Bacon 培根

翻译| 郝希伟 审校| 许少欢

1.Fatback

2. Pork belly

1.背部肥肉

2.五花肉

A strip of bacon

图为一片培根

Bacon is a meat product prepared from a pig and usually cured. It is first cured using large quantities of salt, either in a brine or in a dry packing; the result is fresh bacon (also known as green bacon). Fresh bacon may then be further dried for weeks or months in cold air, or it may be boiled or smoked. Fresh and dried bacon is typically cooked before eating. Boiled bacon is ready to eat, as is some smoked bacon, but may be cooked further before eating.

培根是一种用猪肉制成的肉制品,通常经过腌熏等加工。首先会用大量的盐在卤水中腌制,或在干燥的包装中腌制。得到的是新鲜培根(也叫生培根)。生培根接下来可能还会在冷空气中风干几周甚至几个月,也可能被煮熟或烟熏。生培根及风干后的培根通常在食用前被烹制好,而经过蒸煮的培根和一些熏制的培根则可以随时食用,但也可在食用前进一步地烹制。

Bacon is prepared from several different cuts of meat. It is usually made from side and back cuts of pork, except in theUnited States, where it is almost always prepared from pork belly (typically referred to as "streaky", "fatty", or "American style" outside of the US and Canada). The side cut has more meat and less fat than the belly. Bacon may be prepared from either of two distinct back cuts: fatback, which is almost pure fat, and pork loin, which is very lean. Bacon-cured pork loin is known as back bacon.

培根来源于动物的几种不同部位。它通常是猪背部和肋部的肉,但在美国,经常用猪腹部的肉作为原料(美国和加拿大地区以外的人们通常将其称之为五花肉、肥肉或美式培根)。侧面的肉与腹部的肉相比,所含瘦肉较多,脂肪较少。培根也可由两种不同的来自背部的肉制成::背部肥肉,几乎全是脂肪;猪大排骨,瘦肉很多。猪大排骨制成的培根还有一个被人熟知的名字:外脊培根。

Uncooked rashers of streaky pork belly bacon

还未烹制的猪腹部五花肉培根片

Packaged smoked bacon

包装好的熏制培根

Raw bacon in a pan

平底锅中的生培根

The same bacon, cooked

同样的烧熟后的培根

Bacon may be eaten smoked, boiled, fried, baked, or grilled, or used as a minor ingredient to flavour dishes. Bacon is also used for barding and larding roasts, especially game, including venison and pheasant. The word is derived from the Old High German bacho, meaning "buttock", "ham" or "side of bacon", and cognate with the Old French bacon.

培根的吃法有熏、煮、炸、烘或者烤,还可以用做给菜肴调味的调料。培根还可以用于烤肉时的添油肉片,特别是一些野味,如鹿肉和野鸡肉。该词源于古高地德语 bacho,意为“臀部”,“火腿”或“熏猪肋肉”,与古法语中的“bacon”属于同源词汇。

In continental Europe, part of the pig is not usually smoked like bacon is in the United States; it is used primarily in cubes (lardons) as a cooking ingredient, valued both as a source of fat and for its flavour. In Italy, this is called pancetta and is usually cooked in small cubes or served uncooked and thinly sliced as part of an antipasto.

在欧洲大陆地区,有些猪肉是不会像美国的培根那样被烟熏的;起初,由于其油脂丰厚,味道很好,将其(肥腊肉片)切成方块状作为烹饪的调料。在意大利,人们将其叫做“pancettae ”,通常是切成小方块状,或者是切成薄的生肉条,作为开胃菜。

Meat from other animals, such as beef, lamb, chicken, goat, or turkey, may also be cut, cured, or otherwise prepared to resemble bacon, and may even be referred to as "bacon". Such use is common in areas with significant Jewish and Muslimpopulations, both of which prohibit the consumption of pigs. The USDA defines bacon as "the cured belly of a swine carcass"; other cuts and characteristics must be separately qualified (e.g., "smoked pork loin bacon"). For safety, bacon may be treated to prevent trichinosis, caused by Trichinella, a parasitic roundworm which can be destroyed by heating, freezing, drying, or smoking.

一些其他动物的肉,比如牛肉、羊羔肉、鸡肉、山羊肉或火鸡肉,也可以切下来腌制,或者可以做得很像培根,甚至就可以被称为“培根”。在犹太教众和穆斯林聚居的地区,这种做法十分常见,因为这两种宗教都禁止食用猪肉。美国农业部将培根定义为“腌制过的猪胴体腹部的肉”;其他部位的以及具有不同特征的肉则必须有其各自的检验标准(比如“熏制的猪大排骨培根”)。出于安全考虑,培根通常会经过处理来防止由旋毛虫引起的旋毛虫病,这种寄生蛔虫可以通过高温,冷冻,干燥或烟熏等方法被杀死。

Bacon is distinguished from salt pork and ham by differences in the brine (or dry packing). Bacon brine has added curing ingredients, most notably sodium nitrite, and occasionally potassium nitrate (saltpeter); sodium ascorbate or erythorbateare added to accelerate curing and stabilise colour. Flavourings such as brown sugar or maple are used for some products. Sodium polyphosphates, such as sodium triphosphate, may be added to make the produce easier to slice and to reduce spattering when the bacon is pan-fried. Today, a brine for ham, but not bacon, includes a large amount of sugar. Historically, "ham" and "bacon" referred to different cuts of meat that were brined or packed identically, often together in the same barrel.

培根和咸猪肉以及火腿的区别主要是取决于卤制时所用卤水成分(或是腌制用盐)不同。腌制培根的卤水中会加入一些腌制调料,最常用的是亚硝酸钠,有时候也会用硝酸钾;还会加入抗坏血酸盐或异抗坏血酸盐来加速腌制过程和稳定着色。在一些产品中还会用到红糖、槭糖等调味品。为了使产品更加容易切成片并减少煎锅时的油溅,还可能会加入多磷酸钠,比如三磷酸钠。现在腌制火腿而非培根用的卤水中含有大量的糖,而在过去,“火腿”和“培根”仅仅指的是不同部位的肉而已,通常在同一个桶里腌制,过程一样,包装上也没什么区别。

Contents/目录

• 1 Curing and smoking bacon

• 腌培根和烟熏培根

• 2 Cuts of bacon

• 培根的分类

o 2.1 Process

o 制作过程

• 3 Around the world

• 环球风采

o 3.1 United States

o 美国

o 3.2 Canada

o 加拿大

o 3.3 United Kingdom and Ireland

o 英国和爱尔兰

o 3.4 Australia and New Zealand

o 澳大利亚和新西兰

o 3.5 Japan

o 日本

o 3.6 Germany

o 德国

• 4 Addictive taste

• 不可抗拒的味道

o 4.1 Bacon mania

o 培根狂热

• 5 Bacon dishes

• 培根菜

• 6 Bacon fat

• 培根油

• 7 Nutrients

• 营养价值

• 8 Religious concerns

• 宗教禁忌

• 9 Health concerns

• 健康忧虑

• 10 Alternatives

• 替代品

o 10.1 Turkey bacon

o 火鸡培根

 10.1.1 Production and use

 腌制过程及使用

o 10.2 Vegetarian bacon

o 蔬菜培根

• 11 Reception

• 接受程度

• 12 Bacon flavoured products

• 培根衍生品

o 12.1 Bacon bits

o 培根粒

o 12.2 Other bacon-flavoured products

o 其他培根食品

• 13 In popular culture

• 融入现代文化

o 13.1 Epic Meal Time

o 美食节目《超级开饭时间》

Curing and smoking bacon

腌培根和烟熏培根

Smoke cured bacon, then cooked with additional hickory smoke

图为烟熏培根,烹制时再用山核桃木进行烟熏

Bacon is cured through either a process of injecting with or soaking in brine or using plain salt (dry curing).

培根通常是以注入卤水或浸泡的方法来腌制,或者完全用盐来腌制(干腌)。

In America, bacon is usually cured and smoked, and different flavours can be achieved by using various types of wood, or rarely corn cobs; peat is sometimes used in the United Kingdom. This process can take up to eighteen hours, depending on the intensity of the flavour desired. The Virginia Housewife (1824), thought to be one of the earliest American cookbooks, gives no indication that bacon is ever not smoked, though it gives no advice on flavouring, noting only that care should be taken lest the fire get too hot. In early American history, the preparation and smoking of bacon (like the making of sausage) seems to have been a gender-neutral process, one of the few food-preparation processes not divided by gender.

在美国,培根通常用来腌制或烟熏,并且通过使用不同种类的木材来产生不同的味道,极少数情况下使用的玉米穗轴来熏制;在英国有时候还会用泥煤。根据预期味道的浓淡程度,该过程最高可持续八个小时。《弗吉尼亚家庭主妇》(1824)被认为是美国最早的烹饪书籍之一,没有说培根不可熏制,但也没有在调味品方面给出建议,只是说要注意火候不要太大。在早期的美国历史上,培根的准备和熏制(像腊肠的制作)似乎是一个不分性别的过程,也是少有的几种不根据性别来区分的食物准备过程。

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, smoked and unsmoked varieties are equally common, unsmoked being referred to as green bacon. The term streaky bacon refers to belly bacon, due to the prominence of the bands of fat.

在英国和爱尔兰,各种经烟熏和未经烟熏的培根都很常见,只不过没经过烟熏的被叫做生培根。由于所取部位的脂肪含量更高,“五花熏咸肉”这个词特指的是猪腹部培根。

Cuts of bacon

培根分类

Rashers differ depending on the primal cut from which they are prepared:

根据原料所取部位的不同,培根可分为以下几类:

Cooked rasher of streaky bacon

一片烧熟的五花肉培根

• Side bacon, or streaky bacon, comes from pork belly. It is very fatty with long layers of fat running parallel to the rind. This is the most common form of bacon in

the United States. Pancetta is Italian streaky bacon, smoked or aqua (unsmoked), with a strong flavour. It is generally rolled up into cylinders after curing.

• 腹部培根,又叫五花熏咸肉,材料是猪胸肉,皮下脂肪极其丰厚,是美国最常见的培根品种。意大利的五花培根叫做“Pancetta”,分为烟熏和非烟熏,风味醇厚,并且通常将熏制后的培根卷成圆筒状。

Back bacon, ready for cooking

准备烧制的外脊培根

• Middle bacon, from the side of the animal, is intermediate in cost, fat content, and flavour between streaky bacon and back bacon.

• 侧部培根,来自动物的侧部肉,在价格、脂肪含量和味道等方面都介于五花肉培根和外脊培根之间。

• Back bacon (rashers, or, in the United States, Canadian bacon) comes from the loin in the middle of the back of the pig. It is a very lean, meaty cut of bacon, with

less fat compared to other cuts. It has a ham-like texture. Most bacon consumed in the United Kingdom is back bacon.

• 外脊培根(咸肉薄片,在美国称为加拿大培根)来自猪的脊背,瘦肉含量高,与其他部位的肉相比,脂肪含量更低,肉质与火腿相似。在英国消费的大多数培根都是外脊培根。

• Cottage bacon is thinly sliced lean pork meat from a shoulder cut that is typically shaped and meaty. It is cured and then sliced into round pieces for baking or

frying.

• 猪肩培根来自猪肩部的薄片瘦肉,通常做成特定形状,肉质丰厚。它在腌制过后会被切成圆形的薄片,可以用来烘烤或油炸。

• Jowl bacon is cured and smoked cheeks of pork. See Guanciale.

• 颊部培根是由猪的脸颊肉经腌制烟熏而成。详情参见词条:Guanciale.

Sliced jowl bacon

切成片的颊部培根

• Slab bacon is side bacon that is not sliced. It generally has the rind still intact and usually has a medium to very high fraction of fat. It is made from the belly

and side cuts, and from fatback. Slab bacon is not to be confused with salt pork, which is prepared from the same cuts, but is not cured.

• 大块培根是不经过切片处理的培根。通常也不经过去皮处理,脂肪含量大概占了一半甚至更高。它源于猪腹部、侧部的肉以及背部的肥肉。大块培根和腌猪肉并不一样,虽然二者原料相同,但前者却没有经

过腌制。

Bacon joints include the following:

关节肉制成的培根包含以下几类:

• Collar bacon is taken from the back of a pig near the head.

• 颈背培根,取自猪头附近的背部肉。

• Hock, from the hog ankle joint between the ham and the foot. See Ham hock.

• 猪后腿培根,由猪腿和猪蹄之间的关节肉制成。详情参见:Ham hock.

• Gammon, from the hind leg, traditionally "Wiltshire cured". See Gammon (meat).

• 烟熏猪后腿肉,来自于猪的后腿,历史上用“威尔特腌制法”制成。详情参见:Gammon (meat)

• Picnic bacon is from the picnic cut, which includes the shoulder beneath the blade. It is fairly lean, but tougher than most pork cuts.

• 猪肩培根,来自猪肩部分,包含肩胛骨下面的一部分。它所含瘦肉较多,但与大多数培根相比,不易咀嚼。

Process

制作过程

First, pork bellies are sorted by size and fat percentage. They are then placed into a large machine that rotates (often called a tumbler). This softens the bellies, which makes it easier to remove the rinds. The bellies are then cut, either manually or mechanically, to remove the skin from the meat. The skins may be used to be processed into pork rinds. The bacon is then treated by a brine solution. The brine solution may contain the flavorings, or the flavorings may be added later. After being brined, the bacon is smoked. Depending on where the bacon is made, the smoking process is different. The bacon is then cooked in an oven and soon after chilled for a few days. The cooling makes the meat firm which makes it easier to slice. After being cooled, the bacon is sliced into strips. The bacon is then cooked. The fat that cooks off the bacon is sometimes collected to be used for things like gravy and pet foods. The bacon strips are then ready for consumption. If the bacon is made for commercial use then the strips are packaged.

首先,根据大小和脂肪含量来把猪胸肉分类,然后将其放到一个旋转的机器中(通常叫做滚筒)。这能够让猪肉软化,从而更容易去皮,之后将肉进行切割,由人工或机器将肉皮去掉。去掉的皮可能会近一步加工成猪皮食品。之后培根将会被放在一种卤水中浸泡,卤水中可能本来就放有调料,或者是之后再放进去。腌制后,培根会被烟熏。培根的产地不同,熏制过程也会不一样。接下来的培根会被放在烤箱中加工,之后很快会将其冷冻几天。冷冻过程让肉质更加紧凑,因此更加容易将其切成片。冷冻之后,培根会被切成片,然后进行烹制。有时候,加工过程中产生的油会被回收用来生产肉汁和宠物饲料等。这时的培根就可以食用了,如果培根生产是用于商业出售,那么培根则会事先包装好。

Around the world

环球风采

Bacon and egg on toast, garnished with a strawberry

吐司面包上的培根和鸡蛋,配以草莓装饰

Traditionally, the skin is left on the cut and is known as 'bacon rind', but rindless bacon is also common throughout the English-speaking world. The meat may be bought smoked or unsmoked. Bacon is often served with eggs and sausages as part of a full breakfast.

传统上,肉皮会被保留在肉片上,被称作“培根皮”;但无皮培根在英语国家中也同样普遍。经过烟熏和未经烟熏的肉都可以被买到。培根、鸡蛋和香肠更是许多人理想的早餐搭配。

United States

美国

A side of unsliced bacon was once known as a 'flitch'; it is now known as a 'slab'. An individual rasher of bacon is known as a 'slice' or 'strip'. The term 'rasher of bacon' is occasionally encountered (e.g., on restaurant menus) to mean a serving of bacon (typically several slices).

人们曾经将未经切片处理的培根叫做“腌熏猪肋条肉”;现在人们则称之为 “较厚的肉片”。单独的一片培根则叫做‘slice’或‘strip’(注:均有“一片”的意思)。而“一片培根”这个词在有时候(比如说在餐厅时)实际上指的是“一份培根”(通常有好几片)。

American bacons include varieties smoked with hickory or corncobs and flavourings such as red pepper, maple, brown sugar,honey, molasses, and occasionally cinnamon. They vary in sweetness and saltiness and come from the Ozarks, New England, and the upper South (mainly Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia).

美式培根的品种包括用核桃木或玉米穗轴烟熏而成的培根,所用的调味料有红辣椒、槭糖、红糖、蜂蜜和糖浆等,有时候还会放肉桂。这些品种在甜度和咸度方面都不一样,分别源于欧扎克地区(注:为美国俄克拉荷马州、密苏里州、阿肯色州三州交界的一处高地)、新英格兰地区以及上层南部的几个州(主要是肯塔基州、北卡罗莱那州、田纳西州和弗吉尼亚州)。

• The term 'bacon' on its own generally refers to strip bacon from the belly meat of the pig, which is the most popular type of bacon sold in the US.

• 'Canadian Bacon' or 'Canadian-style bacon' is made from the pork loin, usually the lean ovoid portion (longissimus muscle or loineye). It also can be made from the

sirloin portion of the loin (gluteal muscles), but must be labelled appropriately. Similar products are used as less expensive substitutes.

• 'Streak or' lean', a Southern bacon made from fatback

• “培根”一词通常专指来自猪腹部的片状培根,这种培根也是在美国最流行的一种。

• “加拿大培根”或称“加式培根”的原料源于猪腰部,通常是椭圆形的瘦肉(最长肌)。也可以由腰部的里脊肉(近臀肌)制作而成,但是一定要贴标签注明。与之类似的培根产品被当成廉价的替代品。

• “五花培根”或“瘦肉培根”是一种南方地区生产的由背部肥肉制成的培根。

Canada/加拿大

Roasted peameal bacon with a maple glaze at the St. Lawrence Market in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

在加拿大安大略省多伦多市圣劳伦斯市场,表层涂有槭树汁豌豆粉的培根

An individual piece of bacon is a 'slice' or 'strip'. In Canada:

• The term bacon on its own or, more specifically, side bacon typically refers to bacon from the pig's belly.

• Back bacon refers to either smoked or unsmoked bacon cut from the boneless eye of pork loin; this is called 'Canadian bacon' in the United States.

• Peameal bacon is back bacon, brined and coated in fine cornmeal (historically, it was rolled in a meal made from ground dried peas).

人们将单独的一片培根称之为“slice”或“strip”(注:均有‘片’的意思)。在加拿大:

• “培根”一词指的是五花肉培根,用来自猪腹部的肉制成。

• 外脊培根指的是用猪的腰部上半部分无骨的肉制成的烟熏或非烟熏的培根;在美国,这种培根叫做“加拿大培根”。

• 豌豆粉培根是一种外脊培根,卤制后在表面再涂上一层优质玉米粉(过去则是涂上一层由干研豌豆粉制成的食品)。

United Kingdom and Ireland

英国和爱尔兰

A rasher of bacon is a thin slice; rashers were called collops in the sixteenth century. Bacon is usually described as either streaky or back:

培根片是一层很薄的培根肉片;培根薄片在16世纪被叫做‘薄肉片’。人们通常所说的培根指的是五花培根或外脊培根:

• The term bacon on its own does not specify the cut but typically refers to back bacon.

• Bacon from the pork belly, with streaks of meat and fat, is referred to as 'streaky bacon'

• Bacon from the back of the pig is referred to as 'back bacon', and usually includes a streaky bit and a lean oval bit.

• Middle cuts with an eye of meat and an extended streaky section are common.

• Heavily trimmed back cuts which may consist of just the eye of meat are available.

• “培根”这个词单独使用时并不能显示出其具体部位,但通常指的是外脊培根。

• 猪腹部上的那种肥肉和瘦肉间隔分布的肉,制成的培根叫做“五花培根”。

• 由猪脊背上的肉制成的培根被称为“外脊培根”,通常既包含一些五花肉又包含一些椭圆形的瘦肉。

• 既含瘦肉又含肥肉的侧部培根在这两个国家十分常见。

• 还可以看到一些被分割得很厉害的脊背培根,通常只含有肉的上半部分。

Bacon may be cured in several ways; in particular it may be described as smoked or unsmoked. Many ways of curing add water to the meat; bacon sold as "dry cured" does not have added water. For example, in a shop a particular type may be described as "dry-cured unsmoked back bacon".

培根的腌制方法多样;特别的,也可分为经过烟熏的和未经烟熏的。许多方法在腌制时都会加水;而作为“干腌制品”售卖的则不会加水。比如,商店中可能会出现一类描述为“非烟熏干腌背部培根”的食品。

Grilled or fried bacon rashers are included in the traditional full breakfast, which varies slightly from country to country ("full Scottish", etc.).

在过去,一份传统的早餐中会包含烤培根或煎培根,但在不同的国家间中也会有细微的差别(如苏格兰早餐,等等)。

Australia and New Zealand/澳大利亚和新西兰

Middle bacon is the most common variety and is sold in 'rashers'. Middle bacon includes the streaky, fatty section along with the loin at one end. In response to increasing consumer diet-consciousness, some supermarkets also offer the loin section only. This is sold as 'short cut bacon' and is usually priced slightly higher than middle bacon. Both varieties are usually available with the rind removed.

侧部培根是这两个国家中最常见的培根品种,切片售卖。侧部培根中包括五花肉,肥肉以及后部的脊背肉。为了满足公众日益增长的“节食”意识,一些超市也单独售卖侧部培根的瘦肉部分,这类培根叫做“短截培根”,而且价格通常要高于侧部培根。市场上的这两种培根通常都是经过去皮处理的。

Japan/日本

In Japan, bacon (ベーコン) is pronounced "bēkon". It is cured and smoked belly meat as in the US, and is sold in either regular or half length sizes. Bacon in Japan is different from that in the US in that the meat is not sold raw, but is processed, precooked and has a ham-like consistency when cooked. Uncured belly rashers, known as bara (バラ), are very popular in Japan and are used in a variety of dishes (e.g. yakitori and yakiniku).

在日本,培根的发音是“bēkon”。和美国一样,它也是由猪腹部肉腌制或烟熏而来,既出售标准大小的培根也售卖只有正常大小一半的培根。和美国的培根不同的是,日本不出售生培根,所售培根都是处理好的,之前已经烧制过的,因此再次烧制时,其硬度与火腿相似。人们把未腌制的培根片叫做“巴拉”,该食品在日本十分受欢迎,在各种菜肴中都有使用(如日式烧鸡和烧肉)。

Germany/德国

Above: Smoked fatback (Rückenspeck)

German smoked and baked pork belly used for cold cuts

上图为烟熏的背部肥肉

德国人将烟熏和烘培过的猪胸肉作为冷切肉食用

Tyrolean Speckknödelssuppe including bacon cubes

提洛儿地区掺有培根肉块的肉丸

Grilled pork belly, Wammerl in Bavarian dialect

猪胸烤肉,在巴伐利亚方言中叫做Wammerl

Some of the meanings of bacon overlap with the German language term Speck. Germans use the term bacon explicitly for Frühstücksspeck (Speck for breakfast) which are cured or smoked pork slices. Traditional German cold cuts favor ham over bacon, however "Wammerl" (grilled pork belly) remains popular in Bavaria.

培根的一些含义与德语词汇“Speck”(注:意为肥肉培根)的含义相同。在德国,“bacon”这个词专指作为早餐食用的培根,是一种腌制或烟熏过的猪肉片。传统的德国冷切肉更喜欢用火腿而不是培根,但是猪胸烤肉在巴伐利亚地区依然很受欢迎。

Small bacon cubes (called "Grieben" or "Grammerln" in Austria and southern Germany) have been a rather important ingredient of various southern German dishes. They are used for adding flavor to soups and salads and for speck dumplings and various noodle and potato dishes. Instead of preparing them at home from larger slices, they began to be sold ready made as convenience foods recently as "Baconwürfel" ("bacon cubes") in German retail stores.

培根粒(在奥地利和德国南部将其称之为"Grieben"或"Grammerln")在德国南部的众多菜肴中是一种非常重要的调味品。他们可以用来给汤、沙拉以及饺子调味,在许多与面食和马铃薯相关的菜肴中也有应用。现在,人们已经不在自己家中用培根片来制作培根粒了,因为德国的零售商店已经开始把制作好的培根粒作为方便食品来售卖。

Addictive taste

不可抗拒的味道

Arun Gupta of The Independent has pointed out how the food industry adds flavorings to bacon. In Asia, especially Japan, umami has belonged traditionally to the Basic (5) tastes. The adaption in the Western world allowed providers as McDonald's various types of umami, which elicits an addictive neurochemical response. "The chain lards on bacon", which give foods a "high flavor profile" creating a "one-of-a-kind product that has no taste substitute." This led Dr. David Kessler, author of The End of Overeating, to note how the standard joke in the restaurant chain industry goes, "When in doubt, throw cheese and bacon on it."

《独立报》的作家Arun Gupta指出了食品界是如何往培根中添加各种风味的。在亚洲,尤其是日本,鲜味一直就是传统的五味之一。西方世界对此风味的采用,使麦当劳这样的快餐店提供出各种类型的鲜味,由此在人的身体中发生了令人欲罢不能的神经化学反应。连《过量饮食的终结》一书的作者David Kessler博士都引用了当下连锁食品店中盛行的一个笑话,“当不知道吃什么好的时候,点奶酪和培根准没错。”

Bacon mania/培根狂热

There is: bacon ice cream; bacon-infused vodka; deep-fried bacon; chocolate-dipped bacon; bacon-wrapped hot dogs filled with cheese (which are fried, then battered and fried again); brioche bread pudding smothered in bacon sauce; hard-boiled eggs coated in mayonnaise encased in bacon—called, appropriately, the "heart attack snack"; bacon salt; bacon doughnuts, cupcakes and cookies; bacon mints; "baconnaise," which Jon Stewart described as "for people who want to get heart disease but [are] too lazy to actually make bacon"; Wendy's "Baconnator"—six strips of bacon mounded atop a half-pound cheeseburger—which sold 25 million in its first eight weeks; and the outlandish bacon explosion—a barbecued meat brick composed of 2 pounds of bacon wrapped around 2 pounds of sausage.

— Arun Gupta

培根产品有:培根冰淇淋,培根伏特加,油炸培根,蘸巧克力培根,奶酪培根热狗(油炸培根后涂上一层面粉后再次油炸而成);浇以培根汁的奶油蛋糕布丁;用培根包裹的涂有蛋黄酱的水煮蛋—被恰如其分地称作“能让你心脏病发作的小吃”;培根盐;培根甜甜圈,纸杯蛋糕,饼干等;培根薄荷糖;培根蛋黄酱,被John Stewart描述为一种“想得心脏病却又懒得去做培根人士的最佳选择”; 温蒂汉堡推出的“培根终结者”—一种在半磅重的奶酪汉堡上再堆上六片培根的汉堡王,在售出八周之后销售额就达到了2500万;最怪异的一个变种莫过于“培根大爆炸”了—一种野餐时食用的超大型肉类食品,由2磅重的培根再裹上2磅重的香肠构成。

— Arun Gupta

Chocolate-covered bacon on a stick

插在木签上表层涂着一层巧克力的培根

The United States and Canada have seen an increase in the popularity of bacon and bacon related recipes, dubbed "bacon mania". The sale of bacon in the U.S. has increased significantly since 2011. Sales climbed 9.5% in 2013, making it an all-time high of nearly $4 billion in U.S. In a survey conducted by Smithfield, 65% of Americans would support bacon as their "national food." Dishes such as bacon explosion, chicken fried bacon, and chocolate-covered bacon have been popularised over the internet, as has using candied bacon. Recipes spread quickly through both countries' national media, culinary blogs, and YouTube. Restaurants have organized and are organizing bacon and beer tasting nights, The New York Times reported on bacon infused with Irish whiskey used for Saint Patrick's Day cocktails, and celebrity chef Bobby Flay has endorsed a "Bacon of the Month" club online, in print, and on national television.

美国和加拿大对培根及其相关烹饪法的喜爱日益增长,这被称作“培根狂热”。自2011年起,美国培根的销售额就在急速上升。2013年培根在美国的销售额上涨了9.5%,一路飙升到了40亿美元。在史密斯菲尔德进行的一次调查中,65%的美国民众愿意支持培根作为他们的“国菜”。“培根大爆炸”,炸培根鸡肉卷,巧克力培根等培根菜也通过网络受到人们的追捧。相关食谱也在这两个国家的媒体、烹饪博客以及Youtube上疯传。一些餐馆都已经或开始举办“培根与啤酒之夜”,《纽约时报》还报道了一种泡在爱尔兰威士忌酒中的培根,这种酒还是人们庆祝圣帕特里克节时一种鸡尾酒的原料。就连名厨巴比•福雷也在国家电视台,网络和书中为一个名叫“每月培根”的网上俱乐部打广告。

Commentators explain this surging interest in bacon by reference to what they deem American cultural characteristics. Sarah Hepola, in a 2008 article inSalon.com, suggests a number of reasons, one of them being that eating bacon in the modern, health-conscious world is an act of rebellion: "Loving bacon is like shoving a middle finger in the face of all that is healthy and holy while an unfiltered cigarette smoulders between your lips." She also suggests bacon is sexy (with a reference to Sarah Katherine Lewis' book Sex and Bacon), kitsch, and funny. Hepola concludes by saying that "Bacon is American".

评论者认为人们对培根的迷恋与他们所认为的“美国文化特点”相关。Sarah Hepola于2008年在Salon.com中的一篇文章里,对这个问题给出了众多原因,其中一个原因是吃培根在一个现代化、健康意识盛行的社会里是一种反叛:“对培根的热爱就像对一堆干净而又神圣的东西竖中指,并且嘴里还叼着一根未经过滤的香烟。” 她同时还指出,培根很性感(引自莎拉•凯瑟琳•刘易斯的书,《性与培根》)、粗俗并且有趣。Hepola最后总结说“培根就是美国。”

Alison Cook, writing in the Houston Chronicle, argues the case of bacon's American citizenship by referring to historical and geographical uses of bacon. Early American literature echoes the sentiment—in Ebenezer Cooke's 1708 poem The Sot-Weed Factor, a satire of life in early colonial America, the narrator already complains that practically all the food in America was bacon-infused.

艾莉森•库克在《休斯顿纪事报》中通过引述培根在历史上和地区中的使用,来论证培根的美国公民身份。早期的美国文学也能证明这个观点——Ebenezer Cooke在1708年所写的一首反映早期美洲殖民时代的讽刺诗《烟草代理商》中,作者就调侃到几乎美国所有的食物都和培根有关。

Bacon dishes

培根菜肴

A bacon, lettuce, and tomato (BLT) sandwich

图为培根、生菜、番茄三明治,也就是常说的BLT

Bacon dishes include bacon and eggs, bacon, lettuce, and tomato (BLT) sandwiches, Cobb salad, and various bacon-wrapped foods (scallops, shrimp, and asparagus). Recently invented bacon dishes include chicken fried bacon, chocolate covered bacon, and the bacon explosion. Tatws Pum Munud is a traditional Welsh stew, made with sliced potatoes, vegetables and smoked bacon. Bacon jam and bacon marmalade are also commercially available.

培根类菜肴通常包含鸡蛋培根,培根、生菜、番茄三明治(即BLT),科布沙拉以及许多培根卷食品(扇贝、虾、龙须菜)。最近新出现的培根食品则有炸鸡培根、巧克力培根以及“培根大爆炸”。Tatws Pum Munud是一种传统的威尔士炖菜,里面会放上土豆片,蔬菜和烟熏培根。培根酱和培根果酱也可以在市场上买到。

In the U.S. and Europe, bacon is commonly used as a condiment or topping on other foods, often in the form of bacon bits. Streaky bacon is more commonly used as a topping in the U.S. on such items as pizza, salads, sandwiches, hamburgers, baked potatoes, hot dogs, and soups. In the U.S., sliced smoked loin, which Americans call Canadian bacon, is used less frequently than the streaky variety, but can sometimes be found on pizza, salads, and omelettes.

在美国和欧洲地区,培根通常是以培根沫的形式来做调味品或放在其他食物的顶部。 在美国,五花肉培根更是经常被用在披萨,沙拉,三明治,汉堡、烤马铃薯,热狗以及汤等食物的顶端来作为装饰。在美国,人们将切成片的烟熏脊背肉称为“加式培根”,它没有五花肉培根的应用范围广,但有时也会和披萨,沙拉和煎蛋饼搭配。

Bacon is also used in adaptations of dishes; for example, bacon wrapped meatloaf, and can be mixed in with green beans or served sautéed over spinach

培根还被应用在各种菜肴的变体中,如用培根包裹的烘肉卷,也可以和青豆搭配食用,或者在油煎后将其覆盖在菠菜上面。

Bacon fat/培根油

Bacon frying in its own grease

在培根油中炸的培根

Bacon fat liquefies and becomes bacon drippings when it is heated. Once cool, it firms into lard if from uncured meat, or rendered bacon fat if from cured meat. Bacon fat is flavourful and is used for various cooking purposes. Traditionally, bacon grease is saved in British and southern U.S. cuisine, and used as a base for cooking and as an all-purpose flavouring, for everything from gravy to cornbread[56] to salad dressing.[57]

培根的油脂在加热时会液化为培根油。对于未腌制的肉,其油脂在冷却后会凝固成猪油,而腌制过后的则会变为培根油。培根油味道极佳,在各种菜肴中都有使用。在过去,英国和美国南部地区的人会将培根油脂储存起来,视其为烧菜必备品,并且是一种多用途的调味品,可以用来做肉汁、玉米面包和色拉酱调料。

German Griebenschmalz used as spread

德国把脆渣油脂用作涂抹调味品

If streaky pork belly bacon scliced in cubes is being used for lard preparation, as traditionally in Germany, the parts with higher smelting temperature are being roasted and stay in the lard. The result is Griebenschmalz, a famous spread.

如果块状五花肉培根片是用来制作猪油的话,正如德国传统的做法,猪肉中熔点较高的那部分在持续受热之后就会保持其猪油形态,这就是脆渣油脂,一种十分出名的涂抹调味品。

Bacon, or bacon fat, is often used for barding roast fowl and game birds, especially those that have little fat themselves. Barding consists of laying rashers of bacon or other fats over a roast; a variation is the traditional method of preparing filet mignon of beef, which is wrapped in rashers of bacon before cooking. The bacon itself may afterwards be discarded or served to eat, like cracklings.

培根或培根油经常被用作烤家禽和鸟类野味时的熏肉片和浇肉汁,特别是那些油脂含量原本就不多的肉类,使用时将几片培根或其他油脂覆盖在烤肉上。一个衍生品就是传统菲列牛排的制作方法:在将牛排进行烧制前会用培根片把牛肉包裹起来,而用过的培根可能会被丢掉,或者重新做成食品,如烤肉脆皮。

One teaspoon (4 g or 0.14 oz) of bacon grease has 38 calories (160 kJ). It is composed almost completely of fat, with very little additional nutritional value. Bacon fat is roughly 40% saturated. Despite the disputed health risks of excessive bacon grease consumption, it remains popular in the cuisine of the American South.

一勺培根油(4克或0.14盎司)所含热量为38卡路里(160千焦)。它的组成差不多全是脂肪,几乎不含任何其他的营养物质。饱和时的培根脂肪含量可以达到40%。虽然过量食用培根油对健康有害,但是它在美国南部的膳食中依然很受欢迎。

In the German case, Griebenschmalz has been substituted with apples and onions, first as a makeshift in times of needs but as well to lower the fat content. Instead of using gravies, German cuisine prefers sauces with a lower grease content, however smaller amounts of bacon fat and animal grease in general are being used frequently e.g. for (sweet) cookies and cakes.

而在德国,脆渣油脂也正逐渐被苹果和洋葱代替,最初是只在需要时作为临时的替代品来使用,同时也为了减少脂肪的摄入。德国人更倾向于用油脂含量较低的调味汁来做饭,而不是用肉汁,但少量的培根油和动物油在饼干和蛋糕的制作中越来越频繁地被使用。

Nutrients

营养价值

One 20-gram (0.7 oz) rasher of cooked streaky bacon contains 5.4 grams (0.2 oz) of fat, and 4.4 grams (0.2 oz) of protein. Four pieces of bacon can also contain up to 800 mg of sodium, which is roughly equivalent to 1.92 grams of salt. The fat and protein content varies depending on the cut and cooking method.

一片20克(0.7盎司)的熟五花肉培根中含有5.4克(0.2盎司)的脂肪和4.4克(0.2盎司)的蛋白质。四片培根的钠含量可以达到800毫克,与1.92克盐的钠含量差不多。根据培根所取部位和烹饪方法的不同,脂肪和蛋白质含量也会有所差异。

68% of bacon's calories come from fat, almost half of which are saturated.[61] Each ounce of bacon contains 30 milligrams of cholesterol.

培根所含卡路里的68%来自脂肪,其中的一半是饱和脂肪。每盎司培根中含有30毫克胆固醇。

Religious concerns

宗教禁忌

Judaism prohibits the consumption of bacon as part of the Kashrut, the Jewish dietary laws, that are derived from the Book of Deuteronomy. In kashrut, pig is not kosher, which means it is not fit for consumption. Deuteronomy 14:3-10 states, "Do not eat any detestable thing. ... The pig is also unclean; although it has a split hoof, it does not chew the cud. You are not to eat their meat or touch their carcasses." The Islamic faith also prohibits the consumption of bacon: The Quran: Surah 2:172-173 states, "Allah ... hat only forbidden you [to eat] Dead meat, and blood. And the flesh of swine ..."

禁食培根是犹太教饮食教规的一部分,这一教规来自于《申命记》。在犹太饮食教规中,猪肉不是洁净的,也就意味着它不适合食用。《申命记》第14章3-10条这样规定,“不要食用任何令人厌恶之物……猪也是不洁之物,虽然它有分蹄,但并不是倒嚼类动物。你们不应食其肉,触其尸体”。穆斯林的信条中也不允许食用培根:《古兰经》第二章172-173条这样写道,“真主只禁止你们食用三样东西:死去动物的肉,血以及猪肉……”

Some Christian churches also prohibit the consumption of pork: the Seventh-day Adventist Church prohibits the consumption of swine as taboo, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church forbids the consumption of pork because pigs are "unclean".

一些基督教派也禁止食用猪肉:基督复临安息日会将食用猪肉视为大忌,埃塞俄比亚正教会也禁止食用猪肉,因为他们认为猪肉是“不圣洁的”。

Health concerns

健康问题

Bacon has a large amount of sodium, and the consumption of a large amount of sodium can put a person at risk for heart disease and high blood pressure.

培根中含有大量的钠,而大量摄入钠元素会增加人们患心脏病和高血压的风险。

Bacon is considered by many doctors to be unhealthy if eaten in excess. A study conducted by researchers at the University of Zurich found a connection between eating processed meat and the risk of dying from heart disease or cancer. Processed meats contain preservatives known as nitrates that, when absorbed by the human body, convert into nitrosamine, a chemical compound that could cause cancer. A second study by researchers at Columbia University found that the consumption of cured meats increase a person's chances of developing chronic pulmonary disease.

很多医生认为过量食用培根会导致健康问题。苏黎世大学进行的一项研究表明,食用加工过的肉与心脏病或癌症导致的死亡存在一定的关联。加工过的肉中含有一种叫做硝酸盐的防腐剂,被人体吸收后会转化为一种可致癌的化学合成物,亚硝酸。哥伦比亚大学研究人员进行的二次实验也发现,食用腌肉会增加人们患慢性肺部疾病的几率。

Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health found in 2010 that eating processed meats (such as bacon) that are preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or with the addition of chemical preservatives, was associated with an increased risk of both heart disease and diabetes.[68] The same association was not found for unprocessed meat.

2010年,哈佛公共卫生学院的研究人员发现,食用烟熏,腌制,加盐,或使用化学防腐剂保存的经过处理的肉(如培根)与患心脏疾病和糖尿病风险的增加有联系,但是在未处理肉中却没有发现存在该联系。

Alternatives/替代品

Turkey bacon cooking in skillet

正在平底锅中烹制的火鸡培根

Turkey bacon

火鸡培根

Turkey bacon is a popular alternative to bacon. People may choose turkey bacon over real bacon due to health benefits, religious laws, or other reasons. It is lower in fat and calories than bacon, but may be used in a similar manner (such as in a BLT sandwich).

火鸡培根是一种受欢迎的培根替代品。人们出于健康考虑、宗教法规或其他因素可能会选择火鸡培根而不是真正的培根。它所含的脂肪和热量都比真正的培根要低,但食用方法大致一致(比如说番茄三明治)。

Production and use

制作过程

The meat for turkey bacon comes from the whole turkey and can be cured or uncured, smoked, chopped, and reformed into strips that resemble bacon. Turkey bacon is cooked by pan-frying. Cured turkey bacon made from dark meat can be 90% fat free. The low fat content of turkey bacon means it does not shrink while being cooked and has a tendency to stick to the pan.

制作火鸡培根的肉来自于整个火鸡,它可以腌制也可以不腌制,还可以烟熏,剁碎,制作成像培根那样的片状。火鸡培根通过平底锅油炸来烹制。来自深色肉(注:指禽类的腿等部分烧不白的肉)的腌制后的培根脂肪含量仅为10%。火鸡培根的低脂肪意味着它在烧制过程中不会变小,还可能会粘在锅上。

Vegetarian bacon

素培根

Vegetarian bacon, also referred to as fakon, veggie bacon, or vacon, is a product marketed as a bacon alternative that is available in supermarkets. It has no cholesterol, is low in fat, and contains large amounts of protein and fiber. Two slices contain about 74 calories. Vegetarian bacon is usually made from marinated strips of tofu or tempeh.

素培根又被称为“fakon”,“veggie bacon”或“vacon”,作为一种培根的替代品被引入市场,在超市里就可以买到。它不含胆固醇,脂肪含量低,并且含有大量蛋白质和纤维素。两片素培根所含的热量为74卡路里,通常由卤制过的豆腐片或豆豉制作而成。

Reception

公众反响

Bacon has received mixed reviews from the public.

公众对培根的评价褒贬不一。

On one hand, bacon has received a positive reception by the public. Bacon Today states that bacon has a very valuable amount of protein that is "valuable to maintaining our energy levels and a fully functioning, healthy body, with a minimum of those nasty, waist, thigh and butt expanding, fat building carbohydrates." Everything Tastes Better with Bacon, a book by Sara Perry, is a cookbook that compliments bacon's many uses in cooking.[73]

一方面,培根获得了群众的好评。“今日培根”宣称培根含有大量高价值的蛋白质,“对保持旺盛的精力和一个健康的身体十分有价值,所含的可导致腰部、大腿和臀部变胖的碳水化合物也很少。”在Sara Perry所写的一本名为《有培根,皆美味》的烹饪书中,她对培根在诸多料理中的使用给予了极高的评价。

On the other hand, as with most meat products, producers of bacon have received heavy criticism for how their pigs are treated. Many petitions and protests have occurred trying to raise awareness and change how producers treat their pigs. Many of these protests have turned out successful: for example, following NBC News's report of an undercover investigation of an abusive pig farm, Tyson Foods terminated their contract with the pig farm. Similar to NBC's investigation, The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) investigated Seaboard Foods, one of the pig breeding facilities that supply Walmart. According to HSUS, the pigs were treated poorly and abused. Walmart spokesperson Diana Gee said, "As soon as we were made aware of the allegations, we immediately reached out to Seaboard to begin investigating the issue ... Pending our review, we will take any action necessary." Petitions also exist that oppose poor treatment of pigs, many of which state that the current treatment of pigs in factories is cruel and unethical.

在另一方面,就像其他肉类产品一样,培根的生产商们也因他们对待猪的方式而遭到严厉的批评。为了提高人们的保护意识和改变生产商们对待猪的方式,已经进行了为数众多的请愿和抗议活动。许多抗议活动成效显著:比如说,在NBC新闻秘密调查一家虐猪农场的报道公开之后,泰森食品公司终止了和该养猪农场的合约。与NBC进行的调查相似,美国慈善协会也对沃尔玛的一家猪肉供应商“海外食品公司”进行了一次调查。结果显示,他们对待猪的态度恶劣,甚至是虐待。沃尔玛发言人Diana Gee说到,“我们在得知这一消息后,第一时间与海外食品公司进行联系并就此事展开调查,在调查期间,我们将采取一切必要措施。”人们也发起了很多反对虐猪事件的请愿活动,许多人认为当下工厂对待猪的行为是残忍和不人道的。

Bacon flavoured products

培根味的商品

Bacon bits in a bowl.

碗中的培根粒

The popularity of bacon in the United States has given rise to a number of commercial products that promise to add bacon flavouring without the labour involved in cooking it or the perceived negative qualities of bacon. Some of the more unusual products are evidence of the recent bacon fad, including bacon vodka, bacon peanut brittle, bacon toothpaste, Baconnaise (bacon mayonnaise), Bacon Salt, bacon popcorn, and bacon mints. A range of inedible products are also available including bacon band-aids, dental floss, scarves, soaps, chewing gum, perfumes, and air fresheners.

培根在美国的流行产生出了很多的相关商品,这些商品都宣称在没有人为加工并且去除了培根消极影响的情况下加入了培根风味。下列这些看似奇怪的产品就是当下人们对培根痴迷的证据:培根伏特加、培根花生糖、培根牙膏、培根蛋黄酱、培根食用盐、培根爆米花以及培根薄荷糖。其他不可食用产品也包括培根创可贴、培根牙线、围巾、肥皂、口香糖、香水和空气清新剂等。

Bacon bits

培根粒

Bacon bits are a frequently used topping on salad or potatoes, and a common element of salad bars. They are usually salted. Bacon bits are made from either small, crumbled pieces of bacon (ends and pieces) or torn or misshapen rashers; in commercial plants they are cooked in continuous microwave ovens. Similar products are made from ham or turkey, and analogues are made from textured vegetable protein, artificially flavoured to resemble bacon.

培根粒经常被用做沙拉、土豆等食物的装饰配料,在自助沙拉台上也是很常见的佐料,通常都经过加盐处理。培根粒的原料主要是体型较小,皱裂的或撕开的、卖相不好的培根肉片。在一些商业工厂里,它们会被放入连续工作的微波炉中烧制。也有以火腿或火鸡肉为原料的类似产品,还有的是以结构性植物组织蛋白(人造肉)做成的,会添加调味料来使其更像培根。

Other bacon-flavoured products

其他培根味的食品

Turkey bacon and vegetarian bacon (see above) are popular alternatives to real bacon. There is also a wide range of other bacon-flavoured products, including a bacon-flavoured salt (Bacon Salt), Baconnaise (a bacon-flavoured mayonnaise), Bacon Grill (a tinned meat, similar to Spam) and bacon ice cream.

火鸡培根和素培根(见上文)都是十分受欢迎的培根替代品。还有许多其他培根风味的产品,包括培根味的盐(熏肉盐),培根蛋黄酱(一种培根风味的蛋黄酱),培根烤肉(一种肉制罐头,类似于斯帕姆牌午餐肉)以及培根冰淇淋。

In popular culture

现代文化

Maple brown sugar five spice bacon jerky about to be oven-cured

准备放入炉中腌制的红槭糖五香熏肉

Bacon has been gaining popularity over the past decade. It has become a fad on the internet.

培根在过去10年间一直深受民众喜爱,在网上也是人们热议的一个话题。

Epic Meal Time 《超级开饭时间》

Epic Meal Time, a cooking show based on YouTube, features bacon in many of their episodes. In one episode entitled Bacon Tree, Epic Meal Time creates a tree made out of bacon using over 2,000 strips of bacon. In another episode entitled Boss Bacon Burger, over 400 strips of bacon are used to make a gigantic hamburger with bacon and other toppings.

《超级开饭时间》是YouTube上的一档美食节目,曾在多期节目中介绍了培根。在一期名为“培根树”的节目中,人们用超过2000片的培根做出了一棵培根树。而在另一期名为“培根汉堡王”的节目中,用400多片培根和其他顶端装饰做了一个巨型汉堡。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

内容根据CC BY-SA 3.0可用