Alternative education 另类教育

翻译| 陈霞 审校| 高淑媛

Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, includes a number of approaches to teaching and learning separate from that offered by mainstream or traditional education. Educational alternatives are rooted in a number of philosophies differing from those of mainstream education. Although some alternatives have political, scholarly or philosophical orientations, others were begun by informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with some aspects of mainstream education. Educational alternatives (which include charter, alternative and independent schools and home-based learning) vary, but usually emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and teachers and a sense of community.

另类教育,也被称作非传统教育或是另类教育,它包括了一系列与主流教育和传统教育相分离的教学方式。另类教育根植于大量的有别于主流教育的哲学理念。虽然有些另类带有政治、学术以及哲学取向,然而另一些另类学校与教师和学生们对主流教育某方面的不满有着一定联系。另类教育(包括特许学校,非传统学校,独立学校以及在家学习)方式多样,但主要注重小班教学,加强学生和老师之间的联系以及团体意识。

Contents 目录

• 1 Terminology

• 1 术语

• 2 Origins

• 2起源

• 3 In the United States

• 3 美国的另类教育

o 3.1 School choice

o 3.1 选学校

o 3.2 Alternative school

o 3.2 另类学校

 3.2.1 Dropout prevention

 3.2.1 预防辍学

o 3.3 Independent schools

o 3.3 独立学校

o 3.4 Homeschooling

o 3.4 在家学习

o 3.5 Self-education

o 3.5 自学

• 4 In other countries

• 4 其他国家的另类教育

o 4.1 Canada

o 4.1 加拿大

 4.1.1 Origins

 4.1.1 起源

 4.1.2 School Types

 4.1.2 学校类型

o 4.2 India

o 4.2 印度

o 4.3 Japan

o 4.3 日本

o 4.4 United Kingdom

o 4.4 英国

o 4.5 The Netherlands

o 4.5 荷兰

Terminology

术语

Alternative education refers to education which does not conform to a conventional standard. In the United States the public-school system may set this standard, although public schools adopt an alternative approach as well. Synonyms for "alternative" in this context include "non-traditional," "non-conventional" and "non-standardized". Alternative educators use terms such as "authentic", "holistic" and "progressive".The U.S. Department of Education describes an alternative school as “a public elementary/secondary school that: 1) addresses needs of students that typically cannot be met in a regular school; 2) pro- vides nontraditional education; 3) serves as an adjunct to a regular school; or 4) falls outside the categories of regular, special education, or vocational education”

另类教育是一种不遵循常规教育水平的一种教育。在美国,公立学校可以设置这个标准,但是公立学校也会采用另类的教学方式。在本文中“另类”的同义词包括“非传统”,“非常规”,“非标准”。另类教育者会使用一些措辞比如“真实性”,“整体性”,“进步性”。美国教育部将另类学校比作“一个公立小学/中学”,有以下特点:1)通常满足学生在正规学校无法被满足的需求;2)提供非传统教育;3)作为正规学校的附属产物;4)不属于常规教育,特殊教育和职业教育的范畴。

Origins

起源

Alternative education presupposes a tradition to which the "alternative" is opposed. This limits the term to the last two or three centuries and the growth of standardized, compulsory primary and secondary education. Nineteenth-century educators, including Swiss humanitarian Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; the American transcendentalists Amos Bronson Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau; founders of progressive education John Dewey and Francis Parker, and educational pioneers such as Friedrich Fröbel, Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner (founder of the Waldorf schools) believed that education should cultivate the moral, emotional, physical, psychological, and spiritual aspects of the developing child.

另类教育假定反对传统教育的某一面。这种假定在之前的两到三个世纪限制了中小学义务教育的标准化发展。十九世纪的教育工作者包括瑞士的人道主义者 约翰•海因里希•佩斯塔洛奇;美国的先验论者阿莫斯•布朗森•奥尔科特,拉尔夫•瓦尔多•爱默生和亨利•大卫•梭罗;进步主义教育的创始人约翰•杜威和帕克;以及教育先驱弗里德里希•福禄贝尔,蒙特梭利和鲁道夫•斯坦纳(华德福学校的创始人)都坚信教育应该培养孩子在道德,情感,身体,心理和精神方面全面发展。

Anarchists such as Leo Tolstoy and Francisco Ferrer Guardia emphasized education as a force for political liberation, secularism and the elimination of class distinctions. After World War II an alternative Reggio Emilia approach to early-childhood education was developed in Italy, introduced by Loris Malaguzzi.

Cultural critics such as John Caldwell Holt, Paul Goodman, Frederick Mayer and George Dennison have examined education from individualist, anarchist, and libertarian perspectives. Other writers, from Paulo Freire to American educators Herbert Kohl and Jonathan Kozol, have criticized mainstream Western education from the viewpoint of liberal and radical politics. The argument for an approach catering to the interests and learning style of an individual is supported by research suggesting that a learner-responsible model is more effective than a teacher-responsible one. Ron Miller has identified five elements common to educational alternatives:

无政府主义者比如列夫•托尔斯泰和弗朗西斯科•费雷尔•瓜儿迪亚强调教育有解放政治,促进宗教与教育分离和消灭阶级差别的力量。第二次世界大战后,意大利研发出一种关于早教的瑞吉欧教学法,由马拉古奇引进。文化批评家如约翰•考德威尔•霍尔特,保尔•古德曼,弗雷德里克•迈耶和乔治•丹尼森从个人主义者,无政府主义者和自由主义者的角度来绅士教育。其他的作家从保罗•弗莱雷到美国教育家赫伯特•科尔和乔纳森•科佐尔从自由和激进的政治学的角度批评了西方主流教育。迎合个人兴趣的学习方式的观点得到了研究调查数据支持,该研究表明由学生主导的教学模式比由老师主导的教学模式更有效。罗恩•米勒已经定义了五种另类教育具有的普遍特征。

1. Respect for the person 尊重个人

2. Balance 平衡

3. Decentralization of authority 职权分散

4. Noninterference among the political, economic, and cultural spheres of society 不干预政治、经济和社会文化领域

5. A holistic worldview 完整的世界观

In the United States

在美国

A variety of educational alternatives exist at the elementary, secondary and tertiary level in four categories: school choice, alternative schools,independent schools and

home-based education.

在初级,中级,高级教育中存在多种教育方案,主要有以下四种类:学校的选择,另类学校,独立学校和家庭教育。

School choice

学校的选择

Public-school alternatives in the U.S. include separate schools, classes, programs and semi-autonomous "schools within schools". Public school-choice options are open to all students, although some have waiting lists. Among these are charter schools, combining private initiatives and state funding, and magnet schools, which attract students to a particular program (such as the performing arts).

在美国公立学校的选择包括独立学校,班级,项目和半自治的“学校中的学校”。公立学校的选择对所有学生开放,不过有些学生仍需等待学校的录取。其中包括特许学校,公私合办学校以及磁铁学校,这类学校用特定的项目去吸引学生(例如表演艺术)。

Alternative school

另类学校

"Alternative school" describes a number of educational approaches employing nontraditional philosophies, curricula and methods. Some alternative schools have a strong philosophical, political or practical orientations; others are ad hoc assemblies of teachers and students seeking to explore possibilities unavailable in traditional education.

另类学校描述了一些采用非传统的理念、课程体系和教学方法的教育方式。一些另类学校都有强烈的哲学、政治或者实践倾向,其他的则是教师和学生为探索在传统教育下无法实现的可能性而形成的特殊组织。

Dropout prevention

预防辍学

Advocates of programs designed to prevent (or discourage) students from leaving secondary school before graduation believe that leaving school without a diploma negatively impacts an individual's professional and personal life and society at large. Individual schools have tried to address the problem; three programs have been used in the U.S.:

该项目倡导者旨在预防(或阻碍)学生在中学毕业前就离开学校,他们认为没有拿到毕业证会对学生以后的职业和个人生活以及社会都产生很大的负面影响。个别学校已经在试图解决这一问题,美国已启动三个项目。

• Check and Connect: A dropout-prevention model developed in Minnesota in a partnership with the University of Minnesota, local public schools and community service organizations and focusing in on students with learning, emotional and behavioral disabilities. Students are paired with a mentor, who assesses attendance, academics and overall performance with discussions twice a month. This individual attention connects the student with school personnel and family- and community-service providers if intervention is needed.

• 阻止并联系:明尼苏达州和明尼苏达大学联合创建了一个预防辍学模式,当地的公立学校和社区服务组织主要关注学生的学习、情感以及行为障碍。学生们有专门配备的导师来评估他们的出席状况,学识水平和整体表现,每月进行两次讨论,这种个体关注在有必要实施干预的情况下将学生和学校人员、家庭以及社区服务提供者全部联系在一起。

A 1998 study by Sinclair and colleagues shows overall positive effects on 94 high school students from Minneapolis public schools in the program. The study found that students enrolled in the program were somewhat less likely to drop out of school after the end of freshman year (nine percent, compared with 30 percent). The positive outcome remained after the final checkup at the end of senior year: 39 percent of students in the program dropped out of high school, compared to 58 percent of those not enrolled. Program students also earned more course credits in their ninth-grade year than non-program students. According to the Dakota County schools in Minnesota, the cost of implementing the program was about $1,400 per student in 2001 and 2002.

1998年辛克莱和他的同事对94名明尼阿波里斯市公立学校的学生进行调查,研究表明该项目总体呈现出积极态势。研究发现参与这个项目的学生在大一之后一定程度上减少了辍学的念头。(相比于之前的30%,下降到了9%)这种积极的结果一直持续到大四的最后一个学期:参加该项目的辍学人数为39%,而没参加这个项目的辍学人数为58%。在九年级时,参加该项目的学生比没有参加的获得更多的学分。据明尼苏达州的达科特学校称,在2001到2002年期间实施这项计划的成本约为每个学生1400美元。

• Career Academies: Targeting the most at-risk students, Career Academies are a school-within-a-school model with a career-themed approach to learning. About 2,500 academies are operated nationwide. Found in larger high schools, it creates a smaller community by keeping students with the same teachers for three or four years. The program requires students to take career-related courses in subjects such as finance and technology, partnering with local employers to offer internships.

• 职业学院:针对最可能会辍学的学生,职业学院是一种校中有校模式,以职业为主题的学习方法。全国有2500所国立职业学院。他们建在高中的内部,他创建了一个小型社区,保证学生在三到四年内不更换老师。该项目要求学生参与的课程与职业相关比如金融和科技,同时与可以提供实习的企业合作。

• A 2000 study by Kemple and Snipes shows overall positive effects for 1,700 high school students in nine Career Academies. The study found that the most at-risk students

participating in the program produced fewer dropouts (21 percent, compared with 32 percent). Forty percent of Academy students had earned enough credits by their senior year to graduate, compared with 25 percent of non-Academy students. According to the California Partnership Academies, Career Academies intervention cost $600 more per pupil than for a non-Academy student in 2004.

• 一份2000年由Kemple 和Snipes发起的研究显示该项目对9所职业学院的1700名高中生起到了积极的作用。研究发现,原先最有可能辍学的学生参与该项目后辍学率减小。(辍学率为21%,而没参加项目的辍学率为32%)[5]40%的职业学院的学生都会在大四毕业前获得足够的学分,而非职业学校的学生只有25%获得了足够的学分。根据加州合作院校统计2004年职业学院的学生平均每人比非职业学院的学生多花费600美元。

• Talent Development High School: Developed in 1994 by the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk, the program was initiated at Patterson High School in Baltimore, Maryland. The TDHS approach is a holistic intervention, with dropout prevention as one component. It divides a large high school into smaller learning communities (like Career Academies), with a more-extensive program. There is a ninth-grade academy, a career academy for the upper grades and a "Twilight" after-school program for students with discipline and attendance problems. The program reforms students’ low expectations and schools’ poor academic preparation through a college-preparatory curriculum in ninth and tenth grades and increased emphasis on English and mathematics.

• 天才发展高等学院:1994年由高危学生教育研究中心在马里兰州巴尔的摩市帕特森高级中学发起。天才学院的教学方式是整体介入,把预防辍学作为其中的一个部分。他把一个大型中学分成几个小的社区(类似职业学院),有着更广泛的项目。[5]一个九年级的学院,一个针对高年级的职业学院,以及一个针对缺乏纪律和不按时出席的学生的“暮年”已毕业项目。该项目通过在九十年级增加大学预科科目,强化英语数学教学,改变了学生期望值低和学校学科准备不足的状况。

• A 2005 study by Kemple, Herlihy, and Smith, following 30 groups of participants for four years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, found that students in the program earned slightly more course credits over the first two years of high school than those not in the program (9.5 credits, compared with 8.6 credits), and were somewhat more likely to progress to tenth grade (68 percent, compared with 60 percent). According to Johns Hopkins University 's Center for the Social Organization of Schools (CSOS) (developer of the initiative), average costs for a student participating in the Talent Development High School model are an additional $350 a year per student.

• 一份2005年由Kemple, Herlihy, 和Smith连同30个小组的参与者在费城,宾西法尼亚州用四年时间调查发现参与这个项目的学生在中学的前两年比没有参与项目的学生得到的学分更高一点(分别是9.5学分和8.6学分),而且更有可能上十年级(分别为68%和60%)。根据美国霍普金斯大学研究中心对于学校的社会组织(该项目开发人员)的研究表示,参与天才学院项目的学生每人每年平均额外花费350美元。

On March 1, 2010, President Barack Obama called on the states to identify and focus on schools with graduation rates below 60 percent. Those districts may be eligible for federal aid, since his budget proposal included $900 million in "school turnaround grants" in addition to $3.5 billion in federal aid the administration committed to persistently low-performing schools. The president committed $50 million to the Graduation Promise Fund.

2010年3月1日,美国总统奥巴马呼吁全国找出并关注毕业率低于60%的学校。这些地区可能有资格获得联邦援助,由于他的财政预算提案包括了9亿美元的“学校转变基金”除此之外还有35亿美元的联邦财政补贴旨在长期赞助表现欠佳的学校。总统承诺把5000万美元用于毕业保证基金。

Independent schools

独立学校

Independent, or private, schools have flexibility in staff selection and educational approach. Many are Montessori and Waldorf schools (the latter also known as Steiner schools, after their founder Rudolf Steiner). Other independent schools include democratic or free schools, such as the Sudbury schools,open classroom schools, those based on experiential education and schools using an international curriculum such as the International Baccalaureate and Round Square schools.

独立学校和私立学校在员工选择和教育途径上拥有灵活性。许多都是蒙特梭利学校和华德福学校(后者也被称作斯坦纳学校,用他的创办者鲁道夫 斯坦纳先生的名字命名)。其他的独立学校包括民主或是免费的学校比如萨德伯里学校,开放式教室学校,这些学校都基于体验式教育,学校采用国际课程设置如国际学位( International Baccalaureate)和方圆国际学校(Round Square schools)。

Homeschooling

在家教育

Families seeking alternatives for educational, philosophical or religious reasons, or if there is no nearby educational alternative may opt for home-based education. A minor branch is unschooling, an approach based on interest rather than a curriculum. Others enroll in umbrella schools which provide a curriculum. Some homeschool families form a cooperative, where parents with expertise in a subject may teach a children from a number of families while their children are taught by other parents.

许多家庭都基于教育,哲学或是宗教方面的原因在寻求另类教育,如果附近没有另类教育,他们会选择家庭教育。非学校教育只是一个很小的分支,是一种基于兴趣而不是课程的学习方式。其他人会选择已提供课程的伞校。一些在家教育的家庭形成合作团体,父母专长某一方面的知识可以去教其他家庭的孩子而自己的孩子由其他父母教导。

Self-education

自学

Self-directed inquiry is recognized at all levels of education, from the "unschooling" of children to the autodidacticism of adults, and may occur separately from (or with) traditional forms of education.

自主研究被各级教育所公认,从非学校教育的孩子到自主学习的成人,它是从传统教育形式中分离而出现的。

In other countries

在其他国家

Canada

加拿大

To add a historical context, in Canada education falls under the jurisdiction of the provincial government. The term "alternative school" first became more familiar in educational vocabulary in the early 1970s with several small elementary and secondary schools being introduced into public school boards of education.

添加一个历史背景,在加拿大教育隶属于各省政府管辖。另类学校这个词汇第一次在教育词汇中被熟知是在20世纪70年代早期,几所小学和中学由公立学校董事会引入。

Origins

起源

In Canada alternative education stems from two philosophical educational points of view, Progressive and Libertarian. According to Levin, 2006 the term "alternative" was adopted partly to distinguish these schools from the independent, parent-student-teacher-run "free" schools that preceded them (and from which some of the schools actually evolved) and to emphasize the boards' commitment to options within the public school system. Progressive educational tradition places emphasis on both the need to incorporate curriculum and teaching to match the stages of child development and the gradual integration of the child into adult society through planned experiential learning. The sources of stimulus would be from the philosopher John Dewey in the United States, from post WW1 New Schools in Great Britain and the Steiner/Waldorf schools in Europe. The Libertarian tradition focuses on the rights of the parents and children to make their own educational and life choices. As noted by Levin “It is rooted in the belief to uphold the individual freedom and the innate goodness of the child against institutional and social conformity and the corrupting influences of modern society.”

在加拿大另类教育源于两个哲学就教育观点,进步主义和自由主义。莱文表示,2006年采用“另类”这个词部分,原因是用来区别他们之前出现的独立学校和家长-学生-老师运行的免费学校,(一些另类学校是由它们演化来的)而且强调董事会要恪守在公立学校体系内的承诺。一些进步主义教育传统强调要结合课程和教学方式来适应儿童发展的各个阶段,并且通过体验式教学使儿童逐渐进入成人社会。这种激励来源于美国的约翰 杜威,来自于一战后大不列颠新学校和欧洲的斯坦纳/华德福学校。自由主义传统更注重家长和孩子选择教育和生活的权利。莱文指出,这一观点植根于维护儿童个体自由与内心善良反对服从制度,服从社会,避免现代社会的腐败影响。

School Types

学校类型

The 1980s saw a shift to special schools and/or programs for those students that excelled in academia, were artistically talented, or through programs linking schooling with the workplace in a co-operative venture. It might be considered as a natural evolution of education to offer options and not a regimented one size fits all approach. Most alternative high schools falling under public jurisdiction offered independent study programs, basic-skills programs, and were mini-high schools with a mixture of conventional and nonconventional courses, and schools with an arts focus. They also offered smaller classes, closer and more informal relations with teachers, and greater flexibility in course selection and timetabling. The most recent development within alternative education in Canada may be to follow the United States in their “Charter School” movement. In the US specific states have passed legislation permitting their departments of education or local school boards to issue "charters" directly to individual schools wishing to operate autonomously. Alberta is the first province that has already embraced this model.

在20世纪80年代出现了许多特殊学校,一些针对学术拔尖,有艺术天赋学生的项目及通过合作经营的企业把教育与生产车间相结合的项目。这种变化可能被视为教育自然演变,旨在为教育提供更多选择,而不是受管制的一刀切的方法。大部分另类中学都在公共教育管辖之下提供独立的研究项目,基本技能项目,它们是融合传统课程和非传统课程的微型中学,而且学校更注重艺术教育。这些学校采用小班教学,学生和老师的关系更加亲近随意,课程的选择和时间安排更具灵活性。加拿大另类教育的最新发展可能会效仿美国的特许学校运动。美国的几个特定的州已经通过法律允许教育主管部门和当地的学校董事会对想要自主运营的个别学校直接发行“特许状”。阿尔伯塔省是第一个接受这种模式的省。

India

印度

Since the early 20th century, educators have discussed and implemented alternative forms of education, such as Rabindranath Tagore's Visva-Bharati University, Sri Aurobindo's Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education, Krishnamurti schools and The Peepal Grove School. Traditional learning in India involved students living in gurukulas, where they received free food, shelter and education from a guru ("teacher" in Sanskrit). Progress was based on tests given by the gurus, and the system aimed to nurture students' creativity and personality development. Although mainstream education in India is based on the system introduced by Lord Macaulay, a few projects aim to rejuvenate the earlier method. Some students in these (and similar) projects conduct research in Sanskrit studies, Vedic studies, Vedic science, yoga and ayurveda. Others, after completing their education in a gurukula, enter mainstream higher education.

自20世纪早期。印度教育家就开始讨论并实施另类的教育形式,例如泰戈尔的国际大学,斯里兰卡的斯里兰卡国际教育中心,克里希那穆提学校和格罗夫学院[10]在印度传统的学习方式中,学生住在 灵师学校的,他们从老师(梵语中的老师)那里获得免费的食物,住所以及教育。进步与否是基于老师给他们的测试,这种系统旨在培养学生的创造力和发展个性。虽然印度的主流教育系统是由麦考莱勋爵引入的,但是仍存在少数几个项目旨在恢复先前的教育方法。在这些(或类似)项目中的学生从事梵文研究,吠陀研究,吠陀科学,瑜伽和阿育吠陀等研究。其他学生在完成灵师学校的教育之后,进入主流高等教育学校。

Japan

日本

Japanese education is a nationwide, standardized system under the Ministry of Education. The only alternative options have been accredited, private schools with more freedom of curricula (including textbook choice; public schools are limited to government-approved textbooks), teaching methods and hiring guidelines. Nearly all private schools require a competitive entrance examination and charge tuition, with few scholarships available. Interest in alternative education was sparked during the 1980s by student violence and bullying, school refusal, social anxiety disorder and, in the worst cases,suicide; the desire to enable young people to keep up with a globalized economy is an additional impetus.

日本教育是在教育部管辖下的一个全国性的标准化的教育系统。唯一的已经被认可的替代选择是私立学校,它们在课程上(包括教材选择的自由,公立学校由政府限定教材),教学方法上以及招聘方针上有更多的自由。几乎所有的私立学校都需要参加选拔性的入学考试,收取学费,提供少量的奖学金。20世纪80年代期间学生暴力,恐吓,拒学,社交焦虑症以及更糟糕的自杀等不良现象引发了对于另类教育的兴趣,使年轻人顺应全球化经济发展的愿望是额外推动力。

"Free school" is a term used to describe a non-profit group (or independent school) which specializes in the care and education of children who refuse to attend standard schools. The first democratic school was founded in 1985 as a shelter for children avoiding the school environment, and a number of other such schools have been established. In 1987 the first of seven Waldorf schools in Japan was founded, and other alternatives include a growing homeschooling movement.

“免费学校”是一个用来描述一种非盈利组织(或独立学校)术语,这类学校专门为拒绝参加标准化学校的孩子提供保健和教育。第一所民主学校成立于1985年,收纳逃避学校环境的儿童,随后成立了大量的类似的学校。1987年7所中的第一所华德福学校在日本成立,其他的另类方式还包括发展中的家庭教育运动。

In 2003 Japan introduced Special Zones for Structural Reform (構造改革特別区域), based on China’s Special Economic Zone policy, which enable the opening of government-accredited schools providing alternative education. Two years later, the first such school was founded.

Despite the schools' high tuition, some parents send their children to international schools to acquire fluency in a foreign language (usually English). Although international schools are not certified by the Japanese government, many are approved by their native country (the U.S., Canada, Germany, France, Korea and China) and some offer an International Baccalaureate program.

2003年日本根据中国的经济特区政策出台了構造改革特別区域,开放政府特许学校,提供另类教育,两年之后第一所这样的学校成立了。虽然这些学校学费高昂,一些家长还是把孩子送去国际学校以获得一门流利的外语(通常是英语)。尽管这些国际学校并没有被日本政府认可,大多学校都是经本国批准(美国,加拿大,德国,法国,朝鲜和中国),有些学校提供国际学士学位项目。

United Kingdom

英国

In 2003, there were about 70 alternative schools in the United Kingdom. Summerhill School was established by A.S. Neill in 1921, as the first of a number of democratic schools; most have since closed, except for Summerhill, Sands School, Park School and Small Acres School. There are 34 Steiner-Waldorf schools in the UK, and homeschooling is another alternative. Though alternative schools were until recently all fee-paying, the introduction of state-funded Free Schools since 2011 has been changing the educational landscape. So far only one of the free schools funded has been an alternative (Steiner) school.

在2003年英国约有70所另类学校。A.S.在1921年建立了夏山学校,这是第一批民主学校,除了夏山学校,三思学校,公园学校和小亩学校大多数已经关闭。英国有34所斯坦纳-华德福学校,家庭教育也是另一种选择。虽然另类学校都是收费学校,自2011年国立免费学校的引入教育领域已经开始改变了。到目前为止只有一所学校仍旧是另类(斯坦纳)学校。

Confusingly the mainstream state-funded sector sometimes uses the term 'alternative education' to refer to pupil referral units and other provision for children who's behavioural issues mean they cannot continue in mainstream primary or secondary schools..

令人疑惑的是主流公立部门有时会用“另类学校”这个术语去指学生收容处或是其他学生供应处,这些学生由于他们自身的问题行为导致他们无法留在主流的小学和中学。

The Netherlands

荷兰

The Intercultural Open University provides an alternative for person-centered graduate education. In keeping with the philosophy of alternative education, the university does not issue grades; instead, narrative evaluations are used for assessment. There are no academic departments or paid faculty and staff; its faculty and staff are volunteers. Students develop a self-directed, individualized curriculum under the guidance of a faculty advisor.

跨文化开放式大学提供了一种以人为本的研究生教育。为符合另类教育的哲学理念,该大学没有成绩问题;相反,用叙述评价作为评估。学校没有学术部门,也没有带薪的教职工;教职工都是志愿者。学生按自我导向发展,在指导教师的指导下学习个性化课程。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

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