Industry 4.0 第四次工业革命

翻译| 张敏 审校| 高淑媛

Industry 4.0 is a project in the high-tech strategy of the German government, which promotes the computerization of the manufacturing industry. The goal is the intelligent factory (Smart Factory), which is characterized by adaptability, resource efficiency and ergonomics as well as the integration of customers and business partners in business and value processes. Technological basis are cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things.

工业4.0是德国政府高科技战略中的一个项目。这个推动制造业计算机化的项目旨在建立智能工厂,这种工厂的特点是:灵活适应性强、资源利用率高、注重人体功效学\重视在商业流程和价值流程中整合顾客和商业伙伴。该项目的技术基础是信息物理系统和物联网。

Experts believe that Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution could be a reality in about 10 to 20 years.

专家认为在未来10到20年内工业4.0,即第四次工业革命有望成为现实。

Meanwhile, in the United States, an initiative known as the Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition is also working on the future of manufacturing. Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition (SMLC) is a non-profit organization of manufacturing practitioners, suppliers, and technology companies; manufacturing consortia; universities; government agencies and laboratories. The aim of this coalition is to enable stakeholders in the manufacturing industry to form collaborative R & D, implementation and advocacy groups for development of the approaches, standards, platforms and shared infrastructure that facilitate the broad adoption of manufacturing intelligence.

与此同时,美国也在致力于未来制造业的研究工作,提出建立智能制造业领导者联盟。该联盟是一个非盈利的组织,由制造业从业者、供应商、制造业协会、大学、政府机构以及研究所组成。智能制造业领导者联盟旨在为制造业中利益相关者建立负责合作研发、项目实施和倡导提议的团队,以改进工作方法、提升产品标准、扩大展销平台和促进基础设施共享,从而促进制造智能得到更为广泛的应用。

Similarly, GE has been working on an initiative called 'The Industrial Internet'. The Industrial Internet aims to bring together the advances of two transformative revolutions: the myriad machines, facilities, fleets and networks that arose from the Industrial Revolution, and the more recent powerful advances in computing, information and communication systems brought to the fore by the Internet Revolution. According to GE, together these developments bring together three elements, which embody the essence of the Industrial Internet: INTELLIGENT MACHINES, ADVANCED ANALYTICS and PEOPLE AT WORK.

同样地,美国通用电气公司一直都在致力于创建“工业互联网”。工业互联网目的在于汇聚之前两次工业革命中取得的进步:工业革命创造出的无数的机器、设施设备、飞机轮船以及运输网络,和近期的互联网革命中在计算、信息和通讯系统上所取得的巨大进步。通用电气公司称,将这些先进成果集聚在一起,就构成了工业互联网三个基本要素,即智能机器、高级分析法和工人,这就是工业互联网的本质。

Description/基本描述

The term "industrie 4.0" refers to the fourth industrial revolution. The first industrial revolution was the mechanization of production using water and steam power, it was followed by the second industrial revolution which introduced mass production with the help of electric power, followed by the digital revolution, the use of electronics and IT to further automate production.

“工业4.0”这个术语指的就是第四次工业革命。第一次工业革命实现了利用水力及蒸汽动力进行机械化生产,紧随其后的第二次工业革命实现大规模产品定制,接下来的数字革命通过利用电子工业和信息技术深化了自动化生产。

The term was first used in 2011 at the Hanover Fair. In October 2012 the Working Group on Industry 4.0 chaired by Siegfried Dais ( Robert Bosch GmbH ) andKagermann (acatech) presented a set of Industry 4.0 implementation recommendations to the German federal government. On 8 April 2013 at the Hanover Fair the final report of the Working Group Industry 4.0 was presented.

2011年汉诺威工业博览会上首次使用该术语。2012年十月由Siegfried Dais(罗伯特•博世股份有限公司)和Kagermann(德国工程院)主持的工业4.0工作组向德国联邦政府提交了一套第四次工业革命实施建议书。2013年4月8日,工业4.0工作组在汉诺威工业博览会上提交了其最终工作报告。

Meaning/内涵

Characteristic for industrial production in an Industry 4.0 environment are the strong customization of products under the conditions of high flexibilized (mass-) production. The required automation technology is improved by the introduction of methods of self-optimization, self-configuration, Self-diagnosis, cognition and intelligent support of workers in their increasingly complex work. The largest project in Industry 4.0 at the present time is the BMBF leading-edge cluster "Intelligent Technical Systems OstWestfalenLippe (it's OWL)". Another major project is the BMBF project RES-COM, as well as the Cluster of Excellence "Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries".

在第四次工业革命中,工业生产的特点就是在高度灵活化(大规模)的生产条件下,实现了大规模和高品质的产品定制。在日益复杂的工作中,机器的自我优化、自我配置、自我诊断再配以工人们的认知能力和聪明才智,使得实现大规模产品定制所需的自动化技术得以改进和发展。目前工业4.0中最大的项目是德国联邦教研部的尖端“智能科技系统Ost WestfalenLippe(简称OWL)”集群项目。此外,联邦教研部的RES-COM项目以及“致力于打造高薪国家的综合生产技术”精英集群也是工业4.0中的一些主要项目。

Industry 4.0 - what it means for the future industry/第四次工业革命——对未来工业来说意味着什么。

Recently, McKinsey released an interview featuring an expert discussion between executives at Robert Bosch - Siegfried Dais (Partner of the Robert Bosch Industrietreuhand KG) and Heinz Derenbach (CEO of Bosch Software Innovations GmbH), and McKinsey experts. This interview addressed the prevalence of the Internet of Things in manufacturing and the consequent technology-driven changes that promise to trigger a new industrial revolution. At Bosch, and generally in Germany, this phenomenon is referred to as Industry 4.0. The basic principle of Industry 4.0 is that by connecting machines, work pieces and systems, we are creating intelligent networks along the entire value chain that can control each other autonomously.

最近,麦肯锡咨询公司发布了一则访谈录像,这是一个在Siegfried Dais(罗伯特•博世工业信托公司的合伙人),Heinz Derenbach(博世软件创新股份有限公司的首席执行官)和麦肯锡公司的专家们之间展开的专业讨论。这则访谈提出制造业中物联网盛行这一现象和随之产生的技术驱动性的改变有望引发一场新的工业革命。在博世公司乃至整个德国这一现象普遍指的就是第四次工业革命。通过连接机器、工件和系统,我们正在顺着能够自动互控的整个价值链创造智能网络,这就是第四次工业革命的基本原则。

Some examples for Industry 4.0 are machines that predict failures and trigger maintenance processes autonomously or self-organized logistics that react to unexpected changes in the production.

那些能够预测故障并能自动开启维修程序,或者能通过开启自行组织的后勤功能来应对生产过程中突发的变化的机器就是第四次工业革命的范例。

So, what effects does this change have on the classic manufacturing value chain? According to Siegfried Dais, “it is highly likely that the world of production will become more and more networked until everything is interlinked with everything else.” While this sounds like a fair assumption and the driving force behind the Internet of Things, it also means that the complexity of production and supplier networks will grow enormously. Networks and processes have so far been limited to one factory. But in an Industry 4.0 scenario, these boundaries of individual factories will most likely no longer exist. Instead, they will be lifted in order to interconnect multiple factories or even geographical regions.

那么,这一改变对传统的制造业价值链又会产生哪些影响?Siegfried Dais称,“生产将极有可能变得越来越网络化,直到所有的一切都在内部相互联系着。”这听起来像是一个合理的假设,也像是物联网发展的背后推动力,而这更意味着生产和供应网络将会发展得极其复杂。到目前为止,工业网络和生产加工还仅限于在一个工厂之内开展。但是在第四次工业革命的发展蓝图中,个体工厂之间的界限将极有可能不复存在。而为了使多个工厂甚至是多个地理区域相互联系,消除这些界限。

The differences between a today's factory and an Industry 4.0 factory. In current industry environment, providing high-end quality service or product with the least cost is the key to success and industrial factories are trying to achieve as much performance as possible to increase their profit as well as their reputation. In this way, various data sources are available to provide worthwhile information about different aspects of the factory. In this stage, the utilization of data for understanding the current condition and detect faults and failures is an important topic to research. e. g. in production, there are various commercial tools available to provide OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) information to factory management in order to highlight root cause of problems and possible faults in the system. In contrast, in an Industry 4.0 factory, in addition to condition monitoring and fault diagnosis, components and systems are able to gain self-awareness and self-predictiveness, which will provide management with more insight on the status of the factory. Furthermore, peer-to-peer comparison and fusion of health information from various components provides a precise health prediction in component and system levels and enforce factory management to trigger required maintenance at the best possible time to reach just-in time maintenance and gain near zero downtime.

今天的工厂和第四次工业革命时期的工厂之间是有区别的。在当前工业环境下,成功的关键在于提供高端的服务或产品并将其成本将至最低。工厂都在尽可能提升绩效以增加盈利、提高声誉。这样,就可以获得各种各样的数据资源,这些数据资源可以为了解工厂的各个方面提供有价的信息。在这一阶段,利用数据理解现状并检测错误、排查故障是一个重要的研究课题。例如,在生产中,系统会存在各种问题并可能出现一些错误,为了突出其产生根源,可以利用多种多样的商业工具来获取工厂管理的OEE(设备综合效率)信息。而在第四次工业革命中,工厂除了状态监控和故障诊断外,各个部件和系统还都有自我意识,可以做出自我预知。这将使得在工厂管理中可以更为敏锐地洞察工厂的运行状况。此外,通过对等比较和汇总融合来自各个零部件的健康信息,就可以对零部件以及整个系统的健康状况做出精确的推测,并加强工厂管理以在最恰当的时机开启所需的维修程序,从而实现实时维护和保持机器几乎始终正常运行。

What are the challenges?/ 面临的挑战?

1. Lack of adequate skill-sets to expedite the march towards fourth industrial revolution

1. 缺少足够的技术技能来加快第四次工业革命的到来

2. Threat of redundancy of the corporate IT department

2. 企业IT部门冗余带来的威胁

3. General reluctance to change by stakeholders

3. 利益相关者普遍不愿意做出改变

Role of Big Data and Analytics/大据和分析学所扮演的角色

Modern information and communication technologies like Cyber-Physical Systems, Big Data or Cloud Computing will help predict the possibility to increase productivity, quality and flexibility within the manufacturing industry and thus to understand advantages within the competition.

信息物理系统、大数据或云计算等现代信息和通讯技术将会有助于预测制造业中是否存在提高生产率、提升产品质量、增加生产灵活性的空间,从而明确自己在竞争中的优势所在。

Big Data Analytics consists of 6Cs in the integrated Industry 4.0 and Cyber Physical Systems environment. 6C system that is consist of Connection (sensor and networks), Cloud (computing and data on demand), Cyber (model & memory), Content/context (meaning and correlation), Community (sharing & collaboration), and Customization (personalization and value). In this scenario and in order to provide useful insight to the factory management and gain correct content, data has to be processed with advanced tools (analytics and algorithms) to generate meaningful information. Considering the presence of visible and invisible issues in an industrial factory, the information generation algorithm has to capable of detecting and addressing invisible issues such as machine degradation, component wear, etc in the factory floor.

在第四次工业革命和信息物理系统的共同影响下,大数据分析由6个方面组成,即:联系(传感器和网络)、云(计算和数据按需即时提取)、计算机网络(模型&记忆)、内容(意义和联系)、社区(共享&合作)以及客户定制化(个性化和价值观)。在这一情境下,为给工厂管理提供有用的参考意见、获取正确的信息,必须利用先进的工具(分析法和演算法)处理数据以获取有意义的信息。鉴于工厂中出现的问题既包括可见的,也包括潜在的,这就要求信息生成算法必须能够探测到并解决诸如工厂车间内机器老化、部件磨损等潜在的问题。

Impact of the Industry 4.0/第四次工业革命的影响

There are many areas that are foreseen to have an impact with the advent of the fourth industrial revolution. Of which four key impact areas emerge:

预计随着第四次工业革命的到来,很多领域都将会受到影响。其中受影响最大的四个领域为:

1. Machine Safety/机械安全

2. Industry value chain/工业价值链

3. Workers/工人

4. Socio-economic/社会经济

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

内容根据CC BY-SA 3.0可用