10骑兵团布法罗士兵。

By late 1915 the political faction led by Venustiano Carranza received diplomatic recognition from the U.S. government as the legitimate ruling force in Mexico. Francisco "Pancho" Villa, who had previously courted U.S. recognition and thus felt betrayed, then attacked the rural community of Columbus, New Mexico, directly leading to further border tensions as U.S. President Woodrow Wilson unilaterally dispatched the Punitive Expedition into Chihuahua, Mexico, under General John Pershing to apprehend or kill Villa. The 9th and 10th Cavalries were deployed to Mexico along with the rest of Pershing's units. Although the manhunt against Villa was unsuccessful, small-scale confrontations in the communities of Parral and Carrizal nearly brought about a war between Mexico and the United States in the summer of 1916. Tensions cooled through diplomacy as the captured Buffalo Soldiers from Carrizal were released. Despite the public outrage over Villa's Columbus raid, Wilson and his cabinet felt that the U.S.'s attention ought to be centered on Germany and World War I, not the apprehension of the "Centauro del Norte." The Punitive Expedition exited Mexico in early 1917, just before the U.S. declaration of war against Germany in April 1917.

1915年底贝努斯蒂亚诺•卡兰萨领导的政治派别作为在墨西哥统治的合法力量,获得了美国政府的外交承认。法兰西斯可•比利亚曾拉拢美国认可其合法地位,因此感到被出卖了,然后袭击了哥伦布的农村社区、新墨西哥等地,直接导致边境局势进一步紧张,美国总统伍德罗•威尔逊单方面派遣了远征军到墨西哥的奇瓦瓦州,在约翰•潘兴将军的率领下意图逮捕或杀害维拉。第9和第10骑兵团被部署到墨西哥,与潘兴的其他军团一道作战。虽然针对维拉的追捕并未取得成功,但1916年夏,帕拉尔和卡里萨尔社区小规模的冲突几乎给墨西哥和美国之间带来一场战争。当被俘的布法罗士兵从卡里萨尔被释放时,紧张的局势才通过外交降温。尽管公众对维拉突袭哥伦布感到愤怒,但威尔逊和他的内阁感到美国的注意力应该集中在德国和第一次世界大战,而不是法兰西斯可•比利亚的追捕。在1917年4月美国对德国宣战前,远征部队已经于1917年初退出了墨西哥。

The Buffalo Soldiers did not participate with the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I, but experienced non-commissioned officers were provided to other segregated Black units for combat service—such as the 317th Engineer Battalion. The Soldiers of the 92nd Infantry Division (United States) and the 93rd Infantry Division (United States) were the first Americans to fight in France. The four regiments of 93rd fought under French command for the duration of the war.

布法罗士兵在第一次世界大战期间没有参加美国远征军(AEF),但经验丰富的士官被送到其他种族隔离的黑人兵团作战斗服务—如第317工程营。美国第92步兵师和第93步兵师的士兵是在法国作战的首批美国人。第93步兵师的四个团在整个战争期间都在法国司令部作战。

The U.S.-Mexico border in Nogales in 1898. International Street/Calle Internacional runs through the center of the image between Nogales, Sonora (left), and Nogales, Arizona (right). Note the wide open nature of the international boundary. A Customs House is located near the center of the image.

1898年诺加利斯的美国-墨西哥边境。国际街道贯穿诺加利斯、索诺拉(左)、诺加利斯和亚利桑那州(右) 。注意国际边界的开放性。 海关大厦位于图片的中心附近。

On August 27, 1918, the 10th Cavalry supported the 35th Infantry Regiment in a border skirmish in the border towns of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, between U.S. military forces, Mexican Federal troops and armed Mexican civilians (militia) in the Battle of Ambos Nogales. This was the only documented incident in which German military advisors fought along with Mexican soldiers and the only battle during World War I where Germans engaged and died in combat against United States soldiers on North America soil.

1918年8月27日, 在美国军队、墨西哥联邦军队和武装墨西哥平民(民兵)之间的诺加利斯战役中,第10骑兵团在亚利桑那州诺加利斯和索诺拉诺加利斯边境城镇的边境冲突中支持第35步兵团 。这是德国军事顾问与墨西哥士兵一同作战的唯一一次被记录的事件,而且是在第一次世界大战期间德国人在北美本土参加打击美国并战死的唯一一次战争。

The 35th Infantry Regiment was stationed at Nogales, Arizona, on August 27, 1918, when at about 4:10 pm, a gun battle erupted unintentionally when a Mexican civilian attempted to pass through the border, back to Mexico, without being interrogated at the U.S. Customs house. After the initial shooting, reinforcements from both sides rushed to the border. On the Mexican side, the majority of the belligerents were angry civilians upset with the killings of Mexican border crossers by the U.S. Army along the vaguely-defined border between the two cities during the previous year (the U.S. Border Patrol did not exist until 1924). For the Americans, the reinforcements were the 10th Cavalry, off-duty 35th Regimental soldiers and milita. Hostilities quickly escalated and several soldiers were killed and others wounded on both sides, including the mayor of Nogales, Sonora, Felix B. Peñaloza (killed when waving a white truce flag/handkerchief with his cane). A cease fire was arranged later after the US forces took the heights south of Nogales, Arizona.

第35步兵团驻扎在亚利桑那州的诺加利斯,1918年8月27日,下午4点10分左右,当一名墨西哥平民没有在美国海关大厦接受检查的情况下而试图穿越边境,回到墨西哥时,一场枪战在无意中爆发。最初的射击过后,双方的援军赶到边境。在墨西哥方面,参加战斗的大多都是愤怒的平民,他们对前一年(美国边境巡逻队直到1924年才成立,)美国军队在两座定义模糊的城市边界上杀害穿越墨西哥边界的人感到不满。美国方面,增援部队是第10骑兵团以及休班的第35团的士兵等。敌对行动迅速升级并导致几名士兵丧生,另外双方还有其他士兵受伤,其中包括索诺拉诺加利斯市长菲利克斯•佩尼亚洛萨(当他用手杖挥舞着白色休战旗/手帕时被杀害)。当美军占领亚利桑那州诺加利斯南的高地后不久,双方签订了停火协议。

Due in part to the heightened hysteria caused by World War I, allegations surfaced that German agents fomented this violence and died fighting alongside the Mexican troops they led. U.S. newspaper reports in Nogales prior to the August 27, 1918 battle documented the departure of part of the Mexican garrison in Nogales, Sonora, to points south that August in an attempt to quell armed political rebels.

这场冲突的部分原因是第一次世界大战而导致的过分狂热,另外还有指控显示,德国间谍机构煽动了这场暴乱,并且有德国指挥官在他们所领导的这场冲突中死亡。美国新闻报道了1918年8月27日诺加利斯战役前,驻守在索诺拉省诺加利斯的墨西哥军队离开驻地,前往南部哨所试图镇压武装政治叛乱。

Despite the Battle of Ambos Nogales controversy, the presence of the Buffalo Soldiers in the community left a significant impact on the border town. The famed jazz musician Charles Mingus was born in the Camp Stephen Little military base in Nogales in 1922, son to a Buffalo Soldier. The African-American population, centered on the stationing of Buffalo Soldiers such as the 25th Infantry in Nogales, was a significant factor in the community, even though they often faced racial discrimination in the binational border community in addition to racial segregation at the elementary school level in Nogales's Grand Avenue/Frank Reed School (a school reserved for Black children). The redeployment of the Buffalo Soldiers to other areas and the closure of Camp Little in 1933 initiated the decline of the African-American community in Nogales.

尽管诺加利斯战役备受争议,但出现在社区的布法罗士兵对边境城镇产生了重大影响。著名的爵士音乐家查尔斯•明格斯1922年出生在诺加利斯军事基地的斯蒂芬营地,他是一个布法罗士兵的儿子。非裔美国人群聚居在布法罗士兵的驻地,如诺加利斯第25军附近,他们是当地社区的一个重要组成部分,尽管如此,他们还是经常在这个多民族的边境社区遭受种族歧视,包括诺加利斯格兰大道/弗兰克•里德学校(一所专门给黑人孩子上的学校)小学层面上的种族隔离。布法罗士兵在其他地区的重新部署以及1933年小营地的关闭引发了诺加利斯非裔美国人社区的衰落。

World War II 第二次世界大战

With colors flying and guidons down, the lead troops of the famous 9th Cavalry pass in review at the regiment's new home in rebuilt Camp Funston. Ft. Riley, Kansas, May 1941.

随着彩旗的升起和军旗的落下,1941年5月,著名的第9骑兵团派先遣部队通过了其在堪萨斯州新家的审批,即重建的福斯顿军营。

Prior to WW2, the black 25th Infantry Regt was based at Ft Huachuca Arizona. During the war, Ft Huachuca served as the home base of the Black 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions. The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments were essentially disbanded and the soldiers were moved into service-oriented units, along with the entire 2nd Cavalry Division . The 92nd Infantry Division , AKA the "Buffalo Division", served in combat during the Italian Campaign . The 93rd Infantry Division—including the 25th Infantry Regiment — served in the Pacific theater . [33] Separately, independent Black Artillery, Tank and Tank Destroyer Battalions as well as Quartermaster & support battalions served in WW2. All of these units to a degree carried on the traditions of the "Buffalo Soldiers".

二战之前,由黑人组成的第25军团的基地在亚利桑那州华楚卡堡市的一个要塞。战争期间,华楚卡堡要塞是黑人第92和第93步兵师的大本营。第9和第10骑兵团基本上被解散,士兵们与第二骑兵团一道成为服务型的部队。第92步兵师,又称“布法罗师”,服务于意大利运动期间的战役。第93步兵师—包括第25步兵团—曾服役于太平洋战区。另外,独立的黑人炮兵、坦克、坦克驱逐舰营、军需官以及支持部队都曾服役于第二次世界大战。所有这些部队在一定程度上沿袭了“布法罗士兵”的传统。

Despite some official resistance and administrative barriers, black airmen were trained and played a part in the air war in Europe, gaining a reputation for skill and bravery (see Tuskegee Airmen ). In early 1945, after the Battle of the Bulge , American forces in Europe experienced a shortage of combat troops so the embargo on using black soldiers in combat units was relaxed. The American Military History says:

尽管有一些官方的阻力和行政方面的障碍,黑人飞行员还是在欧洲空战中得到训练并发挥了作用,获得了技能娴熟和英勇善战的威名(见塔斯克基飞行员)。1945年初,坦克大战后,驻欧美军出现作战部队的短缺,因此作战部队中对黑人使用的禁令出现宽松,美国军事历史如是说:

Faced with a shortage of infantry replacements during the enemy's counteroffensive, General Eisenhower offered Negro soldiers in service units an opportunity to volunteer for duty with the infantry. More than 4,500 responded, many taking reductions in grade in order to meet specified requirements. The 6th Army Group formed these men into provisional companies, while the 12th Army Group employed them as an additional platoon in existing rifle companies. The excellent record established by these volunteers, particularly those serving as platoons, presaged major postwar changes in the traditional approach to employing Negro troops.

敌人反攻期间,步兵的补充兵员出现了短缺,艾森豪威尔将军为服务团的黑人士兵提供了一次当步兵志愿者的机会。超过4500人响应,为了满足具体的要求,很多人被裁减掉。第6集团军将这些人组编到临时的连队,而第12集团军将他们作为额外的排,部署在步枪连队。这些志愿者创造了很多优秀的记录,特别是那些以排为单位服役的人,预示着战后传统雇佣黑人士兵方法的改变。

Korean War and integration朝鲜战争和一体化

Buffalo Soldier Monument on Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

堪萨斯州利文沃斯堡的布法罗士兵纪念碑

The 24th Infantry Regiment saw combat during the Korean War and was the last segregated regiment to engage in combat. The 24th was deactivated in 1951, and its soldiers were integrated into other units in Korea. On December 12, 1951, the last Buffalo Soldier units, the 27th Cavalry and the 28th (Horse) Cavalry, were disbanded. The 28th Cavalry was inactivated at Assi-Okba, Algeria in April 1944 in North Africa, and marked the end of the regiment.

第24步兵团见证了朝鲜战争,并且是最后一个作为种族隔离的兵团参与战斗。1951年第24步兵团被解散,其士兵被整合到驻扎在韩国的其他兵团。1951年12月12日,最后的布法罗士兵团,即第27骑兵团和第28骑兵团被解散。1944年4月,驻扎在北非阿尔及利亚阿奥斯克巴的第28骑兵团被撤销,标志着该兵团的终结。

There are monuments to the Buffalo Soldiers in Kansas at Fort Leavenworth and Junction City. Then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell, who initiated the project to get a statue to honor the Buffalo Soldiers when he was posted as a brigadier general to Fort Leavenworth, was guest speaker for the unveiling of the Fort Leavenworth monument in July 1992.

堪萨斯州的利文沃斯堡和章克申城有布法罗士兵纪念碑。 1992年7月,时任参谋长联席会议主席的柯林.鲍威尔,开启了一项为布法罗士兵建立一座雕塑的工程,当时他被任命为利文沃斯堡的准将,并在利文沃斯堡雕像的揭幕仪式上作为嘉宾发表演讲。

Controversy 争议

In the last decade, the employment of the Buffalo Soldiers by the United States Army in the Indian Wars has led a few historical revisionists to call for the "critical reappraisal" of the "Negro regiments." In this viewpoint, shared by a small minority, the Buffalo Soldiers were used as mere shock troops or accessories to the force fully-expansionist goals of the U.S. government at the expense of the Native Americans and other minorities.

在最后十年中,由于印第安战争中的美国陆军雇用布法罗士兵,导致了一些历史修正主义者呼吁对“黑人兵团”的进行重新评价。在这个由少数人认为的观点来看,布法罗士兵在美国政府以牺牲美国土著居民和其他少数民族的利益而进行的暴力扩张中,仅仅是扮演了突袭部队或者是附次要的角色。

Legacy 遗产

Historical markers 历史标记

Fort Concho 康桥堡

Fort Clark 克拉克堡

Fort McKavett

In popular culture 在流行文化方面

• The song and music of Soul Saga (Song of the Buffalo Soldier) has had several renditions. In 1974, it was produced by Quincy Jones in the album Body Heat. In 1975,

the album Symphonic Soul contained another variation and was released by Henry Mancini and his Orchestra.

• 歌曲《灵魂传奇》 (布法罗士兵之歌)中有一些关于布法罗士兵的演奏。这首歌由昆西•琼斯创作于1974年,收录在其专辑《Body Heat》中。1975年的专辑《Symphonic Soul》中包含另外一个变奏曲,由

亨利•曼西尼及其管弦乐队发行。

• The song "Buffalo Soldier", co-written by Bob Marley and King Sporty, first appeared on the 1983 album Confrontation. Many Jamaicans, especially Rastafarians like

Marley, identified with the "Buffalo Soldiers" as an example of black men who performed with exceeding courage, honor, valor, and distinction in a field that was

dominated by whites and persevered despite endemic racism and prejudice.

• 歌曲《布法罗士兵》由鲍勃•马利与King Sporty联合编写,首次出现在1983年的专辑《Confrontation》中。很多牙买加人,特别是像马利这样的黑人回归主义者把布法罗士兵视作榜样,认为他们在种族

歧视和种族偏见下的白人所主导的社会里,展现出了非凡的勇气、无尚的荣誉、超强的英勇以及卓越的特点。

• The song Buffalo Soldier by The Flamingos specifically refers to the 10th Cavalry Regiment. The song was a minor hit in 1970. A cappella group The Persuasions remade

the song on their album Street Corner Symphony This version was produced by David Dashev and Eric Malamud.

• 火烈鸟乐队的歌曲《布法罗士兵》具体指的是第十骑兵团。这首歌发行与1970年,当时没有引起太大的轰动。阿卡贝拉的“信念”乐队重写制作了这首歌,并收录在其专辑《Street Corner Symphony》中。

此版本是由大卫• 戴斯谢夫和埃里克•马拉默德所创作。

Buffalo Soldier Memorial of El Paso, in Fort Bliss, depicting CPL John Ross, I Troop, 9th Cavalry, during an encounter in the Guadalupe Mountains during the Indian Wars

布利斯堡埃尔帕索的布法罗士兵纪念碑,描绘印第安战争期间第9骑兵团第I 部队的 下士 约翰•罗斯 在瓜达卢佩山区附近与敌交战。

• The 1960 Western film Sergeant Rutledge tells the story of the trial of a 19th-century black Army first sergeant of the 9th Cavalry, played by Woody Strode, falsely

accused of rape and murder. One of the characters narrates a history of the term "Buffalo Soldier" as coming from Plains Indians who first saw troopers of the 9th

Cavalry wearing buffalo coats and caps in winter, and thought they looked like buffaloes. The movie's theme song, titled "Captain Buffalo", was written by Mack David

and Jerry Livingston.

• 1960年由伍迪-斯特罗德主演的西方电影《雷克军曹》,讲述了19世纪第九骑兵团的第一个中士受审的故事,该中士被诬告强奸和谋杀。其中的一个人物讲述了“布法罗士兵”这个词来自平原印第安人,他们

在冬天第一次看到第9骑兵团的骑兵穿着水牛皮制成的外套,戴着水牛皮制成的帽子,看起来像水牛。电影的主题曲为"布法罗队长",由马克•大卫和杰瑞•利文斯顿创作。

• A 1961 episode of the television series Rawhide ("Incident of the Buffalo Soldier", season 3, episode 10, aired January 6, 1961) was about a former top sergeant

Buffalo Soldier stationed at Fort Wingate.

• 1961年的电视连续剧《Rawhide》(1961年1月6日第3季第10集播出了“布法罗士兵事件”的插曲)讲述了一名驻扎在温盖特堡的一名前布法罗高级中士的故事。

• A 1964 episode of Rawhide ("Incident at Seven Fingers", season 6, episode 30, aired May 7, 1964) was about a top sergeant of Troop F, 110th Cavalry Regiment (played

by William Marshall) who is accused of being a coward and a deserter. Other Buffalo Soldiers and an officer track him down.

• 1964年的电视连续剧《Rawhide》(1964年5月7日,第6季,第30集中播出的《Incident at Seven Fingers》)是关于一名第110骑兵团F部队的高级中士(由威廉•马歇尔主演),他被指控为懦夫和逃兵,由

其他布法罗士兵和一名军官追捕他。

• A 1968 episode of television series The High Chaparral ("The Buffalo Soldiers", season 2, episode 10, aired November 22, 1968), starring Yaphet Kotto, had the 10th

Cavalry, C Company called in to establish martial law at the request of the citizens of Tucson, to help relieve it from the grip of a crime boss.

• 1968年由耶佛•哥图主演电视连续剧《灌木丛》(1968年11月22日第2季第10集播出的“布法罗士兵”),在图森市市民的要求下将第10日骑兵团C连召集过来实施戒严令,以帮助缓解犯罪头目的控制。

• The 1970 television film Carter's Army (also known as the Black Brigade), starring Stephen Boyd, Rosey Grier and Richard Pryor, depicted a black unit during World

War II, led by a white officer. 

• 1970年电视电影《卡特的军队》(也称黑色劲旅),由斯蒂芬•博伊德、罗塞•格里尔和理查德•普赖尔主演,描绘了由白人军官领导的第二次世界大战期间的黑人军团。

• The 1976 film Joshua, starring Fred Williamson, tells the story of a black soldier who, returned from fighting for the Union in the Civil War, becomes a bounty

hunter determined to track down his mother's killers.

• 1976年弗雷德•威廉森主演的电影《约书亚》,讲述了一个黑人士兵,他从为盟军效力的内战中归来后,成为一个赏金猎人,决意查出杀害他母亲的人。

• The 1997 television film Buffalo Soldiers, starring Danny Glover, drew attention to their role in the American Indian Wars.

• 1997年丹尼•格洛弗主演的电影《布法罗士兵》,使他们在印第安战争中所扮演的角色引起了人们的注意。

• The film Miracle at St. Anna, directed by Spike Lee, chronicles the Buffalo Soldiers who served in the invasion of Italy. It is based on the novel of the same name

by James McBride.

• 由斯派克•李导演的电影《圣安娜奇迹》,记载了曾在意大利入侵时服役的布法罗士兵。它是基于詹姆斯•麦克布莱德的同名小说。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

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