Vampire 吸血鬼

翻译| 阴邈 审校| 许少欢 梁新珍

A vampire is a mythical being who subsists by feeding on the life essence (generally in the form of blood) of living creatures. In folkloric tales, undead vampires often visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighbourhoods they inhabited when they were alive. They wore shrouds and were often described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 1800s. Although vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures, the term vampire was not popularised until the early 18th century, after an influx of vampire superstition into Western Europe from areas where vampire legends were frequent, such as the Balkans and Eastern Europe, although local variants were also known by different names, such as vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. This increased level of vampire superstition in Europe led to what can only be called mass hysteria and in some cases resulted in corpses actually being staked and people being accused of vampirism.

吸血鬼是民间传说里的一种虚构生物,通常以人类或其他生物的血液为食。在民间传说中,不死的吸血鬼经常去造访他们的亲人,并在他们活着时住过的地方造成伤亡。他们被描写成身着裹尸布,身体浮肿,面色血红或漆黑的形象,与17世纪初期开始到今日那些瘦削,苍白的吸血鬼截然不同。虽然许多文化中都有对吸血类生物的记录,但“吸血鬼”这个名词直到18世纪初期才普及,对吸血鬼的迷信是从吸血鬼传说流行的地区(例如巴尔干半岛和东欧)涌入西欧,才开始的。各个地区吸血鬼的叫法也不一样,比如在希腊他们被叫做“维克拉卡斯(活尸)”,而在罗马尼亚被叫做“斯特里戈伊(凶兆预言者)”。自此吸血鬼的迷信在欧洲愈演愈烈,甚至到了集体发疯的地步。在一些地区,尸体会被钉在木桩上,还有一些人会被指控为吸血族。

In modern times, however, the vampire is generally held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folkloric belief in vampires has been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death. Porphyria was also linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been largely discredited.

在现代,虽然一些文化中还存在如山羊吸血怪这一类的吸血生物,但众所周知,吸血鬼是虚构的生物。早期民间的迷信要归结于对尸体死后腐烂过程的无知,在工业化前的社会,人们想要合理解释死亡之谜,于是创造出了吸血鬼。1985年时卟啉症也和吸血传说联系在一起,许多媒体对此进行了曝光,但是之后受到了大量质疑。

The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of The Vampyre by John Polidori; the story was highly successful and arguably the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.[2] However, it is Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula which is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend. The success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, films, and television shows. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre.

随着1819年约翰•波利多利《吸血鬼》一书的出版,现代小说中魅力无边、通晓世故的吸血鬼便诞生了;小说大获成功,并且无疑是19世纪早期最有影响力的吸血鬼作品。但是,作为吸血鬼小说的精粹而被铭记,并且为现代吸血鬼传说铺路的,是布莱姆•斯托克1897年所著的《德古拉》。这部小说的成功衍生了一种别有风格的吸血鬼形象,吸血鬼自此成为惊悚流派中的重要出场人物。

Contents /目录

• 1 Etymology 词源

• 2 Folk beliefs 民间传说

• 2.1 Description and common attributes 简述和通性

 2.1.1 Creating vampires 吸血鬼的产生

 2.1.2 Identifying vampires 辨认吸血鬼

 2.1.3 Protection 防护

 2.1.3.1 Apotropaics 驱邪

 2.1.3.2 Methods of destruction 毁灭方法

o 2.2 Ancient beliefs 古老传说

o 2.3 Medieval and later European folklore 中世纪及之后的欧洲民间传说

o 2.4 Non-European beliefs 欧洲外的各地传说

 2.4.1 Africa 非洲

 2.4.2 The Americas 美洲

 2.4.3 Asia 亚洲

o 2.5 Modern beliefs 现代解读

 2.5.1 Collective noun 集合名词

• 3 Origins of vampire beliefs 吸血鬼故事的起源

o 3.1 Slavic spiritualism 斯拉维克人的迷信

o 3.2 Pathology 病理学

 3.2.1 Decomposition 尸体分解

 3.2.2 Premature burial 仓促埋葬

 3.2.3 Contagion 接触传染

 3.2.4 Porphyria 卟啉症

 3.2.5 Rabies 狂犬病

o 3.3 Psychodynamic understanding 心理动力学上的理解

o 3.4 Political interpretation 政治解读

o 3.5 Psychopathology 精神病理学

o 3.6 Modern vampire subcultures 现代吸血鬼亚文化

o 3.7 Vampire bats 吸血蝙蝠

• 4 In modern fiction 现代科幻作品

o 4.1 Literature 文学

o 4.2 Film and television 电影和电视

o 4.3 Games 游戏

Etymology/词源

The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire (as vampyre) in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. An even earlier example is found in the re-telling the famous case of Arnold Paole and Petar Blagojevich in Serbia, where the London Journal of March 11, 1732, describes vampyres in Hungary (actually northern Serbia under direct Austrian rule) as sucking the blood of the living. Vampires had already been discussed in French and German literature. After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires". These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity. The English term was derived (possibly via French vampyre) from the German Vampir, in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian вампир/vampir, when Arnold Paole, a purported vampire in Serbia was described during the time when Northern Serbia was part of the Austrian Empire.

牛津英语词典中第一次出现“Vampire(或Vampyre)”这一单词是在1745年,出现在一篇发表在《哈利恩杂录》上题为《三位英国绅士的旅行》的游记上。所发现的更早的一个版本是1732年3月11日,《伦敦日报》在讲述塞尔维亚的阿诺德•帕奥勒和佩塔尔•杰维奇这两个著名事件时,描写了匈牙利的吸血鬼(Vampyre)吸食活物鲜血(事实上当时的塞尔维亚北部直接由奥地利人统治)。而在此前,吸血鬼早就在法国和德国的文学中被探讨过。奥地利在1718年通过《帕萨罗维兹条约》控制了塞尔维亚北部和奥特尼亚后,官方报道当地有掘尸“杀死吸血鬼”的习俗。这些写于1725年至1732年之间的报道,受到了广泛的关注。英语Vampire一词源于德语vampir(或者法语vampyre),而德语vampir源于塞尔威亚语 вампир/vampir,是18世纪初期,在塞尔维亚北部属于奥地利帝国时,人们描述传说中的塞尔维亚吸血鬼阿诺德•帕奥勒时所用。

The Serbian form has parallels in virtually all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian вампир (vampir), Bosnian: lampir, Croatian vampir, Czech andSlovak upír, Polish wąpierz, and (perhaps East Slavic-influenced) upiór, Ukrainian упир (upyr), Russian упырь (upyr '), Belarusian упыр (upyr), from Old East Slavic упирь (upir '). (Note that many of these languages have also borrowed forms such as "vampir/wampir" subsequently from the West; these are distinct from the original local words for the creature.) The exact etymology is unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь. Another, less widespread theory, is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch" (e.g., Tatar ubyr). Czech linguist Václav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepiť sa" (stick to, thrust into), or its hypothetical anagram "vperiť sa" (in Czech, archaic verb "vpeřit" means "to thrust violently") as an etymological background, and thus translates "upír" as "someone who thrusts, bites". An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy" (Russian Слово святого Григория), dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.

几乎所有的斯拉夫语系在这个词的构成上都与塞尔维亚语有相似处:保加利亚语和马其顿语是вампир (vampir),波斯尼亚语系是lampir,克罗地亚语是 Vampir,杰克语和斯洛伐克语是upir,波兰语是 wąpierz,以及源于老东斯拉夫语系的упирь (upir '):乌克兰语是упир(upyr),俄语为упырь(upyr”),白俄罗斯语是упыр(upyr)。(注意:其中的许多语言也都借用了诸如 "vampir/wampir" 这些后来来自西方的形式;这些形式与最初方言所用的不一样。)而确切的词源尚不清楚。有人提出可能是源自于原斯拉夫语形式的*ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь。另外,还有一种非广为流传的理论称,斯拉夫语的“吸血鬼”一词是借自突厥语中的“巫师”一词(比如e.g., Tatar ubyr)。捷克的语言学家瓦茨拉夫•马奇克提出,将斯洛伐克语中的动词 "vrepiť sa"(意为插入,把…插入)或其假定的变形词 "vperiť sa" 作为词源背景的话(在捷克古语中"vpeřit" 意为“用力插”),就能把 "upír"翻译为“插入,咬下去的人”。古俄语中最早使用这个单词是在反异教徒的论述“圣人格力格里之言”里,这要追溯到大约11世纪到13世纪间,异教徒崇拜吸血鬼之事被报道出来的时候。

Folk beliefs/民间信仰

The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia; cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. However, despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early-18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people believed to be vampires.

吸血族的概念已经存在了几千年;例如美索不达米亚人,希伯来人,古希腊人和罗马人的文化中都有关于恶魔和恶灵的故事,他们被认为是现代吸血鬼的前身。但是,尽管这些古老文明中出现了类吸血鬼生物的身影,我们现在所知的关于吸血鬼原型的民间传说,无一例外地来自于18世纪早期的欧洲东南部,那时,这一地区的许多族群口头相传的传说都被记录下来并出版。在许多传闻中,吸血鬼都是恶人、自杀者或者巫师的亡魂,但他们也可能是由附身尸体的恶灵或者被吸血鬼咬过的人变成的。这些传说蔓延盛行,以至于在一些地方引发了集体发疯,甚至有被认作是吸血鬼的人被公开处决。

Description and common attributes

简述和通性

Vampyren, "The Vampire", by Edvard Munch

《吸血鬼》,爱德华•芒奇所著

It is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were usually reported as bloated in appearance, and ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour; these characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood. Indeed, blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was often open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, and its teeth, hair, and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature.

虽然许多欧洲传说都有一些相同之处,但要给民间传说中的吸血鬼做一个定义性的描述却非易事。据说他们外表浮肿并且呈现血红、淡紫或者暗黑的颜色;会出现这种特点通常是因为刚喝过血。确实,要是有吸血鬼被发现裹着尸布或者在棺材里,左眼睁着,通常会看见有血从它鼻子或嘴里渗出来。它会穿着下葬时裹的亚麻尸布,尽管通常来说尖牙并不算一个特征,但它的牙齿、头发和指甲可能会变长一些。

Creating vampires

吸血鬼的产生

The causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse that was jumped over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was also at risk. In Russian folklore, vampires were said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the Russian Orthodox Church while they were alive.

吸血鬼一族的产生原因有很多,早期的民间传说所述也不尽相同。在斯拉夫和中国传统中,任何一具尸体被动物跳过,尤其是狗或猫,就有可能变成不死族的一员。尸体上有伤口却没有用开水处理过的,也有变成不死一族的危险。在俄罗斯的民间传说中,吸血鬼生前据说是巫师或者是在活着时反叛过俄罗斯东正教的人。

Cultural practices often arose that were intended to prevent a recently deceased loved one from turning into an undead revenant. Burying a corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such as scythes or sickles, near the grave to satisfy any demons entering the body or to appease the dead so that it would not wish to arise from its coffin. This method resembles the Ancient Greek practice of placing an obolus in the corpse's mouth to pay the toll to cross the River Styx in the underworld; it has been argued that instead, the coin was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and this may have influenced later vampire folklore. This tradition persisted in modern Greek folklore about the vrykolakas, in which a wax cross and piece of pottery with the inscription "Jesus Christ conquers" were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a vampire. Other methods commonly practiced in Europe included severing the tendons at the knees or placing poppy seeds, millet, or sand on the ground at the grave site of a presumed vampire; this was intended to keep the vampire occupied all night by counting the fallen grains, indicating an association of vampires with arithmomania. Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampire-like being came across a sack of rice, it would have to count every grain; this is a theme encountered in myths from the Indian subcontinent, as well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or mischievous spirits or beings. In Albanian folklore, the dhampir is the son of the karkanxholl or the lugat. If the karkanxholl sleeps with his wife, and she is impregnated with a child, the offspring is called dhampir and has the unique ability to discern the karkanxholl; from this derives the expression the dhampir knows the lugat. The lugat cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the dhampir, who himself is usually the son of a lugat. In different regions, animals can be revenants as lugats; also, living people during their sleep. Dhampiraj is also an Albanian surname.

这就产生了为防止刚去世的亲人变成不死的亡魂而产生的习俗。将尸体倒置下葬的方法广为流传,同样流传的还有将生前的物品,例如长柄或短柄镰刀,放在墓地附近来取悦附到尸体上的恶魔或者使死者安息,这样死者就不会想从棺材里出来了。这种做法和古希腊的一种风俗很相似,古希腊人在死者嘴里放银币,作为通过阴间冥河的通行费;也有争议说,银币是用来避开进入尸体的恶灵的,这可能对后来的民间吸血鬼传说有影响。现代希腊关于维克拉卡斯的民间传说中,仍然保留着这种传统:将蜡质的十字架和刻有“耶稣基督征服”的一片陶片放在尸体上,以防尸体变成吸血鬼。其他在欧洲通行的做法还有割断膝盖上的筋脉或者在可能变成吸血鬼之人的墓地上放置罂粟花籽、米粟或者沙子;这是为了使吸血鬼整夜忙于数掉下来的谷粒,这种做法表明吸血鬼可能有计数的强迫症。类似的说法在中国小说中也有:如果一个类吸血鬼的生物遇到一袋米,它会不受控制地去数清每一粒米粒;在南亚次大陆的神话中,以及南美关于巫师和其他恶灵或邪恶生物的故事里,都有提到这种特性。在阿尔巴尼亚的民间传说中,半吸血鬼达姆派尔是卡肯斯霍尔或者路加特的儿子。如果卡肯斯霍尔和他妻子上了床,而他妻子怀上了孩子,孩子名叫达姆派尔并且有辨认出卡肯斯霍尔的特殊能力;这就衍生了达姆派尔和路加特相识的故事。人类不能看见路加特,只有达姆派尔可以杀了他,而他通常是达姆派尔的父亲。在不同的地区传说中,亡魂路加特可能附身于动物;也可能附身于睡着了的活人身上。达姆派尔也是一个阿尔巴尼亚的姓氏。

Identifying vampires

辨认吸血鬼

Many elaborate rituals were used to identify a vampire. One method of finding a vampire's grave involved leading a virgin boy through a graveyard or church grounds on a virgin stallion—the horse would supposedly balk at the grave in question. Generally a black horse was required, though in Albania it should be white. Holes appearing in the earth over a grave were taken as a sign of vampirism.

为了辨认吸血鬼,人们用了许多复杂的仪式。其中一种寻找吸血鬼墓穴的方法是领着骑在未交配过的种马上的男童穿过墓地或教堂墓地——马会在有问题的墓地前畏缩。一般所用的马都是黑马,但是在阿尔巴尼亚传统中必须用白马。如果某处墓地上方开了个洞,会被看做是出现吸血族的征兆。

Corpses thought to be vampires were generally described as having a healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no signs of decomposition.] In some cases, when suspected graves were opened, villagers even described the corpse as having fresh blood from a victim all over its face. Evidence that a vampire was active in a given locality included death of cattle, sheep, relatives or neighbours. Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by engaging in minor poltergeist-like activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects, and pressing on people in their sleep.

被认作是吸血鬼的尸体通常面色要比一般尸体健康些,脸部丰润而且腐化较少或没有腐化的迹象。在一些事件中,当村民打开疑有吸血鬼的墓穴时,据他们描述,尸体的脸上覆满受害者的鲜血。证据显示,在有牛羊、亲人或邻居死亡的地区吸血鬼比较活跃。民间传说中的吸血鬼也会通过恶作剧般的行为让人们感知到它们的存在,比如朝屋顶扔石子、移动屋里的东西还有鬼压床等。

Protection

防护

An image from Max Ernst's Une Semaine de Bonté

图片来自马克思•恩斯特的小说《友善一星期》

Apotropaics

驱邪物

Apotropaics, items able to ward off revenants, are common in vampire folklore. Garlic is a common example, a branch of wild rose and hawthorn plant are said to harm vampires, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house was said to keep them away. Other apotropaics include sacred items, for example a crucifix, rosary, or holy water. Vampires are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground, such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water. Although not traditionally regarded as an apotropaic, mirrors have been used to ward off vampires when placed, facing outwards, on a door (in some cultures, vampires do not have a reflection and sometimes do not cast a shadow, perhaps as a manifestation of the vampire's lack of a soul). This attribute, although not universal (the Greek vrykolakas/tympanios was capable of both reflection and shadow), was used by Bram Stoker in Dracula and has remained popular with subsequent authors and filmmakers. Some traditions also hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless invited by the owner, although after the first invitation they can come and go as they please. Though folkloric vampires were believed to be more active at night, they were not generally considered vulnerable to sunlight.

驱邪物,作为能够驱散亡魂的东西,在吸血鬼的传说里很是常见。大蒜就是个普通的例子,据说野玫瑰花束和山楂树也能伤到吸血鬼,在欧洲,还有在房顶撒些芥菜种子能够退避吸血鬼的说法。另一类驱邪物品是圣物,例如十字架、玫瑰经和圣水。据说吸血鬼不能进入圣地,像是教堂和寺庙,也不能穿过奔腾的河流。虽然传统意义上镜子并不算驱邪物,但人们曾将镜子放在门上,镜面朝外来驱退吸血鬼(在一些文化里,吸血鬼不能在镜中倒映,也没有影子,也许这是吸血鬼没有灵魂的表现)。这项特性并不普及(希腊吸血鬼维克拉卡斯就不仅能在镜中倒映还有影子),但布拉姆•斯托克的小说《德古拉》中就写到这项特性,之后的作家和电影制片人也经常用到这一特性。有些传统还认为,除非主人邀请,否则吸血鬼不能进入房子,尽管只需邀请一次它们就可来去自如。虽然民间传说认为吸血鬼在夜间比较活跃,但通常它们并没有被认为对阳光敏感。

Methods of destruction/毁灭之法

“The Vampire”, lithograph by R. de Moraine (1864).

“吸血鬼”石版画,R.莫雷纳绘(1864年)

Methods of destroying suspected vampires varied, with staking the most commonly cited method, particularly in southern Slavic cultures. Ash was the preferred wood in Russia and the Baltic states, or hawthorn in Serbia, with a record of oak in Silesia. Potential vampires were most often staked through the heart, though the mouth was targeted in Russia and northern Germany and the stomach in north-eastern Serbia. Piercing the skin of the chest was a way of "deflating" the bloated vampire; this is similar to the act of burying sharp objects, such as sickles, in with the corpse, so that they may penetrate the skin if the body bloats sufficiently while transforming into a revenant. Decapitation was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks or away from the body. This act was seen as a way of hastening the departure of the soul, which in some cultures, was said to linger in the corpse. The vampire's head, body, or clothes could also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising. Romani drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial. They also placed hawthorn in the corpse's sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs. In a 16th-century burial near Venice, a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in 2006. Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body. In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism. In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken. For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure. In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was placed in the mouth of suspected vampires.

毁灭被疑作是吸血鬼尸体的方法多种多样,最常见的做法是钉木桩,在南斯拉夫文化中尤其如此。在俄罗斯和波罗的海附近国家,人们倾向于使用白蜡树的木头;在塞尔维亚,人们用山楂木;而在西里西亚,人们选择橡树木。最普遍的做法是钉穿心脏,但在俄罗斯和德意志北部,人们选择钉穿嘴部;而在塞尔维亚东北部,人们会钉穿腹部。刺穿胸腔的皮肤是为了给浮肿的吸血鬼“放气”,这和把尖锐物体(例如镰刀)与尸体埋在一起的做法是一样的,这样一来,尸体在转化成恶灵充分膨胀时,尖锐物会刺穿皮肤。德国和西斯拉夫地区的人偏向于斩首的方法,并把头埋葬于两足之间、臀部下面或者埋得离身体很远。这种做法被视为加快灵魂离去的方法之一,因为在一些文化中,灵魂会在尸体上弥留。吸血鬼的头,身体和衣服也可以被钉到地上,以防它们出来。在下葬时,吉普寨人会将钢针或铁针钉入尸体的心脏,并在嘴里,眼睛上,耳朵里还有手指间放一些钢针;他们还会在死者的袜子里放山楂木或用山楂木钉穿双腿。在16世纪威尼斯附近举行的一场葬礼上,一块砖头被强行塞进了一具女尸的嘴里;据后来在2006年发现她的考古学家们解释,这是一场屠杀吸血鬼的仪式。还有一种方法是对着墓地泼开水以及彻底焚化尸体。在巴尔干半岛,吸血鬼可以通过枪杀、溺水、重办葬礼、撒圣水或者驱魔术等方法被杀掉。在罗马尼亚,把大蒜放进尸体嘴里可以预防变为吸血鬼,而在近代19世纪时,人们采用将子弹射穿棺材的方法。在一些顽固的案例中,人们会肢解尸体并且焚烧,将骨灰与水混合后,由家人保管。在德意志撒克逊地区,被怀疑是吸血鬼的尸体嘴里会被放入柠檬。

In Bulgaria, over 100 skeletons with metal objects, such as plough bits, embedded in the torso have been discovered.

在保加利亚,曾发现过100多具骷髅,有诸如犁之类的金属物品嵌入躯体。

Ancient beliefs

古代传说

Lilith (1892), by John Collier

莉莉丝(1892),约翰•科利尔绘

Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries. The term vampire did not exist in ancient times; blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the Devil was considered synonymous with the vampire. Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. In India, for example, tales of vetālas, ghoul-like beings that inhabit corpses, have been compiled in the Baitāl Pacīsī; a prominent story in the Kathāsaritsāgara tells of King Vikramāditya and his nightly quests to capture an elusive one. Piśāca, the returned spirits of evil-doers or those who died insane, also bear vampiric attributes. The Persians were one of the first civilizations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: creatures attempting to drink blood from men were depicted on excavated pottery shards. Ancient Babylonia and Assyria had tales of the mythical Lilitu, synonymous with and giving rise to Lilith (Hebrew לילית) and her daughters the Lilu from Hebrew demonology. Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies. And Estries, female shape changing, blood drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims. According to Sefer Hasidim, Estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested. An injured Estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker.

许多世纪以来,有关超自然生物吸食活物血肉的故事遍布世界,几乎每个文化里都有。在古时,“吸血鬼”这个称呼是不存在的;人们将饮血和类似的行为归结在恶魔或者食肉饮血的恶灵身上;甚至连魔鬼都是吸血鬼的近义词。几乎每个国家都会把吸血与某种亡魂或恶魔联系在一起,或者某些情况下和神相联系。例如,印度维塔拉的故事,维塔拉是寄居在尸体上的类似于食尸鬼的存在,故事收录在《孟加拉二十五传说》中;《故事海》中一个重要故事,讲述了维克拉姆帝亚国王在夜间试图抓住一只神出鬼没的维塔拉。印度的毕舍遮,是作恶者或疯子死后的亡魂,也有着吸血的特性。波斯是最初几个有吸血恶魔故事的文明古国之一;这些试图吸食人血的魔物依附在挖掘出来的陶器碎片上。古巴比伦王国和古亚述王国有着关于神秘生物丽丽图的传说,她的同义词和衍生物即莉莉丝(希伯来语)以及她的女儿,希伯来语中的恶魔,丽露。传说丽丽图是个女妖,通常靠吸食婴儿鲜血存活。希伯来神话中的艾斯特斯,据说是变形成女性的吸血恶魔,夜间会在居民处游荡,寻找猎物。据《虔诚者之书》记载,艾斯特斯是在上帝休憩之前的暮色时分被创造出来的生物。受伤的艾斯特斯需要吃伤她者给她的面包和盐来治愈自己。

Ancient Greek and Roman mythology described the Empusae, the Lamia, and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively. Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze-footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood. The Lamia preyed on young children in their beds at night, sucking their blood, as did the gelloudes or Gello. Like the Lamia, the striges feasted on children, but also preyed on young men. They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix, a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.

古希腊和罗马传说记叙了安普莎、拉米亚和斯特里克斯。随时间流逝前两个名词分别变成巫师和魔鬼的代名词。安普莎是女神赫卡特的女儿,据传是个青铜足的恶魔;她会变成年轻女子,诱惑睡梦中的男子,吸食他们的鲜血。拉米亚在夜间捕食床上的幼儿,吸他们的血,就像盖罗蒂斯或者盖罗那样。和拉米亚一样,斯特里克斯捕食婴儿,但她也吃年轻男子。据传她们通常有着乌鸦或者鸟类的身体,后来被归入了罗马传说中的林鸮属的鸟类——一种夜间活动,以人类血肉为食的鸟类。

Medieval and later European folklore/中世纪及之后的欧洲民间传说

The 800-year-old skeleton found in Bulgaria stabbed through the chest with iron rod.

在保加利亚发现的800年前的骷髅,被铁棍捅穿胸腔。

Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants, though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant. The Old Norse draugr is another medieval example of an undead creature with similarities to vampires.

许多关于吸血鬼的传说始于中世纪时期。12世纪英国的历史学家和编史者瓦尔特•迈普以及纽伯里的威廉(威廉•帕武斯)记录了许多亡魂的传说,尽管这一时期之后英国关于吸血魔物传说的记录并不齐全。古时挪威的卓戈人是中世纪又一个与吸血鬼相似的不死生物。

Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries. These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany an nic among the villagers. A former peasant, Jure died in 1656; however, local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow. The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results. That was the first case in history that a real person had been described as a vampire.

吸血鬼始于17世纪末期和18世纪欧洲东部广泛流传的民间传说。这些故事构建了吸血鬼传说的基础,后来传入了德国乡村。以前有个农民叫尤雷,死于1656年;但是,当地村民称他又复活了,开始吸食人血并且性骚扰他的遗孀。村长本来决定用木棍钉穿他的心脏,但当这个方法失败时,他最终被以斩首的方式了结。这是历史上首次有真人被描述成吸血鬼。

During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants; even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires. Despite being called the Age of Enlightenment, during which most folkloric legends were quelled, the belief in vampires increased dramatically, resulting in a mass hysteria throughout most of Europe. The panic began with an outbreak of alleged vampire attacks in East Prussia in 1721 and in the Habsburg Monarchy from 1725 to 1734, which spread to other localities. Two famous vampire cases, the first to be officially recorded, involved the corpses of Petar Blagojevich and Arnold Paole from Serbia. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food. When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood. In the second case, Paole, an ex-soldier turned farmer who allegedly was attacked by a vampire years before, died while haying. After his death, people began to die in the surrounding area and it was widely believed that Paole had returned to prey on the neighbours. Another famous Serbian legend involving vampires concentrates around a certain Sava Savanović living in a watermill and killing and drinking blood from millers. The character was later used in a story written by Serbian writer Milovan Glišić and in the Yugoslav 1973 horror filmLeptirica inspired by the story.

18世纪间,东欧兴起了指认吸血鬼的狂热,通过用木棍插尸体和掘尸来认出和杀死可能的吸血鬼,这类事件常有发生;就连政府部门也加入了猎杀和木钉吸血鬼的行列。尽管这一时期被称为启蒙时期,大多数的民间传说都已湮没,但吸血鬼的迷信却愈演愈烈,在欧洲大部分地区引起集体癔症。这场恐慌始于1721年的东普鲁士和1725年到1734的哈布斯堡君主国,据称是吸血鬼袭击的爆发,并蔓延到了其他地区。其中两个著名的吸血鬼事件,前一件被正式记录,涉及到了塞尔维亚的彼特•布拉戈耶维奇和阿诺德•保罗。据报道,布拉戈耶维奇死于62岁,却在死后又回家向他儿子讨要食物。其子拒绝后,次日被发现死亡。回归的布拉戈耶维奇袭击了许多邻里,都是死于失血。第二例中的农民保罗,是一位退役的士兵,后来成为一名农民,据称几年前被吸血鬼袭击过,死时正在割草。他死后,邻里开始陆续死亡,大家都认为是保罗回来了,捕食邻里。另一个有名的塞尔维亚传说是关于一个名为萨瓦•萨瓦诺威克的吸血鬼,他住在一个水磨坊里,杀死磨粉工人并吸食他们的鲜血。此人物后来出现在塞尔维亚作家米诺万•格力西克的小说中,1973年南斯拉夫的惊悚电影《蝴蝶夫人》就是受此小说的启发。

The two incidents were well-documented; government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe. The hysteria, commonly referred to as the "18th-Century Vampire Controversy", raged for a generation. The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them. Although many scholars reported during this period that vampires did not exist, and attributed reports to premature burial or rabies,superstitious belief increased. Dom Augustine Calmet, a well-respected French theologian and scholar, put together a comprehensive treatise in 1746, which was ambiguous concerning the existence of vampires. Calmet amassed reports of vampire incidents; numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and supportive demonologists, interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed. In his Philosophical Dictionary, Voltaire wrote:

对这两起事件的记录很是完备;政府部门进行了尸检,撰写了报道,并在全欧洲出版书作。这场癔病持续了一代人,通常被称为“18世纪吸血鬼的争议”。问题由于乡间所谓的吸血鬼袭击出现蔓延而被夸大,并且毫无疑问地导致了村庄里出现迷信泛滥的情况,村民们掘出尸体,有时还用木桩钉住。虽然这一时期的许多学者都发表言论声称吸血鬼并不存在,并且解释了不成熟的埋葬和狂犬病,迷信还是有增无减。德高望重的法国神学家兼学者,安东尼•奥古斯汀•卡尔梅特于1746年发表了一篇论述严谨的著述,模糊涉及到了吸血鬼的存在。卡尔梅特收集了吸血鬼事件;众多读者,包括著名作家伏尔泰和支持此的神学家们,都将这篇著述看做是承认吸血鬼的存在。在《哲学日记》里,伏尔泰如是写道。

These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries. The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite. It was in Poland, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Austria, and Lorraine, that the dead made this good cheer.

这些吸血鬼都是尸体,他们晚上从坟墓里出来,从喉咙或者肚子吸食活物的鲜血,完事后,又会回到墓地。被吸血的人呈现病态,愈发苍白,生命被消耗;而吸血的尸体会胀大,红润起来,满足他们的欲望。在波兰 ,匈牙利,西里西亚,摩拉维亚,奥地利和洛林,死者以此作酒寻欢。

Some theological disputes arose. The non-decay of vampires’ bodies could recall the incorruption of the bodies of the saints of the Catholic Church. A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition (1749) of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione, On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini (Pope Benedict XIV). In his opinion, while the incorruption of the bodies of saints was the effect of a divine intervention, all the phenomena attributed to vampires were purely natural or the fruit of “imagination, terror and fear”. In other words, vampires did not exist.

一些神学争论由此而生。吸血鬼尸体的不腐让人想起了天主教的圣人不腐的身体。在第二版(1749)的《 De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione》(《天主赐福和福人列圣》)里有一段关于吸血鬼的段落,此书由朗贝蒂尼(教皇本笃14世)所写,是关于上帝仆人的受福礼和受福之人封为列圣的故事。在他的观点里,圣人身体之所以不腐乃是天注定,而吸血鬼的现象只能归结于自然或者是“想象,恐吓和畏惧”的产物。换言之,吸血鬼是不存在的。

The controversy only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten, to investigate the claims of vampiric entities. He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local superstition.

直到奥地利女大公玛利亚•特雷莎派她的私人医师去调查声称是吸血鬼的事件,争议才停止。医师得出吸血鬼不存在的结论,大公于是通过了禁止挖坟和亵渎尸体的法令,宣告了吸血鬼癔症的结束。虽然禁令已行,吸血鬼依然活在艺术作品和地方迷信中。

Non-European beliefs/欧洲外的各地信仰

Africa/非洲

Various regions of Africa have folkloric tales of beings with vampiric abilities: in West Africa the Ashanti people tell of the iron-toothed and tree-dwelling asanbosam, and the Ewe people of the adze, which can take the form of a firefly and hunts children. The eastern Cape region has the impundulu, which can take the form of a large taloned bird and can summon thunder and lightning, and the Betsileo people of Madagascar tell of the ramanga, an outlaw or living vampire who drinks the blood and eats the nail clippings of nobles.

非洲许多地区传说着有吸血鬼能力的生物的民间故事;在非洲西部,阿善提人讲述着铁齿铜牙,生活在树上的阿三波山的故事,而艾维人的阿泽,则是长着萤火虫的样子,捕食孩童的生物。东方海角存在着雷鸟,是一种长着巨爪,能够召唤雷电的鸟,而马达加斯加的贝齐寮人讲述着瑞曼歌的故事,一个吸食鲜血,吃贵族的指甲屑末的亡命之徒或者吸血鬼。

The Americas/美洲

The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo. The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou (meaning "werewolf") and is common in the culture of Mauritius. However, the stories of the Loogaroo are widespread through the Caribbean Islands and Louisiana in the United States. Similar female monsters are the Soucouyant of Trinidad, and the Tunda and Patasola of Colombian folklore, while the Mapuche of southern Chile have the bloodsucking snake known as the Peuchen. Aloe vera hung backwards behind or near a door was thought to ward off vampiric beings in South American superstition. Aztec mythology described tales of the Cihuateteo, skeletal-faced spirits of those who died in childbirth who stole children and entered into sexual liaisons with the living, driving them mad.

信仰复合是怎样导致吸血鬼信仰的形成的呢?吸血女巫(Loogaroo)就是个例子,它是法国和非洲的弗杜(拼作“Vodu”或“Voodoo”)的复合物。Loogaroo一词很可能来源于法语的 loup-garou (意为“狼人”),并且在毛里求斯文化中很常见。但是,关于吸血女巫的故事却在加勒比群岛和美国的路易斯安那州广为流传。相似的女怪物还有特立尼达的索寇焰特,哥伦比亚民间传说里的吞陀和帕塔索拉和智利南部的马普切族名为普婵的吸血蛇。北美迷信在门后或者门附近挂芦荟可以使吸血鬼退避。阿芝特克人的神话里有关于天赐之女 的故事,天赐之女是那些要着婴儿的灵体,它们的脸只有骷髅骨架,会偷孩童,会与活人搅入暧昧关系,把他们逼疯。

During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England, particularly in Rhode Island and Eastern Connecticut. There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never actually used to describe the deceased. The deadly disease tuberculosis, or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves. The most famous, and most recently recorded, case of suspected vampirism is that of nineteen-year-old Mercy Brown, who died in Exeter, Rhode Island in 1892. Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.

在18世纪到19世纪间,吸血鬼的信仰在新英格兰的部分地区,尤其是罗德岛和康乃迪克州的东部广泛流传。有许多记录在案的事件都是讲述一些家庭,因为相信死者会变成吸血鬼,导致家人生病或死亡,所以掘出亲人的尸体,挖出他们的心脏,但是讲述时并未真正用到”吸血鬼“一词。那时的人们认为,绝症肺结核(或称“肺痨”)是由死于肺痨的家人夜间造访引起的。时间最近最出名的一起疑似吸血鬼犯案的事件是在1892年的罗德岛,埃克塞特城,19岁的摩西•布朗的父亲,在家庭医师的帮助下,在女儿死后两个月将她的尸体移出了墓穴,挖出了她的心脏烧为灰烬。

Asia/亚洲

Rooted in older folklore, the modern belief in vampires spread throughout Asia with tales of ghoulish entities from the mainland, to vampiric beings from the islands of Southeast Asia.

在古老民间传说的基础上,现代对于吸血鬼的信仰在亚洲广泛传播,从大陆食尸鬼的故事到南亚诸岛上关于吸血生物的故事。

South Asia also developed other vampiric legends. The Bhūta or Prét is the soul of a man who died an untimely death. It wanders around animating dead bodies at night, attacking the living much like a ghoul. In northern India, there is the Brahmarāk Şhasa, a vampire-like creature with a head encircled by intestines and a skull from which it drank blood. The figure of the Vetala who appears in South Asian legend and story may sometimes be rendered as "Vampire" (see the section on "Ancient Beliefs" above).

南亚也传出了许多其他的吸血生物的传说。布特或称布鲁特,是一位猝死青年的灵魂,夜间在生物尸体周围游荡,并会攻击活物,与食尸鬼很相似。在印度北部,有关于布拉马拉卡•莎萨的传说,它是一种与吸血鬼相似的生物,头顶环绕肠子,通过一根骷髅骨吸食血液。出现在印度南部的传说和故事中的维塔拉,有时会被渲染成“吸血鬼”的形象。(见“古老信仰”章节)

Although vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema since the late 1950s, the folklore behind it is western in origin. However, the Nukekubi is a being whose head and neck detach from its body to fly about seeking human prey at night. There's also the Kitsune who are spiritual vampires that need life force to survive and use magic. As such, they acquire it from making love with humans.

尽管日本影院自19世纪50年代末开始上演吸血鬼电影,但是背后的民间传说却是源自西方。但是,日本的Nukekubi是头•颈和身子分离的怪物,在夜间捕猎人为食。还有吸血灵魂kitsune,需要生命力量来存活和施展魔法。因此,他们靠和人类做爱获得生命力量。

The manananggal of Philippine mythology

菲律宾神话中的曼度哥

Legends of female vampire-like beings who can detach parts of their upper body also occur in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: the Tagalog Mandurugo ("blood-sucker") and theVisayan Manananggal ("self-segmenter"). The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night. The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. The manananggal is described as being an older, beautiful woman capable of severing its upper torso in order to fly into the night with huge bat-like wings and prey on unsuspecting, sleeping pregnant women in their homes. They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women. They also prefer to eat entrails (specifically the heart and the liver) and the phlegm of sick people.

菲律宾,马来西亚和印度尼西亚也有关于上下身分离的雌性类吸血鬼存在的神话。菲律宾主要有两种类吸血鬼生物:塔加拉族的曼都鲁果(“吸血者”)和米沙鄢族的曼度哥(“自裂植体”)。曼都鲁果是阿斯旺的一种,白天会变作美丽女子的样子,在晚上则会长出翅膀和长长的,中空的,针一样的舌头,用来吸食入睡之人的鲜血。曼度哥则被描述成是年长些的美貌妇人,能够在夜间分离出上身躯干,用巨大的蝙蝠状翅膀飞行,捕食在家中睡着而且毫无防备的孕妇。他们会伸长吻状的舌头来吸食胎儿,也喜欢吃病人的内脏(尤其是心脏和肝脏)和痰。

The Malaysian Penanggalan may be either a beautiful old or young woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature. She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women. Malaysians would hang jeruju (thistles) around the doors and windows of houses, hoping the Penanggalan would not enter for fear of catching its intestines on the thorns. The Leyak is a similar being from Balinese folklore. A Kuntilanak or Matianak in Indonesia, or Pontianak or Langsuir in Malaysia, is a woman who died during childbirth and became undead, seeking revenge and terrorizing villages. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children. Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir. This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs.

马来西亚的宾朗加朗据传可能是一位貌美的老妇或者年轻女子,通过经常施展黑魔法或者其他违反自然规律的方法获取美貌,在当地的民间传说里,她通常被描述成本性黑暗的恶魔。她能分离出自己带有尖牙的头部,使之在夜间四处飞行寻找血源,主要是怀孕的女人。马来西亚人会在房子的门或窗的周围挂上蓟,希望以此吓走宾朗加朗,因为她会害怕自己的肠被尖刺挂住。雷亚克是来源于巴厘岛民间传说的一种相似生物。印度尼西亚的昆提兰那克或者马提安那克,或者马来西亚的鹏提安那克或者朗素,是一位死于难产的妇人,在她复活之后进行报复,恐吓村民。她是一位富有魅力的妇人,长着长长的黑发,借此掩盖她脖子后的洞,通过那个洞她吸食孩童的鲜血。用她的头发填满空洞可以赶走她。人们会在尸体的嘴里塞满玻璃珠,在两腋下各放一个鸡蛋,并用针定住他们的手掌,以防他们变成朗素。这些描述同样适用于桑德•波隆。

Jiangshi, sometimes called "Chinese vampires" by Westerners, are reanimated corpses that hop around, killing living creatures to absorb life essence (qì) from their victims. They are said to be created when a person's soul (魄 pò) fails to leave the deceased's body. However, some have disputed the comparison o fjiang shi with vampires, as jiang shi are usually represented as mindless creatures with no independent thought. One unusual feature of this monster is its greenish-white furry skin, perhaps derived from fungus or mould growing on corpses. Jiangshi legends have inspired a genre of jiangshi films and literature in Hong Kong and East Asia. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the 1980s and 1990s.

僵尸,有时被西方人称作“中国的吸血鬼”,是一种复活的跳来跳去的尸体,杀死生物从他们身上吸取生命精髓(气)。据说他们是因为人的灵魂(魄)无法离开尸体,才形成的。但是,有人认为僵尸和吸血鬼不可相提并论,因为僵尸通常是没有智商的,无法独立思考。这类怪物有种异常的特点就是,他们的皮肤呈青白色的毛茸状,也许是由于尸体上长真菌或者霉菌的原因。在香港和西亚地区,僵尸传说促生了一派僵尸电影和文学。19世纪80年代和90年代僵尸电影的大热时期,上映了许多僵尸电影,例如《鬼咬鬼》和《僵尸先生》。

Modern beliefs/现代信仰

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Despite the general disbelief in vampiric entities, occasional sightings of vampires are reported. Indeed, vampire hunting societies still exist, although they are largely formed for social reasons. Allegations of vampire attacks swept through the African country of Malawi during late 2002 and early 2003, with mobs stoning one individual to death and attacking at least four others, including Governor Eric Chiwaya, based on the belief that the government was colluding with vampires.

在现代小说中,吸血鬼总会被描画成魅力非凡,气场十足的反派人物。尽管大家都不相信吸血鬼的存在,还是会有人声称看见了吸血鬼。的确,追猎吸血鬼的社会群体仍有存在,但大部分是由于社会原因。在2002年后期和2003年早期,被指控为吸血鬼袭击的案件横扫非洲国家马拉维。由于相信政府与吸血鬼共同某事,暴民们将一人用石头砸至死亡,并有至少四人受伤,其中包括艾瑞克•齐娃亚总督。

In early 1970 local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery. Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the "Highgate Vampire" and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area. In January 2005, rumours circulated that an attacker had bitten a number of people in Birmingham, England, fuelling concerns about a vampire roaming the streets. However, local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend.

早在1970年时,伦敦当地的出版社散布谣言称有吸血鬼在海格特公墓游荡,大批业余的吸血鬼猎人蜂拥而至。有几部书就是对此事件的描述,其中最出名的一本为锡恩•曼切斯特所著。他是当时第一批声称有“海格特公墓吸血鬼”存在的人的其中之一,并在之后申明这一地区的吸血鬼已被一窝端了。在2005年2月,又流传出谣言说一名袭击人在英格兰的伯明翰咬伤多人,使很多人担心是一名吸血鬼在该街游荡。但是,当地警局澄清,这起事件根本没有发生,不过是一个城市猎奇传说罢了。

The female vampire costume

女吸血鬼装束

In 2006, a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression. According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January 1600, and it fed once a month (which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore), and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires. The paper made no attempt to address the credibility of the assumption that every vampire victim would turn into a vampire.

在2006年,一位弗罗里达中心大学的物理学教授写了篇论文,论证道,依据几何级数理论,吸血鬼是不可能存在的。据论文所述,如果第一个吸血鬼出现于1600年1月1日,并且需要每个月喝一次血(这比电影和民间传说中描述的次数要少的多),被吸血的受害人被转变成吸血鬼,那么在两年半时间内,这一时期的全部人类就会都变成吸血鬼了。 但是,论文并没有说明每个受害者转变所要求的鲜血消耗量的可信度究竟有多少。

In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra ("goat-sucker") of Puerto Rico and Mexicois said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals, leading some to consider it a kind of vampire. The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mid-1990s.

现代著名的吸血鬼事件之一,是关于波多黎各和墨西哥名为徒伯卡布拉(山羊杀手)的生物。据说它们以吸食家畜的血肉为生,导致很多人认为它们是一种吸血鬼。这场“徒伯卡布拉臆症”,尤其是在19世纪90年代中期,与严重的经济和政治危机,脱不开关系。

In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being, although many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes. In some cases, especially in small localities, vampire superstition is still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. In Romania during February 2004, several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.

在许多吸血鬼民间传说的起源地欧洲,人们大都认为吸血鬼只是虚构的生物。虽然有些团体可能会因为经济原因相信这类亡魂的存在。但一些地方,尤其是偏远小地,吸血鬼信仰仍然肆虐,目击或者声称有吸血鬼袭击事件的事时有发生。2004年2月,在罗马尼亚,托马•佩特瑞的几个亲属怀疑他变成了吸血鬼。 于是他们掘出了他的尸体,掏出了他的心来焚烧。又把烧成的灰烬和水喝了下去。

Vampirism and the Vampire lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day's occultist movements. The mythos of the vampire, his magickal qualities, allure, and predatory archetype express a strong symbolism that can be used in ritual, energy work, and magick, and can even be adopted as a spiritual system. The vampire has been part of the occult society in Europe for centuries and has spread into the American sub-culture as well for more than a decade, being strongly influenced by and mixed with the neo gothic aesthetics.

吸血鬼信仰和吸血生活也与现代的超自然主义运动 有关。吸血鬼的神话,有着引人入胜的魔力和掠夺性的特性,寓有极强的象征意义。 这种象征意义可以用在宗教仪式和魔法能量上,甚至可以被辟为一派宗教。几个世纪以来,吸血鬼都是欧洲超自然社会的一部分。而它距传入美国成为其亚文化,与新哥特式美学影响交融,也有了十多年之久。

Collective noun/集合名词

'Coven' has been used as a collective noun for vampires, possibly based on the Wiccan usage. An alternative collective noun is a 'house' of vampires. David Malki, author of Wondermark, suggests in Wondermark No. 566 the use of the collective noun 'basement', as in "A basement of vampires."

用“coven ”一词作为吸血鬼的集体名词,可能最初始于维肯女巫会。 能代替一群吸血鬼的集体名词可以说是吸血鬼的一间“房子”。《奇迹标志》的作者大卫•马季,在书中第566页提出了集体名词“basement ”。原文是“A basement of vampires.”(一群吸血鬼)

Origins of vampire beliefs/吸血鬼信仰的起源

Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs, trying to explain the superstition – and sometimes mass hysteria – caused by vampires. Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body's decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in vampires.

研究员为吸血鬼信仰的起源提供了诸多理论,用以解释这种对吸血鬼的迷信--有时是集体癔症。从不成熟的埋葬技术到早期对尸体分解腐烂过程的无知,其中许多都被列作是吸血鬼信仰的缘由。

Slavic spiritualism/斯拉维克人的信仰

Although many cultures possess revenant superstitions comparable to the Eastern European vampire, the Slavic vampire is the revenant superstition that pervades popular culture's concept of vampires. The roots of vampire belief in Slavic culture largely originate in the spiritual beliefs and practices of pre-Christianized Slavic peoples and in their understanding of life after death. Despite a lack of pre-Christian Slavic writings describing the details of the "Old Religion", Slavic peoples sustained many pagan spiritual beliefs and rituals even after the official Christianization of their societies. Examples of such beliefs and practices include ancestor worship, household spirits, and beliefs about the soul after death. The origins of vampire beliefs in Slavic regions can be traced to the complex structure of Slavic spiritualism.

虽然许多文化中都有能与东欧吸血鬼相提并论的亡灵传说,但是斯拉维克传说中的吸血鬼是一种与现代概念中的吸血鬼十分相近的亡魂迷信。斯拉维克文化中吸血鬼的源起大部分是由于对灵魂的信仰和在基督化之前人们的一些习俗以及他们对死后生活的理解。尽管缺少基督化之前的文献记载“旧时信仰”的细节,但即使在社会基督化之后,斯拉维克人依旧保有许多异教信仰和仪式。此类信仰和习俗的例子有:祖先尊奉,护家神灵,以及对死后灵魂不灭的相信。斯拉维克地区的吸血鬼信仰起源可以追溯至他们结构复杂的迷信体系。

Demons and spirits served important functions in pre-industrial Slavic societies and were considered to be very interactive in the lives and domains of humans. Some spirits were benevolent and could be helpful in human tasks, others were harmful and often destructive. Examples of such spirits are Domovoi, Rusalka,Vila, Kikimora, Poludnitsa, and Vodyanoy. These spirits were also considered to be derived from ancestors or certain deceased humans. Such spirits could appear at will in various forms including that of different animals or human form. Some of these spirits could also participate in malevolent activity to harm humans, such as drowning humans, obstructing the harvest, or sucking the blood of livestock and sometimes humans. Hence, the Slavs were obliged to appease these spirits to prevent the spirits from their potential for erratic and destructive behaviour.

恶魔和精怪在工业化前的斯拉维克社会起着重要作用,人们认为它们活跃于自己的生命和生活中。一些精怪很善良,会帮助人们(而另一些则是邪恶的,经常作恶)例如杜莫伊,露莎卡,维拉,奇奇莫拉,普鲁德尼萨和福德依侬。人们还认为,精怪来自先祖或者一些死去的人们。它们可以以自己想要的形象出现,比如说动物或者人类的形态。这些精怪中也有些会作恶害人,做一些例如溺死人类,阻挠收获或者吸食牲口的血或者有时候吸人血。因此,斯拉维克人会设法安抚这些精怪,让它们放弃作怪作恶的念头。

Common Slavic belief indicates a stark distinction between soul and body. The soul is not considered to be perishable. The Slavs believed that upon death the soul would go out of the body and wander about its neighbourhood and workplace for 40 days before moving on to an eternal afterlife. Thus pagan Slavs considered it necessary to leave a window or door open in the house for the soul to pass through at its leisure. During this time the soul was believed to have the capability of re-entering the corpse of the deceased. Much like the spirits mentioned earlier, the passing soul could either bless or wreak havoc on its family and neighbours during its 40 days of passing. Upon an individual's death, much stress was placed on proper burial rites to ensure the soul's purity and peace as it separated from the body. The death of an unbaptized child, a violent or an untimely death, or the death of a grievous sinner (such as a sorcerer or murderer) were all grounds for a soul to become unclean after death. A soul could also be made unclean if its body were not given a proper burial. Alternatively, a body not given a proper burial could be susceptible to possession by other unclean souls and spirits. Slavs feared unclean souls because of their potential for taking vengeance.

斯拉维克人普遍的信仰表现了灵魂与身体明显的区别。灵魂是不灭的。人们相信死后灵魂会离开身体,在家附近和工作的地方游荡40天,之后再去往永恒的往生地。如此,不信教的斯拉维克人相信,应该为这些灵魂敞开窗户和门,让他们来去自由。这一阶段的灵魂可以重新附身尸体。与之前所提的精怪一样,这些死者的灵魂在死去四十天内可能造福乡里,也可能引发浩劫。在有人死后,人们很注重葬礼,以确保死者灵魂在离去时的纯净与安详。未受洗礼就夭折的孩童,在意外中突然身亡的死者还有一些死时不安的罪人(例如术士或者杀人犯),他们死后的灵魂都有可能不纯净。剩下的情况就是死者没有一个完好的葬礼,这样的灵魂极易受到其他不洁灵魂和邪恶精怪的玷污。斯拉维克人对不洁的灵魂心怀恐惧,因为他们可能心存复仇怨念。

From these deep beliefs pertaining to death and the soul derives the invention of the Slavic concept of vampir. A vampire is the manifestation of an unclean spirit possessing a decomposing body. This undead creature needs the blood of the living to sustain its body's existence and is considered to be vengeful and jealous towards the living. Although this concept of vampire exists in slightly different forms throughout Slavic countries and some of their non-Slavic neighbours, it is possible to trace the development of vampire belief to Slavic spiritualism preceding Christianity in Slavic regions.

对这些有关死亡与灵魂的深信使得斯拉维克人构想出了吸血鬼的形象。吸血鬼就是拥有不腐尸体的不洁灵魂。这种不死的生物需要活物的血来维持尸体机能,人们认为它们对活物心怀恶意与怨念。尽管在不同的斯拉维克国家和一些周边的非斯拉维克国家,人们的构述不尽相同,但在斯拉维克迷信转向基督教义的过程中吸血鬼信仰的发展还是有迹可循的。

Pathology/病理学

Decomposition/尸体分解

Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.

保罗•巴博在他的《吸血鬼,埋葬与死亡》一书中写道:吸血鬼信仰起源于社会工业化之前,人们试图解释死亡和尸体分解的自然现象,却无法解释。

People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. However, rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known. This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all, or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life. Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth. This causes the body to look "plump," "well-fed," and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life. In the Arnold Paole case, an old woman's exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life. The exuding blood gave the impression that the corpse had recently been engaging in vampiric activity. Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition. The staking of a swollen, decomposing body could cause the body to bleed and force the accumulated gases to escape the body. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus. The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".

当尸体被挖出来的样子并不像人们认为的正常尸体该有的样子时,他们有时就会构想出有关吸血鬼的事来。 然而,尸体分解的程度因温度和泥土组成而异。 这就导致了吸血鬼猎人误以为尸体没有分解,或者更讽刺的,认为这是尸体重生的迹象。 当分解产生的气体在躯体内聚集时,尸体就会膨胀,不断加剧的压力致使血液从嘴和鼻子里渗出。 这些会让尸体看起来“丰腴”“饱食”而且“红润”——如果死者比较苍白瘦弱的话,这样的变化就更瘆人了。 在阿纳尔德•保罗事件中,邻居们认定掘出的一位老妇的尸体比生前看起来更丰满健康。而 渗血的尸体给人的印象就像是刚刚喝过血。 钉穿分解中的肿胀尸体能使之流血,并且致使聚集起的气体逸出体内。 气体穿过声带会引起呻吟似的声音,或者是穿过肛门发出一种让人想起肠胃气胀的声音。 彼得•布拉哥耶维克事件的官方报道中提到"出于对尸体的尊敬,一些没有根据的迹象在此略过。“

After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw. This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".

人死后,皮肤与牙龈会失水,并失去约束力,暴露出发根、指甲根和牙根,即使是隐藏在下颚的牙齿也不例外。这会让人有种头发、指甲和牙齿还在生长的错觉。在某个阶段里 ,指甲会脱落,皮肤也会剥落,正如布拉哥耶维奇事件的官方报道所述--暴露出的下皮和指甲床被认作是“新的皮肤“和“新的指甲”。

Premature burial/仓促埋葬

It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time. In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape. In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding." A problem with this theory is the question of how people presumably buried alive managed to stay alive for any extended period without food, water or fresh air. An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies. Another likely cause of disordered tombs is grave robbing.

也有人設想吸血鬼傳說可能与当时医疗知识贫乏,一些人被活埋有关。在一些事件中,据有人说听见某个棺材里会传出声音。而后掘出的棺材里发现有指甲抓痕,是受害者企图逃离时抓出来的。而另一些撞伤了头部,鼻子或者脸的人,看起来就会像刚刚“吸过血”。 这个理论有一个漏洞就是,那些假设是被活埋的人是如何在没有食物,水和空气的情况下存活的。 对棺中声音的另一解释是,尸体自然分解时,逃逸出的气体发出的噗噗声。而造成墓地破坏的另一可能原因是盗墓。

Contagion/接触传染

Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community. The epidemic allusion is obvious in the classical cases of Petar Blagojevich and Arnold Paole, and even more so in the case of Mercy Brown and in the vampire beliefs of New England generally, where a specific disease, tuberculosis, was associated with outbreaks of vampirism. As with the pneumonic form ofbubonic plague, it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.

吸血鬼民间传说一直与一些无法确诊的神秘疾病致死脱不开关系,尤其是在同一家族或者同一小范围内的接连死亡。在如彼得•布拉哥耶维克和阿诺德•保罗这样的经典实例中可以明显看到怪病的间接影响。更明显的是在摩西•布朗的案例中以及在新英格兰的吸血鬼信仰里--肺结核这种特殊疾病与吸血鬼信仰的爆发关系匪浅。同鼠疫引起的肺炎一样,它与肺部组织的崩坏有关,会引起吐血。

Porphyria 卟啉症

In 1985 biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem, he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream. Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms. The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease. Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional (bloodsucking) vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood. Similarly, a parallel is made between sensitivity to sunlight by sufferers, yet this was associated with fictional and not folkloric vampires. In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Despite being dismissed by experts, the link gained media attention and entered popular modern folklore.

1985年,生化学家大卫•多芬提出了罕见的供血失常症(即卟啉症)与吸血鬼民间传说之间的联系。这些症状都不能用静脉注射血红素的方法治疗 ,大卫认为,大量的失血可能导致血红素不知如何穿过胃壁,进入到了血流当中。所以吸血鬼就是那些为卟啉症所苦,从而寻求血红素替代物来缓解他们的症状的那些人。而这一理论被义正严辞的驳回了。据医学理论显示,所谓的卟啉症病人渴求人血中的血红素或者吸食鲜血会缓解症状,都是对卟啉症的误解。另外,有人指出,多芬把小说中的(吸血的)吸血鬼和那些民间传说中的吸血鬼混为一谈了。后者中的许多并不喝血。同样的,也有人在对日光敏感这一点上找到了相似点。但这一点也是与小说的吸血鬼有关,而非民间传说中的。无论如何,多芬并没有继续广泛发表他的著作。而这个理论虽然被专家否定了,却引起了媒体的注意,被许多流行的现代民间传说所应用。

Rabies/狂犬病

Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore. Dr Juan Gómez-Alonso, a neurologist at Xeral Hospital in Vigo, Spain, examined this possibility in a report inNeurology. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns (thus becoming nocturnal) and hypersexuality. Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection (an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection). Wolves and bats, which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.

狂犬病一直都和吸血鬼传说联系在一起。西班牙比戈的席拉医院的一位神经科医生朱恩•戈马斯•阿隆索就在一篇关于精神病的报道中论证了这种可能性。对大蒜和洋葱的惧怕可能是因为高度过敏,即狂犬病的症状。 该病也会影响大脑,造成正常睡眠模式的紊乱(从而引起精神失常)和性亢奋。曾有传说称,如果一个人能看见他的影子,那他绝对没得狂犬病。(暗指传说吸血鬼没有影子)。狼和蝙蝠经常和吸血鬼联系在一起,可能是狂犬病毒的携带者。这种病也会让人有咬人的欲望,以及口中冒血沫。

Psychodynamic understanding/心理动态上的理解

In his 1931 treatise On the Nightmare, Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms. Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners mayproject the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same. From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first. In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, however, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety. This may lead to repression, which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread. Jones surmised in this case the original wish of a (sexual) reunion may be drastically changed: desire is replaced by fear; love is replaced by sadism, and the object or loved one is replaced by an unknown entity. The sexual aspect may or may not be present. Some modern critics have proposed a simpler theory: People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.

威尔士的心理学家阿涅斯特•琼斯在他1931年的著作《噩梦》中称,吸血鬼是一些无意识下的欲望与防御心理的化身。诸如爱恨、悔愧之类的情感会使墓中的死者升起回归的欲念。想要与爱人相聚的欲望,使得死者的爱人会觉得怀抱着同样渴求的死者一定会回来的。正因如此,才有了民间吸血鬼的信仰,人们相信亡魂会回来拜访亲人,尤其是他们的伴侣。如果死者怀着的是愧疚的心情,那么,想要团聚的欲望就会被焦虑所代替。这就会导致压抑,就如西格蒙德•弗洛克德的案子一样,引发病态的恐惧。琼斯推测,在这种案例里,最初的团聚(生理)欲望可能会扭曲:欲望被恐惧代替,爱情被虐望代替,原本的目的与爱恋被茫然未知所代替。其中性的因素可有可无。现代的一些批评家提出了一个更简洁的理论 :人们之所以拟造出永生的吸血鬼这样的存在,是因为这么做可以克服、或者暂时的逃离死亡带来的恐惧。

The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus-like behaviour. Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious. Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.

吸血的内在性欲望可以被看作是与同类相食以及民间传说中梦淫妖的行为又着本质的联系 。许多传说中都写有各种各样的生物将受害人其他的液体也耗尽,很显然是下意识地联系到了精液上。最后,琼斯指出,当越来越多的正常的性行为被压抑的时候,就会形成原始野蛮的表达,尤其是性施虐;他认为口头的性施虐的综合产物便是吸血鬼式的行为。

Political interpretation/政治因素解释

The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. The aristocratic Count Dracula, alone in his castle apart from a few demented retainers, appearing only at night to feed on his peasantry, is symbolic of the parasitic Ancien regime. In his entry for "Vampires" in the Dictionnaire philosophique (1764), Voltaire notices how the end of the 18th century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now "there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted. These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces". Marx defined capital as "dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks". Werner Herzog, in his Nosferatu the Vampyre, gives this political interpretation an extra ironic twist when protagonist Jonathon Harker, a middle-class solicitor, becomes the next vampire; in this way the capitalist bourgeoisbecomes the next parasitic class.

现代吸血鬼传说的重塑不是没有政治隐因的。贵族公爵德古拉,总在城堡里独处,离他那几个疯了的仆从远远的,只在晚上出现吸食领地上农民的血。德古拉是依靠旧政权生存的象征。在所著的《哲学词典》(1764)“吸血鬼”一词的词条一栏,伏尔泰指出18世纪末有关吸血鬼存在的信仰骤减,但那时“股票经纪人、货商和生意人,在光天化日之下吸活人的鲜血;他们并非死人,却腐化堕落。真正的吸血鬼不是在坟墓里,而是在富丽堂皇的宫殿里。”马克思把资本定义为“死亡的劳资,像吸血鬼一样,只能靠吸食活着的劳力存活。活的越久,要吸食的劳力久越多。“维尔纳赫•佐格在他的《诺斯费拉图》一书中,更深刻地讽刺了这种政治现象:书中的主人公乔纳森•哈克,一位中产阶级的律师,成为了下一个吸血鬼。就这样,资本主义资产阶级成为了下一个寄生阶层。

Psychopathology/精神病理学

A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Peter Kürten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called "vampires" in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered. Similarly, in 1932, an unsolved murder case in Stockholm, Sweden was nicknamed the "Vampire murder", because of the circumstances of the victim's death. The late-16th-century Hungarian countess and mass murderer Elizabeth Báthory became particularly infamous in later centuries' works, which depicted her bathing in her victims' blood in order to retain beauty or youth.

有些谋杀者将谋杀伪装地像吸血鬼犯案。连环杀手彼得•库腾和理查德•特腾•蔡司被发现吸食被害人的血,之后小报记者称其为“吸血鬼”。同样的,1932年,瑞士,斯德哥尔摩,有一件悬而未明的谋杀案,因其被害人的死状而别名“吸血鬼谋杀案”。16世纪末期,匈牙利女公爵伊丽莎白•芭瑟瑞,被描述为大肆杀人,并用被害人的鲜血沐浴,以保青春美丽 ,由此在后几个世纪的作品中,尤为臭名昭著。

Modern vampire subcultures/现代吸血鬼亚文化

Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture, who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films, the fiction of Anne Rice, and the styles of Victorian England. Active vampirism within the vampire subculture includes both blood-related vampirism, commonly referred to as sanguine vampirism, and psychic vampirism, or supposed feeding from pranic energy.

吸血鬼式生活是当代亚文化人群,尤其是哥特式文化的专属名词。这类人群以消费他人的鲜血为消遣;产生原因是与象征信仰主义,惊悚电影,安妮•赖斯的科幻小说以及英国维多利亚风相关的丰富的近代历史。吸血鬼亚文化下积极的吸血主义包括与吸血有关的吸血主义(即指乐观吸血主义和超自然吸血主义)和吸取精气两种。

Vampire bats/吸血蝙蝠

A vampire bat in Peru

秘鲁的吸血蝙蝠

Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore. Indeed, vampire bats were only integrated into vampire folklore when they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century. Although there are no vampire bats in Europe, bats and owls have long been associated with the supernatural and omens, although mainly because of their nocturnal habits, and in modern English heraldic tradition, a bat means "Awareness of the powers of darkness and chaos".

尽管许多文化中都有关于吸血蝙蝠的故事,但它们是最近才成为传统吸血鬼传说的一部分的。事实上,它们是16世纪在南美大陆被发现后,才归入吸血鬼传说的。虽然欧洲没有吸血蝙蝠,但蝙蝠和猫头鹰很久以来就与超自然和预言联系在一起,这当然主要是因为它们的夜间活动的天性。在现代英国印章传统里,印有蝙蝠意味着“意识到黑暗与混乱的力量”。

The three species of actual vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory. It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; theOxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from 1734 and the zoological not until 1774. Although the vampire bat's bite is usually not harmful to a person, the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leave the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim's skin.

真实的吸血蝙蝠有三个品种,都是拉丁美洲的特产,没有证据表明它们有有人类记忆的亲属在东半球。也就是,民间传说里的吸血鬼不可能是吸血蝙蝠的一种扭曲存在或者扭曲记忆。这种蝙蝠是根据传说里的吸血鬼命名的,而不是吸血鬼是根据蝙蝠命名;牛津英语词典记录了此词在民间传说里的出现是1734年开始的,而在动物学里直到1774年才开始。

The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it. The 1927 stage production of Dracula followed the novel in having Dracula turn into a bat, as did the film, where Béla Lugosi would transform into a bat. The bat transformation scene would again be used by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1943's Son of Dracula.

文学作品中的德古拉几次变形成蝙蝠,并且书中提到了两回吸血蝙蝠。1972年的舞台剧与小说保持一致,让德古拉变形成蝙蝠,电影里也一样,贝拉•卢戈西也变形成了蝙蝠。变形成蝙蝠的场景在1943年小朗•钱尼主演的《德古拉之子》里再次被引用。

In modern fiction/现代科幻作品

Count Dracula as portrayed by Béla Lugosi in 1931's Dracula

德古拉伯爵,贝拉•卢戈西饰演,1931,《惊情四百年》

The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. Such fiction began with 18th-century poetry and continued with 19th-century short stories, the first and most influential of which was John Polidori's The Vampyre (1819), featuring the vampire Lord Ruthven. Lord Ruthven's exploits were further explored in a series of vampire plays in which he was the anti-hero. The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire (1847) and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel of all time: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in 1897. Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire's profile: fangs and vulnerability to sunlight appeared over the course of the 19th century, with Varney the Vampire and Count Dracula both bearing protruding teeth, and Murnau's Nosferatu (1922) fearing daylight. The cloak appeared in stage productions of the 1920s, with a high collar introduced by playwright Hamilton Deane to help Dracula 'vanish' on stage. Lord Ruthven and Varney were able to be healed by moonlight, although no account of this is known in traditional folklore. Implied though not often explicitly documented in folklore, immortality is one attribute which features heavily in vampire film and literature. Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.

吸血鬼现在已经成为了流行小说中的必备人物。这类小说始于18世纪的诗歌并延续于19世纪的短篇故事。最初最有影响力的作品是约翰•波利多利的《吸血鬼》(1819),主角鲁斯温勋爵在之后的一系列吸血鬼剧本中,都作为反派主人公继续出现。吸血鬼主题随后在潘妮惊悚系列的出版中得到继续,例如《鲜血盛宴》(1847),并因永远经典的吸血鬼小说《德古拉》(布拉姆•斯托克著,1897出版)盛极一时。时间沉淀,一些特性现在成了描写吸血鬼的必须:尖牙和对光敏感在19世纪的作品中俯拾皆是,吸血鬼瓦尔内和德古拉伯爵都有尖牙,还有马努执导的《诺斯费拉图》畏惧日光。19世纪20年代的舞台道具中出现了斗篷,剧作家哈密尔顿•迪恩还用了高领来使德古拉从舞台上“消失”。鲁斯温勋爵和瓦尔内可以被月光治愈,虽然传统的民间传说里并没有提到这一点。这也暗示着尽管民间传说中没有明确记录,不死之身却是吸血鬼电影和文学中的重彩之处。永恒的生命需要沉重的代价,即对活物鲜血无休止的渴求。

Literature/文学

"Carmilla" by D. H. Friston, 1872, from The Dark Blue

“卡米拉”,D•H•弗里斯顿绘,1872,来自《深蓝》

The vampire or revenant first appeared in poems such as The Vampire (1748) by Heinrich August Ossenfelder, Lenore (1773) byGottfried August Bürger, Die Braut von Corinth (The Bride of Corinth) (1797) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Robert Southey'sThalaba the Destroyer (1801), John Stagg's "The Vampyre" (1810), Percy Bysshe Shelley's "The Spectral Horseman" (1810) ("Nor a yelling vampire reeking with gore") and "Ballad" in St. Irvyne (1811) about a reanimated corpse, Sister Rosa, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's unfinished Christabel and Lord Byron's The Giaour. Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: The Vampyre (1819). However this was in reality authored by Byron's personal physician, John Polidori, who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, "Fragment of a Novel" (1819), also known as "The Burial: A Fragment". Byron's own dominating personality, mediated by his lover Lady Caroline Lamb in her unflattering roman-a-clef, Glenarvon (a Gothic fantasia based on Byron's wild life), was used as a model for Polidori's undead protagonist Lord Ruthven. The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.

吸血鬼或称恶灵,最初出现在诗歌里,例如海因里希•奥古斯特•奥森菲尔德的《吸血鬼》(1748),戈特弗里德•奥古斯特•伯格的《丽诺尔》(1773),约翰•沃尔夫冈•冯•歌德的《科林斯之桥》(1797),罗伯特•索西的《毁灭者萨拉巴》(1801),约翰•斯塔格的《吸血鬼》(1810),珀西•比希•雪莱的《幽灵骑士》(1810)(“也没有嚎啕的吸血鬼散发着血腥气”)以及《圣•伊文》(1811)里关于修女罗莎复活的尸体的“民谣”,塞缪尔•泰勒•柯勒律治未完成的《克丽丝特贝尔》和拜伦的《异教徒》。拜伦还以著有第一篇关于吸血鬼的散文式小说《吸血鬼》(1819)闻名。但事实上,这篇小说的作者是拜伦的私人医生约翰•波利多利,约翰改编了他盛名在外的病人一篇光怪陆离的片段故事:《小说的片段》(1819),又名《葬礼:一个片段》。拜伦独断专行的性格,在经他的情人卡若琳•兰姆夫人以真人为原型的小说《格兰纳文》(以拜伦的不羁生活为原型的一部哥特式幻想作品)的修饰之后,被用在了波利多利永生的主人公鲁斯温勋爵的身上。小说《吸血鬼》大获成功并且成为了19世纪早期最有影响力的吸血鬼作品。

Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid-Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer (alternatively attributed to Thomas Preskett Prest), which first appeared from 1845 to 1847 in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents. The story was published in book form in 1847 and runs to 868 double-columned pages. It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney. Another important addition to the genre was Sheridan Le Fanu's lesbian vampire story Carmilla(1871). Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.

詹姆斯•马尔科姆•瑞莫尔(也有认为是托马斯•普雷斯凯特•普利斯特)所著的《吸血鬼瓦尔内》是在维多利亚时代中期使哥特式小说盛行于世的一个里程碑,它最初出现在1845到1847年间的一系列小册子上,这些小册子因为低廉的价格和有特色的阴森可怖的内容而通常被称作潘妮惊悚系列。这个故事从1847年开始正式出书,书页达到868张。故事有着明显悬疑风格,运用了生动形象的比喻来描写瓦尔内的恐怖事迹。另一部此类风格的著作是谢里丹•勒•法努关于女同性恋吸血鬼的作品《卡米拉》。由于卡米拉被强迫的处境这一亮点,与前作中的瓦尔内一样,她被描绘成了一道有同情心的光芒。

No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). Its portrayal of vampirism as a disease of contagious demonic possession, with its undertones of sex, blood and death, struck a chord in Victorian Europe where tuberculosis and syphilis were common. The vampiric traits described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire. Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and "Carmilla", Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest (1888) by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires. In London, a colleague mentioned to him the story of Vlad Ţepeş, the "real-life Dracula," and Stoker immediately incorporated this story into his book. The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in 1897, but it was released in 1914 as Dracula's Guest.

现代流行小说没有一部作品刻画吸血鬼能像布拉姆•斯托克的《德古拉》(1879)一样引人入胜,入木三分。书中对吸血鬼恶魔瘟疫般存在的描画,对性,鲜血和死亡低沉的描写,在维多利亚时期梅毒与肺结核猖獗的欧洲引起了共鸣。将斯托克作品中对吸血鬼特性的描写与主流的民间传统相融合,最终发展成了现代作品中的吸血鬼。借鉴前人的作品例如《吸血鬼》和《卡米拉》,加之对诸如艾米丽•杰拉德的《森林的另一边》等关于特兰西瓦尼亚和吸血鬼的作品的阅读,在19世纪末斯托克开始为他的新作搜集资料。在伦敦,一位同事向他提及了“现实中的德古拉”弗拉德•特佩斯的故事,斯托克立即把这个故事写进了他的书里。书的第一章在1897年出版的时候被删去了,但在1914年取名为《德古拉的访客》出版。

The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. The first of these was Gothic romance writer Marilyn Ross' Barnabas Collins series (1966–71), loosely based on the contemporary American TV series Dark Shadows. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil. This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice's highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles (1976–2003).

20世纪后期见证了大量吸血鬼史诗的崛起。最初的一部哥特式罗曼史是作家玛丽莲•罗斯的《巴拿巴斯•柯林斯》(1966-71),小说大致基于美现代的电视连续剧《黑影》,并开启了将吸血鬼视为具有诗歌般悲剧色彩的英雄的先河,打破了传统中恶魔化身的旧观念。随后被安妮•瑞思在她大受欢迎,极具影响的作品《吸血鬼编年史》(1976-2003)沿用。

The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.R. Ward's Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon. L.A. Banks' The Vampire Huntress Legend Series, Laurell K. Hamilton's erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and Kim Harrison's The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends. Vampires in the Twilight series (2005–2008) by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses, and are not harmed by sunlight (although it does reveal their supernatural nature). Richelle Mead further deviates from traditional vampires in her Vampire Academy series (2007–present), basing the novels on Romanian lore with two races of vampires, one good and one evil, as well as half-vampires.

21世纪的吸血鬼小说更是繁多,例如J•R•沃德的《黑匕首兄弟》系列等其他面向青少年和年轻人的流行吸血鬼小说。这类非传统的吸血鬼言情小说以及吸血鬼通俗小说和神秘的吸血鬼侦探小说深受欢迎,而且现在的出版市场还在扩张。L•A•班克的《女吸血鬼猎人传奇系列》,罗瑞•K•汉密尔顿的情色小说《安妮塔 •布雷克:吸血鬼猎人》系列,还有金姆•哈里森的《山谷》系列,从一系列新的视角刻画吸血鬼,其中一些脱离了初始的传说。史蒂芬妮•梅耶所著的《暮光之城》系列(2005-2008)里的吸血鬼对大蒜和十字架免疫,阳光也不能对他们造成伤害(虽然小说确实体现了吸血鬼的超自然本性)。瑞谢尔•米德的小说《吸血鬼学院系列》(2007-现在)更是脱离了传统吸血鬼的套路,将剧情建立在罗马尼亚一好一坏两个吸血鬼种族和半吸血鬼的基础上。

Film and television/电影和电视

Iconic scene from F. W. Murnau's Nosferatu, 1922

《诺斯费拉图》里的标志性一幕,F•M•马努执导,1922

Considered one of the pre-eminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries. Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes, and many early films were either based on the novel of Dracula or closely derived from it. These included the landmark 1922 German silent film Nosferatu, directed by F. W. Murnau and featuring the first film portrayal of Dracula—although names and characters were intended to mimic Dracula's, Murnau could not obtain permission to do so from Stoker's widow, and had to alter many aspects of the film. In addition to this film was Universal's Dracula (1931), starring Béla Lugosi as the Count in what was the first talking film to portray Dracula. The decade saw several more vampire films, most notably Dracula's Daughter in 1936.

作为经典恐怖电影不可或缺的人物,吸血鬼为电影和游戏行业提供了丰富的题材。德古拉是除夏洛克•福尔摩斯之外在电影中出场最多的主要人物,许多早期的电影不是基于小说《德古拉》就是取材于《德古拉》的衍生作品。其中包括1992年德国的里程碑式的默剧《诺斯费拉图》,它由F•M•马努执导,是刻画德古拉的第一部电影——尽管主角的姓名和性格都打算模仿德古拉,马努却无法从斯托克的遗孀那里得到允许,所以他不得不对电影进行多方面修改。除此之外还有环球影城拍摄的《惊情四百年》(1931),由贝拉•卢戈西主演德古拉伯爵,这是首部刻画德古拉的有声电影。这十年见证了更多吸血鬼电影的问世,最出名的是1936年的《德古拉的女儿》。

The legend of the vampire was cemented in the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated for a new generation with the celebrated Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count. The successful 1958 Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role. By the 1970s, vampires in films had diversified with works such as Count Yorga, Vampire (1970), an African Count in 1972's Blacula, the BBC's Count Dracula featuring French actor Louis Jourdan as Dracula and Frank Finlay as Abraham Van Helsing, and a Nosferatu-like vampire in 1979's Salem's Lot, and a remake of Nosferatu itself, titled Nosferatu the Vampyre with Klaus Kinski the same year. Several films featured female, often lesbian, vampire antagonists such as Hammer Horror's The Vampire Lovers (1970) based on Carmilla, though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil vampire character.

当德古拉在著名的《哈默惊悚系列》电影中面向新一代人进行重塑时,吸血鬼在电影界的传奇得以巩固,克里斯托福•李主演了德古拉伯爵。这部1958年拍摄的电影大获成功,主演李在后来的七部续集中的两部里出演德古拉,并借此名声大噪。到19世纪70年代时,吸血鬼出现在各种各样的电影作品中,例如《吸血鬼之约尔加伯爵》(1970),1972年的非洲伯爵《布拉古拉》,BBC出品由法国演员路易斯•乔丹主演德古拉,弗兰克•芬利出演亚伯拉罕•范•海辛的《德古拉伯爵》,1979年主角吸血鬼似诺斯费拉图的《午夜行凶》,翻拍的《诺斯费拉图》以及同年由克劳斯•金斯基主演的名为《吸血鬼诺斯费拉图》的电影。有几部电影以女性为主,多是同性恋和反派吸血鬼,例如哈默惊悚系列的《吸血鬼恋人》(1970),这部作品基自于《卡米拉》,但是情节主线仍是围绕一个邪恶吸血鬼。

The pilot for the Dan Curtis 1972 television series Kolchak: The Night Stalker revolved around reporter Carl Kolchak hunting a vampire on the Las Vegas strip. Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with some focusing on the vampire-hunter, such as Blade in the Marvel Comics', Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Buffy, released in 1992, foreshadowed a vampiric presence on television, with adaptation to a long-running hit TV series of the same name and its spin-off Angel. Still others showed the vampire as protagonist, such as 1983's The Hunger, 1994's Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned, and the 2007 series Moonlight. Bram Stoker's Dracula was a noteworthy 1992 film which became the then-highest grossing vampire film ever. This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in films such as Underworld and Van Helsing, and the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of 'Salem's Lot, both from 2004. The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in 2007, featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto, with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role. A 2008 series from HBO, entitled True Blood, gives a Southern take to the vampire theme. In the same year the BBC Threeseries Being Human became popular in Britain. It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol. Another popular vampire-related show is CW's The Vampire Diaries. The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: the representation of sexuality and the perennial dread of mortality. Another "vampiric" series that has come out between 2008 and 2012 is the Twilight Saga, a series of films based on the book series of the same name.

丹•柯蒂斯1972年试拍的电视连续剧《高尔查克:夜间跟踪狂》围绕记者卡尔•高尔查克在拉斯维加斯大道上猎杀一名吸血鬼展开。后来的作品在此情节上做了多方改编,以吸血鬼猎人为主线,例如在惊奇漫画上出版的《刀锋》,《刀锋》系列电影和电影《吸血鬼猎人巴菲》。上映于1992年的巴菲预示着吸血鬼在电视荧幕上的出现,它被改编成火热了许久的同名电视剧并衍生了电视剧《天使》。但仍有一些电影将吸血鬼作为主人公,例如1983年的《血魔》,1994年的《夜访吸血鬼:吸血鬼编年史》和它无直接联系的续集《吸血鬼女王》,以及2007年的《暮光之城》系列。布拉姆•斯托克的《德古拉》是1992年备受瞩目的电影,并且自此成为史上票房最高的吸血鬼电影。观众对吸血鬼情节的电影愈发感兴趣,于是诞生了诸如《黑夜传奇》和《范海辛》之类的电影,以及同于2004年上演的俄罗斯电影《守夜者》和翻拍的迷你电视剧《午夜行凶》。2007年电视剧《血之羁绊》在生活频道首次亮相,主角亨利•菲兹罗伊是亨利八世的私生子,他变成了吸血鬼,故事发生的地点是现代的多伦多,女主角是多伦多的前侦探。2008年出自HBO名为《真爱如血》的连续剧,将南方视角带入了吸血鬼主题。同年,BBC第三频道的连续剧《我欲为人》在英国流行。故事中的非传统三重奏——一名吸血鬼,一名狼人和一个鬼魂住在布里斯托的同一所公寓。另一流行的吸血鬼电视剧是CW的《吸血鬼日记》。吸血鬼主题的持续火热可以总的归结为两个原因:对性爱的表达和对终有一死不断地的恐惧。2008年至2012年间所出的另一部吸血鬼系列是《暮光之城》,改编自它的同名小说。

In quite another type of depiction, Count von Count, a harmless and friendly vampire parodying Bela Lugosi's depictions, is a major character on the children's television series Sesame Street. He teaches counting and simple arithmetic through his compulsion to count everything, a trait he shares with certain other vampires of folklore.

另一类的吸血鬼电视剧《伯爵》模仿贝拉•卢戈西描画了一位无害而又友善的吸血鬼,他是儿童电视剧《芝麻街》中的一名主角,他教小朋友们计数和简单运算,因为与其他吸血鬼民间传说中所述一样,他有计数强迫症这一特性。

Games/游戏

The role-playing game Vampire: the Masquerade has been influential upon modern vampire fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire, appear in contemporary fiction. Popular video games about vampires include Castlevania, which is an extension of the original Bram Stoker Dracula novel, and Legacy of Kain. Vampires are also sporadically portrayed in other games, including The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, when a character can become afflicted with porphyric haemophilia. A different take on vampires is presented in Bethesda's other game Fallout 3 with "The Family". Members of the Family are afflicted with a manic desire to consume human flesh, but restrict themselves to drinking blood to avoid becoming complete monsters.

角色扮演游戏《吸血鬼:化装舞会》对现代的吸血鬼小说产生了很大的影响,其中的一些经典用辞,例如“拥抱”和“殿下”,出现在了现代小说中。其他流行的吸血鬼电子游戏包括《恶魔城》——最初版本的布拉姆•斯托克的小说《德古拉》的延伸,和《凯恩的遗产》。在别的游戏中,吸血鬼偶尔也有出现,例如《上古卷轴4:湮没之境》里,有个人物被斑状血友病折磨时。贝塞斯达(游戏软件开发公司)的另一部游戏《辐射3》呈现了吸血鬼与众不同的一面——“家人”。家庭中的成员被想要吸食人类血肉的欲望折磨至狂,但却克制自己吸血,避免彻底化身魔鬼。

以上英文来源于:维基百科

中文由有道词典翻译提供

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