Rochdale Principles 罗虚戴尔原则

翻译| Jannie 审校| 高淑媛

The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. They were first set out in 1844 by the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers in Rochdale, England and have formed the basis for the principles on which co-operatives around the world continue to operate. The implications of the Rochdale Principles are a focus of study in co-operative economics. The original Rochdale Principles were officially adopted by the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) in 1937 as the Rochdale Principles of Co-operation. Updated versions of the principles were adopted by the ICA in 1966 as the Co-operative Principles and in 1995 as part of the Statement on the Co-operative Identity.

罗虚戴尔原则是为合作社的运行而设立的一套典范。起初,它们由英国罗虚戴尔的罗虚戴尔公平先锋社于1844年制定,并成为世界各地的合作社持续运行所遵循的基本原则。罗虚代尔原则是研究合作经济的重点。最初的罗虚代尔原则称为罗虚戴尔合作原则,在1937年被国际合作社联盟(ICA)正式采用。该原则更新后的版本称为合作社的原则,于1966年被ICA采用,并在1995年,成为《合作社特征声明》内容的一部分。

Contents

目录

1 Current ICA version of co-operative principles

1 当前ICA版本的合作原则

1.1 Voluntary and open membership

1.1 自愿、公开的社员制

1.1.1 Anti-discrimination

1.1.2 Motivations and rewards

1.1.1 反歧视

1.1.2 动力与回报

1.2 Democratic member control

1.2 社员的民主管理

1.3 Member economic participation

1.3 社员的经济参与

1.3.1 Democratic control

1.3.1 民主管理

1.3.2 Limitations on member compensation and appropriate use of surpluses

1.3.2 有限补偿社员与合理使用盈余

1.4 Autonomy and independence

1.4 自主和自立

1.5 Education, training, and information

1.5 教育、培训和信息

1.6 Cooperation among cooperatives

1.6 合作社之间的合作

1.7 Concern for community

1.7 关心社区

2 Previous versions

2 先前的版本

2.1 Original version (adopted 1937)

2.1 原始版本(1937年采用版)

2.2 ICA revision (1966)

2.2 ICA修订版(1966年)

Current ICA version of co-operative principles

合作原则当前的ICA版本

The Rochdale Principles according to the 1995 ICA revision can be summarised as follows.

根据1995年ICA的修订,罗虚代尔原则可归结为如下几点。

Voluntary and open membership

自愿与开放的社员制

The first of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have an open and voluntary membership. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, "Co-operatives are voluntary organisations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination."

罗虚代尔原则第一条强调,合作社社会必须采用开放且自愿的社员制。根据ICA发布的《合作社特征声明》,“合作社是志愿组织,向能够接受服务且愿意承担社员责任的所有人员开放,而且不会有性别、社会、种族、政治或宗教歧视。”

Anti-discrimination

反对歧视

To discriminate socially is to make a distinction between people on the basis of class or category. Examples of social discrimination include racial,religious, sexual, sexual orientation, disability, and ethnic discrimination. To fulfil the first Rochdale Principle, a Co-operative society should not prevent anyone willing to participate from doing so on any of these grounds. However, this does not prohibit the co-operative from setting reasonable and relevant ground rules for membership, such as residing in a specific geographic area or paying a membership fee to join, so long as all persons meeting such criteria are able to participate if they so choose.

从社交方面讲,歧视就是依据阶级或类别区分人类。社会歧视的案例包括种族歧视、宗教歧视、性别歧视、性取向歧视、残疾歧视以及民族歧视。为了满足罗虚代尔原则的第一条的要求,合作社不可以此类歧视为由,阻碍任何愿意加入合作社的人员入社。然而,这并不会禁止合作社为社员制定合理且相关的基本规则,例如,社员需居住在某一特定的地理区域内或支付入社费。只要是满足此类标准的人员,一旦申请都可以加入合作社。

Motivations and rewards

动机与回报

Given the voluntary nature of co-operatives, members need reasons to participate. Each person's motivations will be unique and will vary from one co-operative to another, but they will often be a combination of the following:

鉴于合作社的志愿性本质,社员需要提供自愿加入的理由。每一个人的入社动机都是独特的,且会依据所要加入的合作社而变化,但这些理由常常可以归结为以下几点:

Financial – Some co-operatives are able to provide members with financial benefits.

Quality of life – Serving the community through a co-operative because doing service makes one's own life better is perhaps the most significant motivation for volunteering. Included here would be the benefits people get from being with other people, staying active, and above all having a sense of the value of ourselves in society that may not be as clear in other areas of life.

Giving back – Many people have in some way benefited from the work of a co-operative and volunteer to give back.

Altruism – Some volunteer for the benefit of others.

A sense of duty – Some see participation in community as a responsibility that comes with citizenship. In this case, they may not describe themselves as volunteers.

Career experience – Volunteering offers experiences that can add to career prospects.

经济方面——一些合作社可以为社员提供经济利益。

生活质量方面——由于服务于合作社可以提高社员自身生活水平,因而为社区服务可能是志愿加入合作社最重要的动机。社员在这可得到的回报包括:与他人相处,保持活力,最重要的是,能够获取可能在其他生活领域内无法获取的自我社会价值感。

回报方面——许多人在某些方面已经从合作社的工作中获得了利益,并且愿意回报合作社。

利他主义——一些志愿者为了他人的利益而志愿入社。

责任感——一些人认为加入社区是公民与生俱来的责任。在这种情况下,他们可能不会称自己为志愿者。

事业经验——提供志愿者经验,增加职业前景。

Democratic member control

社员的民主管理

The second of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have democratic member control. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote) and co-operatives at other levels are also organised in a democratic manner.”

罗虚代尔原则的第二条要求,合作社对社员必须实施民主管理。根据ICA发布的《合作社特征声明》,“合作社是民主型组织,由其社员管理,社员积极参与制定政策并作出决策。被选举出来的男女社员代表对社员负责。初级合作社的成员有平等的投票权(一人一票),而其他层级的合作社也应以民主管理的方式予以组成。”

Member economic participation

社员的经济参与

Member economic participation is one of the defining features of co-operative societies, and constitutes the third Rochdale Principle in the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity. According to the ICA, co-operatives are enterprises in which “Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership.” This principle, in turn, can be broken down into a number of constituent parts.

社员的经济参与是合作社的另一个本质特征,是发布的《合作社特征声明》中罗虚代尔原则的第三条原则的内容。根据ICA,合作社就是企业,“在这里,社员等额奉献于合作社,并民主管理合作社的资金。至少有一部分资金通常是合作社的共有财产。社员为入社而提供的资金,即使是有报偿,通常是有限制的。出于以下一项或全部目的,社员可对盈余进行分配,即:发展他们的合作社,尽可能通过设立储备基金,而且至少有一部分储备基金是不可分割的;根据社员与合作社的交易比例为他们发放福利;以及支持其他通过社员同意的活动。”反过来,这项原则也可以分解为许多组成部分。

Democratic control

民主管理

The first part of this principle states that “Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative.” This enshrines democratic control over the co-operative, and how its capital is used.

本项原则的第一部分称,“社员等额奉献于合作社,并民主管理合作社的资金。至少有一部分资金通常是合作社的共有财产。”这就为民主管理合作社以及怎样使用其财产提供了保障

Limitations on member compensation and appropriate use of surpluses

有限补偿社员与合理使用盈余

The second part of the principle deals with how members are compensated for funds invested in a Co-operative, and how surpluses should be used. Unlike for-profit corporations, co-operatives are a form of social enterprise. Given this, there are at least three purposes for which surplus funds can be used, or distributed, by a Co-operative.

本项原则的第二部分论述了如何补偿社员投资到合作社内的资金,以及如何分配盈余的问题。与以盈利为目的的公司不同,合作社是一种社会企业形式。鉴于此,合作社使用或分配盈余资金,至少有三种目的。

“Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership.”

“Developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible;” in other words, the surplus can be reinvested in the co-operative.

Benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative;” for example, a Consumers' Co-operative may decide to pay dividends based on purchases (or a 'divvi').

“Supporting other activities approved by the membership.”

“社员为入社而提供的资金,即使是有报偿,通常是有限制的。”

“发展他们的合作社,尽可能通过设立储备基金,而且至少有一部分储备基金是不可分割的。”也就是说盈余可以被重新投资到合作社。

“根据社员与合作社的交易比例发放福利,”例如,消费者合作社可能会根据购买物(或‘股息’)分红。

“支持其他通过社员同意的活动。”

Autonomy and independence

自主与自立

The fourth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must be autonomous and independent. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their co-operative autonomy.”

罗虚代尔原则的第四条要求,合作社必须自主独立。根据ICA发布的《合作社特征声明》,“合作社是由社员管理的自主、自助的组织。若他们与其他包括政府在内的组织达成协议,或从外部资源募集资金,他们需坚持原则,即确保其社员坚持民主管理,并维护合作社的自治权。”

Education, training, and information

教育、培训和信息

The fifth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must provide education and training to their members and the public. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders – about the nature and benefits of co-operation.”

罗虚代尔原则的第五条要求,合作社必须为其社员及公众提供教育和培训。根据ICA发布的《合作社特征声明》,“合作社应向其社员、所选代表、经理以及雇员提供教育和培训,以便他们可以有效地为合作社的发展效力。合作社应向公众——尤其是年轻人及意见领导——提供关于合作的本质和优势方面的信息。”

Cooperation among cooperatives

合作社之间的合作

The sixth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operatives cooperate with each other. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional and international structures.”

罗虚代尔原则的第六条要求,各个合作社应相互合作。根据ICA发布的《合作社特征声明》,“通过当地、国家、区域及国际机构的共同努力,合作社能够以最有效的方式服务其社员,并可以促进合作社运动。”

Concern for community

关心社区

The seventh of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have concern for their communities. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members.”

罗虚代尔原则的第七条要求,合作社必须关心他们所在的社区。根据ICA发布的《合作社特征声明》,“根据社员所通过的政策,合作社为其社区的可持续发展而奋斗。”

Previous versions

先前的版本

Original version (adopted 1937)

原始版本(1937年采用版)

Open membership.

Democratic control (one person, one vote).

Distribution of surplus in proportion to trade.

Payment of limited interest on capital.

Political and religious neutrality.

Cash trading (no credit extended).

Promotion of education.

开放的社员制原则。

民主管理(一人一票)原则。

按交易比例分红原则。

限制股息原则。

对政治和宗教中立原则。

现金交易(不赊账)原则。

促进教育原则。

ICA revision (1966) ICA 修订版(1966年)

Open, voluntary membership.

Democratic governance.

Limited return on equity.

Surplus belongs to members.

Education of members and public in cooperative principles.

Cooperation between cooperatives.

开放、自愿的社员制原则。

民主管理原则。

限制股息原则。

盈余摊还原则。

按合作社原则教育社员与公众的原则。

合作社之间合作原则。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

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